Micro - Pathogenic Bacteria IV

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Micro - Pathogenic Bacteria IV - Quiz

Review quiz on pathogenic bacteria IV, includes legionella, bartonella, mycoplasma, bordatella, and clostridium


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Legionella pneumophila is a / an

    • A.

      Possible cause of pneumonia

    • B.

      Anaerobic gram negative rod

    • C.

      Opportunistic pathogen of macrophages

    • D.

      A & C

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. A & C
    Explanation
    its aerobic

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following would be most likely to colonize plumbing systems, water tanks and humidifiers?

    • A.

      Treponema pallidum

    • B.

      Mycobacterium

    • C.

      Bordatella

    • D.

      Legionella

    Correct Answer
    D. Legionella
    Explanation
    Legionella would be most likely to colonize plumbing systems, water tanks, and humidifiers. Legionella bacteria are commonly found in water sources and can thrive in warm and stagnant water conditions. They can form biofilms and multiply in plumbing systems, water tanks, and humidifiers, leading to the risk of Legionnaires' disease, a severe form of pneumonia. Treponema pallidum is the bacterium that causes syphilis, mycobacterium is responsible for diseases like tuberculosis, and bordatella is associated with whooping cough. None of these bacteria are specifically known for colonizing plumbing systems, water tanks, and humidifiers.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following would be most like to be found extracellularly

    • A.

      Legionella

    • B.

      Mycobacterium

    • C.

      Treponema pallidum

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Treponema pallidum
    Explanation
    Treponema pallidum is the correct answer because it is a bacterium that causes syphilis, which is primarily a sexually transmitted infection. Syphilis is known to infect various tissues and organs in the body, including the skin, mucous membranes, and the central nervous system. Therefore, it is most likely to be found extracellularly, outside of the cells, during its infectious stage. Legionella and mycobacterium, on the other hand, are bacteria that typically reside intracellularly, within host cells.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following occurs  after legionella has been inhaled into the alveolar macrophages of its host?  The legionella

    • A.

      Depletes nutrients before changing to a replicative form

    • B.

      Permanently remains in a transmissible form

    • C.

      Escapes host by secreting pore forming toxins

    • D.

      Use cork screw like motion to escape host phagomes

    Correct Answer
    C. Escapes host by secreting pore forming toxins
    Explanation
    After legionella has been inhaled into the alveolar macrophages of its host, it escapes the host by secreting pore forming toxins. This allows the legionella to break free from the host cells and move into the surrounding tissues, where it can continue to infect and replicate. The secretion of pore forming toxins is a mechanism used by legionella to evade the immune system and establish a successful infection.

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  • 5. 

    Damage in legionella infection is best described by which of the following?

    • A.

      Host response only

    • B.

      Flagellin that leads to cell death

    • C.

      No nodules or microabscesses

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Flagellin that leads to cell death
    Explanation
    In legionella infection, the damage is best described by flagellin that leads to cell death. Flagellin is a protein found in the flagella of bacteria, including Legionella. When Legionella infects host cells, the flagellin stimulates an immune response, leading to cell death. This immune response can cause damage to surrounding tissues and organs. The other options, such as host response only or no nodules or microabscesses, do not accurately describe the specific mechanism of damage in legionella infection.

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  • 6. 

    Legionella can be diagnosed by which of the following?

    • A.

      ELISA stool test for antigen

    • B.

      Culture on special media

    • C.

      Cold agglutinin tests

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Culture on special media
    Explanation
    Legionella can be diagnosed by culture on special media. This method involves isolating and growing the Legionella bacteria from a patient's sample, such as respiratory secretions or urine, on specific culture media that support its growth. This allows for identification and confirmation of the presence of Legionella. ELISA stool test for antigen and cold agglutinin tests are not specific diagnostic methods for Legionella and may be used for other purposes or infections.

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  • 7. 

    A patient that has been scratched or bitten by a cat should be tested for the presence of which bacteria?

    • A.

      B. henselae

    • B.

      M. pneumoniae

    • C.

      B. pertussis

    • D.

      C. perfringens

    Correct Answer
    A. B. henselae
    Explanation
    When a patient has been scratched or bitten by a cat, they should be tested for the presence of B. henselae bacteria. This is because B. henselae is the causative agent of cat scratch disease, a bacterial infection that can be transmitted through cat scratches or bites. Testing for the presence of B. henselae helps in diagnosing and treating the infection appropriately. The other bacteria listed (M. pneumoniae, B. pertussis, and C. perfringens) are not typically associated with cat scratches or bites.

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  • 8. 

    Bacillary angiomatosis is linked to which of the following bacteria?

    • A.

      Mycobacterium

    • B.

      Mycoplasma

    • C.

      Legionella

    • D.

      Bartonella

    Correct Answer
    D. Bartonella
    Explanation
    Bacillary angiomatosis is a bacterial infection that is linked to the bacteria Bartonella. Bartonella species are known to cause various diseases in humans, including bacillary angiomatosis. This infection typically affects immunocompromised individuals and manifests as skin lesions or vascular tumors. Bartonella bacteria are transmitted to humans through bites from infected fleas, ticks, or lice. Therefore, the correct answer for the bacteria linked to bacillary angiomatosis is Bartonella.

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  • 9. 

    Bartonella spreads through which of the following methods in  immune competent Pts?

    • A.

      Blood

    • B.

      lymph

    • C.

      neurons

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. lymph
    Explanation
    Bartonella spreads through lymph in immune competent patients. This means that the bacteria can be transmitted through the lymphatic system, which is responsible for carrying lymph (a clear fluid containing white blood cells) throughout the body. This mode of transmission allows Bartonella to infect various tissues and organs, leading to a range of symptoms and complications.

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  • 10. 

    After diagnosing a patient with cat scratch fever or bacillary angiomatosis which of the following would be the best drug for treatment?

    • A.

      Metronidazole

    • B.

      Fluoroquinolones

    • C.

      Tetracycline

    • D.

      Erythromycin

    Correct Answer
    D. Erythromycin
    Explanation
    Erythromycin would be the best drug for treating a patient diagnosed with cat scratch fever or bacillary angiomatosis. Erythromycin is a macrolide antibiotic that is effective against the bacteria causing these conditions, such as Bartonella henselae. It works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria and is commonly used for treating various bacterial infections. Metronidazole is more commonly used for treating anaerobic bacterial infections, while fluoroquinolones and tetracycline are not as effective against the specific bacteria causing cat scratch fever or bacillary angiomatosis.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following make B. henselae problematic in immunocompromised Pts?

    • A.

      Increased chances of relapse

    • B.

      Liver infection

    • C.

      Systemic spread and sepsis

    • D.

      A & C

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    B. henselae is problematic in immunocompromised patients because it can lead to increased chances of relapse, liver infection, and systemic spread and sepsis. Immunocompromised individuals have a weakened immune system, making them more susceptible to infections and complications. B. henselae can cause persistent infections and relapses in these patients, leading to prolonged illness. Additionally, it can infect the liver and spread throughout the body, causing systemic infections and sepsis. Therefore, all of the mentioned factors contribute to the problematic nature of B. henselae in immunocompromised patients.

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  • 12. 

    Bartonella culture very slowly so clinicians should inform the laboratory whenever there may be possible Bartonella infections

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given statement is true because Bartonella culture grows at a very slow pace. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to inform the laboratory whenever there is a suspicion of Bartonella infection. This allows the laboratory to take necessary precautions and provide the appropriate conditions for the slow growth of the culture. By informing the laboratory, clinicians can ensure accurate and timely diagnosis of Bartonella infections.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following describe mycoplasma?

    • A.

      Need sterols for growth

    • B.

      Common cause of alveolar infection

    • C.

      Have double layered cell wall

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Need sterols for growth
    Explanation
    Mycoplasma is a type of bacteria that lacks a cell wall, making it unique among bacteria. Due to the absence of a cell wall, mycoplasma is unable to maintain its shape and is pleomorphic. This characteristic also makes mycoplasma resistant to many antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis. Additionally, mycoplasma requires sterols, such as cholesterol, for growth and replication. This is because sterols provide stability and support to the cell membrane in the absence of a cell wall. Therefore, the statement "need sterols for growth" accurately describes mycoplasma.

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  • 14. 

    Mycoplasma demonstrates which of the following properties?

    • A.

      Cold agglutinins and hemolysis

    • B.

      Renal and cardiac involvement in early infection stages

    • C.

      Ability to cause pneumonia, urethritis and PID

    • D.

      A & C

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. A & C
    Explanation
    Mycoplasma demonstrates the properties of both cold agglutinins and hemolysis, as well as the ability to cause pneumonia, urethritis, and PID. This means that it can cause the agglutination of red blood cells at cold temperatures and the destruction of red blood cells, as well as various infections such as pneumonia, inflammation of the urethra, and pelvic inflammatory disease. Therefore, the correct answer is A & C.

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  • 15. 

    Diagnosis of mycoplasma infection is usually made based upon which of the following?

    • A.

      Culture

    • B.

      Clinical presentation

    • C.

      Serological tests

    • D.

      Direct antigen tests

    Correct Answer
    B. Clinical presentation
    Explanation
    The diagnosis of mycoplasma infection is usually made based on clinical presentation. This means that the symptoms and signs exhibited by the patient are used to determine the presence of the infection. Unlike other diagnostic methods such as culture, serological tests, or direct antigen tests, clinical presentation provides a more immediate and practical approach to identifying mycoplasma infection. By considering the specific symptoms and medical history of the patient, healthcare professionals can make an accurate diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment without the need for additional laboratory tests.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following causes whooping cough

    • A.

      B. henselae

    • B.

      M. pneumoniae

    • C.

      L. pneumophila

    • D.

      B. pertussis

    Correct Answer
    D. B. pertussis
    Explanation
    B. pertussis is the correct answer because it is the bacteria that causes whooping cough, also known as pertussis. This bacterial infection affects the respiratory system and is highly contagious. It is characterized by severe coughing fits, followed by a "whooping" sound when the person tries to breathe in. B. henselae, M. pneumoniae, and L. pneumophila are not associated with causing whooping cough.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is a small aerobic gram negative coccibacilli

    • A.

      Mycoplasma

    • B.

      Bordatella

    • C.

      Bartonella

    • D.

      Legionella

    Correct Answer
    B. Bordatella
    Explanation
    Bordatella is a small aerobic gram-negative coccobacilli. It is a genus of bacteria that includes species such as Bordetella pertussis, which causes whooping cough. This bacterium is characterized by its small size and its ability to grow in the presence of oxygen. Mycoplasma, Bartonella, and Legionella are all different types of bacteria, but they do not fit the description of being small aerobic gram-negative coccobacilli.

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  • 18. 

    A mother brings in her 1 year old for paroxysmal cough. Which of the following bacteria is the most likely cause?

    • A.

      Legionella

    • B.

      Bordatella

    • C.

      Mycobaterium

    • D.

      C. pneumonia

    Correct Answer
    B. Bordatella
    Explanation
    bordatella causes paroxysmal cough in infants

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  • 19. 

    There is no damage or invasion of host tissue during  bordatella infections

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    no invasion of host tissue but the cough receptors are sensitized because of damaged ciliary epithelial cells which leads to whooping cough, also produces pertussin toxin and ciliated toxin

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  • 20. 

    Bordatella shows tissue tropism for which of the following areas?

    • A.

      Ciliary mucosal surface

    • B.

      GI tract

    • C.

      GU tract

    • D.

      Liver

    Correct Answer
    A. Ciliary mucosal surface
    Explanation
    Bordatella shows tissue tropism for the ciliary mucosal surface. This means that the bacteria has a preference for infecting and colonizing the cells of the respiratory tract that are covered in cilia. The ciliary mucosal surface includes the lining of the nasal cavity, trachea, and bronchi, where the cilia play a crucial role in clearing mucus and foreign particles from the airways. Bordatella's ability to specifically target and adhere to these ciliated cells allows it to establish an infection and cause respiratory diseases such as whooping cough.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following occurs during the paroxysmal stage of Bordatella infection?

    • A.

      Organism multiplies and spreads to lower respiratory tract

    • B.

      Series of coughs then breath deeply and force out air

    • C.

      Bacteria get trapped in cilia and mucus

    • D.

      Sub mucosa becomes inflamed and lymph nodes enlarge

    Correct Answer
    B. Series of coughs then breath deeply and force out air
    Explanation
    other choices are the catarrhal stage

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  • 22. 

    B. pertussis infection features which of the following methods of damage?

    • A.

      Pertussin toxin affects cAMP leading to watery diarrhea

    • B.

      Bordatella LPS causes respiratory cilia to release ciliated toxin

    • C.

      Increased cAMP hinders neutrophil function

    • D.

      B. pertussis invades cells of ciliary mucosa

    Correct Answer
    C. Increased cAMP hinders neutrophil function
    Explanation
    Increased cAMP hinders neutrophil function. In the context of B. pertussis infection, this means that the bacteria disrupt the normal functioning of neutrophils, which are important immune cells involved in fighting off infections. By increasing cAMP levels, B. pertussis impairs the ability of neutrophils to perform their normal functions, such as phagocytosis and killing of bacteria. This allows B. pertussis to evade the immune system and establish infection.

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  • 23. 

    Why does diagnosis of bordatella become more difficult as the diseases becomes more severe

    • A.

      The number of organisms decrease

    • B.

      Special media is needed

    • C.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. The number of organisms decrease
    Explanation
    As the disease becomes more severe, the number of organisms causing the infection decreases. This can make the diagnosis of bordatella more difficult because there are fewer organisms available for detection. With a lower number of organisms, it becomes harder to identify and isolate them for accurate diagnosis. Therefore, the decrease in the number of organisms contributes to the increased difficulty in diagnosing bordatella as the disease progresses.

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  • 24. 

    A patients presents with whooping cough, which medications would be recommended?

    • A.

      Macrolides

    • B.

      Flouroquinolones

    • C.

      Cephalosporins

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Macrolides
    Explanation
    Macrolides would be recommended for a patient presenting with whooping cough. Macrolides are a class of antibiotics that are effective against the bacteria Bordetella pertussis, which causes whooping cough. They work by inhibiting the growth of the bacteria and reducing the severity and duration of the infection. Fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins are not typically used to treat whooping cough, so they would not be recommended in this case. Therefore, the correct answer is macrolides.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following describe clostridium?

    • A.

      Unable to form spores

    • B.

      Aerobic gram negative rod

    • C.

      Disease is from host response

    • D.

      Can be carried in asymptomatic hosts

    Correct Answer
    D. Can be carried in asymptomatic hosts
    Explanation
    Clostridium can be carried in asymptomatic hosts, meaning that individuals can harbor the bacteria without showing any symptoms of infection. This is an important characteristic of Clostridium as it can lead to the spread of the bacteria to other individuals who may develop symptoms or become infected. Asymptomatic carriers play a significant role in the transmission and persistence of Clostridium infections in a population.

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  • 26. 

    Pseudomembranous colitis is linked to  antibiotic use and which of the following bacteria?

    • A.

      Bordatella

    • B.

      Clostridium

    • C.

      Treponema

    • D.

      Burgendorferi

    Correct Answer
    B. Clostridium
    Explanation
    Pseudomembranous colitis is a condition characterized by inflammation and the formation of pseudomembranes in the colon. It is commonly associated with the use of antibiotics, specifically broad-spectrum antibiotics, which disrupt the normal balance of bacteria in the gut. The correct answer is Clostridium, as Clostridium difficile is the bacteria most commonly responsible for causing pseudomembranous colitis. Clostridium difficile produces toxins that damage the lining of the colon, leading to the symptoms of the condition.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following is a spore forming bacteria that can cause diarrhea in hospital patients?

    • A.

      B. Pertussis

    • B.

      T. Pallidum

    • C.

      M. pneumoniae

    • D.

      C. Difficile

    Correct Answer
    D. C. Difficile
    Explanation
    C. Difficile is a spore-forming bacteria that can cause diarrhea in hospital patients. It is commonly associated with antibiotic use, as the disruption of normal gut flora allows C. Difficile to overgrow and produce toxins that lead to diarrhea. This infection is known as Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and can range from mild to severe, sometimes causing life-threatening complications. Proper hygiene practices and antibiotic stewardship are important in preventing and controlling the spread of C. Difficile in healthcare settings.

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  • 28. 

    A patient on cephalosporins, clindamycin and ampicillin presents with a C. Diff infection. Which of the following are possible contributors to their infection?

    • A.

      Suppression of normal flora

    • B.

      Previous colonization by C. difficile

    • C.

      Acquired spore after normal flora suppressed

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The patient being on cephalosporins, clindamycin, and ampicillin can suppress the normal flora in their gut, which can create an opportunity for C. Diff to grow and cause an infection. Additionally, the patient may have been previously colonized by C. difficile, which means they already had the bacteria in their gut. Lastly, the patient could have acquired the C. Diff spores after their normal flora was suppressed. Therefore, all of these factors can contribute to the patient's C. Diff infection.

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  • 29. 

    Damage during C. Difficile infection is due to which of the following?

    • A.

      Invasion of host tissue

    • B.

      Cell death induced by Toxins A & B

    • C.

      Host response

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Cell death induced by Toxins A & B
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "cell death induced by Toxins A & B." During C. Difficile infection, the toxins produced by the bacteria, specifically Toxins A & B, cause cell death in the host. These toxins disrupt the normal functioning of the host cells, leading to damage and inflammation in the affected tissues. The invasion of host tissue and the subsequent host response are also involved in the damage caused by C. Difficile infection, but the primary mechanism of damage is the cell death induced by Toxins A & B.

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  • 30. 

    The best method of C. Difficile detection would be which of the following?

    • A.

      Culture

    • B.

      ELISA test for toxins A/B

    • C.

      Fluroscopy

    • D.

      Clinical presentation

    Correct Answer
    B. ELISA test for toxins A/B
    Explanation
    The best method of C. Difficile detection would be the ELISA test for toxins A/B. This test specifically looks for the presence of toxins produced by the C. Difficile bacteria, which are responsible for causing symptoms and complications. Culture may not always be reliable as it requires specific conditions for the bacteria to grow. Fluoroscopy is a medical imaging technique that is not typically used for C. Difficile detection. Clinical presentation alone may not be sufficient for a definitive diagnosis as symptoms can vary and overlap with other conditions.

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  • 31. 

    A patient presents with C. Difficile infection, which of the following is recommended?

    • A.

      Surgery

    • B.

      Vancomycin

    • C.

      Cephalosporins

    • D.

      Clindamycin

    Correct Answer
    B. Vancomycin
    Explanation
    Vancomycin is recommended for the treatment of C. Difficile infection. This is because C. Difficile is a bacterium that is resistant to many antibiotics, including cephalosporins and clindamycin. Vancomycin is an effective antibiotic against C. Difficile and is commonly used as the first-line treatment for this infection. Surgery may be considered in severe cases or when there are complications, but it is not the initial recommended treatment.

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  • 32. 

    Clostridium perfringens causes which of the following diseases?

    • A.

      Pseudomembranous colitis

    • B.

      Diarrhea

    • C.

      Tetanus

    • D.

      Gas gangrene

    Correct Answer
    D. Gas gangrene
    Explanation
    Clostridium perfringens is a bacterium that causes gas gangrene. Gas gangrene is a serious infection that affects the muscles and other tissues, causing them to die. The bacteria release toxins that destroy the tissue and produce gas, leading to symptoms such as severe pain, swelling, and a foul-smelling discharge. Prompt medical treatment is necessary to prevent the spread of the infection and potential complications.

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  • 33. 

    A patient presents with a wound, inspection reveals that the area is anaerobic, has increased blood supply, nutrients, substrates and calcium ions. which of these conditions make this wound inhospitable to C. perfringens

    • A.

      Anaerobic

    • B.

      Increased calcium

    • C.

      Increased blood

    • D.

      Increased nutrients and substrates

    Correct Answer
    C. Increased blood
    Explanation
    Increased blood supply makes the wound inhospitable to C. perfringens. This is because C. perfringens is an anaerobic bacterium, meaning it thrives in environments with low oxygen levels. Increased blood supply brings more oxygen to the wound, making it less favorable for the growth of C. perfringens.

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  • 34. 

    C. perfringens  causes damage to cell membranes  and gas gangrene eventually leading to myonecrosis  through which of the following methods?

    • A.

      ciliated toxin

    • B.

      Type III secretion system

    • C.

      Alpha toxin

    • D.

      Toxin A/B

    Correct Answer
    C. Alpha toxin
    Explanation
    Alpha toxin is the correct answer because it is produced by Clostridium perfringens and is responsible for causing damage to cell membranes. This toxin disrupts the integrity of the cell membrane, leading to the destruction of cells and the development of gas gangrene. Gas gangrene is a condition characterized by the death of muscle tissue (myonecrosis). Therefore, alpha toxin plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of C. perfringens infection.

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  • 35. 

    Crepitus is linked to which bacteria

    • A.

      C.difficile

    • B.

      C. pneumoniae

    • C.

      C. perfringens

    • D.

      C. trachomatis

    Correct Answer
    C. C. perfringens
    Explanation
    Crepitus is a medical term that refers to a crackling or popping sound or sensation that can be felt or heard when bones or joints move. It is commonly associated with gas or air trapped in the tissues. While crepitus itself is not directly linked to any specific bacteria, C. perfringens is a bacterium that can cause gas gangrene, a condition characterized by the production of gas in infected tissues. This gas can contribute to the development of crepitus in affected areas.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following bacteria causes infection that is treated with surgery or amputation

    • A.

      C.difficile

    • B.

      C. pneumoniae

    • C.

      C. perfringens

    • D.

      C. trachomatis

    Correct Answer
    C. C. perfringens
    Explanation
    C. perfringens causes a bacterial infection known as gas gangrene, which is a serious condition that can lead to tissue death and necrosis. Gas gangrene is typically treated with surgery or amputation to remove the infected tissue and prevent the spread of infection. This is because C. perfringens produces toxins that destroy tissue and disrupt blood supply, making surgical intervention necessary to remove the infected area and prevent further complications.

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  • 37. 

    Which drug treats C. perfringens?

    • A.

      Penicilin

    • B.

      Vancomycin

    • C.

      Tetracycline

    Correct Answer
    A. Penicilin
    Explanation
    Penicillin is the correct answer because it is a commonly used antibiotic that is effective against C. perfringens. It works by inhibiting the growth of the bacteria and preventing it from causing infection. Penicillin is often the first choice for treating infections caused by C. perfringens due to its effectiveness and low cost. Vancomycin and tetracycline are also antibiotics but they are not as commonly used for treating C. perfringens infections.

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  • 38. 

    C. perfringens induced food poisoning should be treated with penicillin

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    it is self limiting, no medication necessary

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  • 39. 

    Which of the following is a possible bioterrorism agent?

    • A.

      C. perfringens

    • B.

      C. botulinum

    • C.

      C. trachomatis

    • D.

      B. pertussis

    Correct Answer
    B. C. botulinum
    Explanation
    C. botulinum is a possible bioterrorism agent because it produces a potent neurotoxin called botulinum toxin, which can cause severe paralysis and even death. This toxin can be easily aerosolized and dispersed, making it a potential weapon for bioterrorism attacks. It is important to monitor and prevent the spread of C. botulinum to ensure public safety.

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  • 40. 

    Which of the following are linked to flaccid paralysis?

    • A.

      Neurotoxins A, B, E

    • B.

      Alpha toxin

    • C.

      Toxin A /B

    • D.

      Tetanospasm

    Correct Answer
    A. Neurotoxins A, B, E
    Explanation
    Neurotoxins A, B, and E are linked to flaccid paralysis. Flaccid paralysis is characterized by the loss of muscle tone and weakness, leading to floppy muscles and an inability to move or control them. Neurotoxins A, B, and E are known to target and damage the nerves responsible for muscle control, leading to flaccid paralysis. This type of paralysis is different from spastic paralysis, which is characterized by stiff and rigid muscles.

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  • 41. 

    C botulinum infection is characterized by

    • A.

      Flaccid paralysis starting in lower extremities

    • B.

      Fever and signs of sepsis

    • C.

      Inhibited acetylcholine release

    • D.

      Production of toxin in respiratory tract

    Correct Answer
    C. Inhibited acetylcholine release
    Explanation
    C botulinum infection is characterized by inhibited acetylcholine release. This is because the C botulinum bacteria produce a toxin that blocks the release of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter responsible for muscle contraction. This leads to flaccid paralysis, starting in the lower extremities. The infection does not typically cause fever and signs of sepsis. The production of the toxin occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, not the respiratory tract.

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  • 42. 

    During wound botulinum which of the following occurs?

    • A.

      Toxin is produced in the intestines

    • B.

      C. botulinum multiply at the site of infection

    • C.

      Develop severe fever and sepsis

    • D.

      Neurological symptoms may occur

    Correct Answer
    D. Neurological symptoms may occur
    Explanation
    During wound botulism, the bacteria Clostridium botulinum multiply at the site of infection and produce a toxin. This toxin can then spread to other parts of the body, affecting the nervous system. As a result, neurological symptoms may occur, such as muscle weakness, paralysis, and difficulty swallowing or breathing. These symptoms can be severe and potentially life-threatening if left untreated.

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  • 43. 

    A patient that has contracted C. botulism can be treated with which of the following?

    • A.

      Respirators

    • B.

      Antitoxins

    • C.

      Parenteral nutrition

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    A patient that has contracted C. botulism can be treated with all of the above options. Respirators can help support the patient's breathing if their respiratory muscles are affected. Antitoxins can be administered to neutralize the botulinum toxin in the body. Parenteral nutrition, which involves providing nutrients directly into the bloodstream, may be necessary if the patient is unable to eat or digest food due to paralysis or other complications caused by the infection. Therefore, all of these treatment options can be used to manage and treat C. botulism.

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  • 44. 

    Which of the following conditions would be conducive to C. tetani growth?

    • A.

      Increased blood supply

    • B.

      Anaerobic environment

    • C.

      Decreased calcium

    • D.

      Limited substrates

    Correct Answer
    B. Anaerobic environment
    Explanation
    An anaerobic environment refers to an environment that lacks oxygen. Clostridium tetani, the bacteria responsible for tetanus, is an anaerobic bacterium, meaning it thrives in environments with little to no oxygen. Therefore, an anaerobic environment would provide the ideal conditions for C. tetani growth.

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  • 45. 

    How are C. Tetani and C. botulism different?

    • A.

      C. botulisms causes spastic paralysis

    • B.

      C. tetani causes reflex spasms

    • C.

      C. botulism leads to lockjaw

    • D.

      C. tetani causes flaccid paralysis

    Correct Answer
    B. C. tetani causes reflex spasms
    Explanation
    C. Tetani and C. botulism are different in terms of the symptoms they cause. While C. botulism causes spastic paralysis and leads to lockjaw, C. tetani causes reflex spasms and flaccid paralysis. This means that C. tetani causes involuntary muscle contractions and stiffness, while C. botulism causes muscle weakness and inability to move.

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  • 46. 

    C. Botulinum and C. tetani are similar because of which of the following?

    • A.

      Start in the head and work downward

    • B.

      Damage caused by toxins

    • C.

      Can lead to respiratory failure

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    C. Botulinum and C. tetani are similar because they both start in the head and work downward, cause damage through toxins, and can lead to respiratory failure.

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  • 47. 

    A patient presents with tetanus which of the following would be the best treatments?

    • A.

      Penicillin G (PO) to prevent further toxin production

    • B.

      DPT vaccine

    • C.

      Antitoxin

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Antitoxin
    Explanation
    The best treatment for a patient presenting with tetanus is the administration of antitoxin. Tetanus is caused by a toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium tetani, and antitoxin helps neutralize this toxin. Penicillin G may be used to treat the infection caused by the bacteria, but it does not directly address the toxin production. The DPT vaccine is a preventive measure and is not a treatment for an active tetanus infection. Therefore, the most appropriate treatment option is antitoxin.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Jan 18, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 27, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Chinedua
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