Management 3370 Final

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Management Quizzes & Trivia

MGT 3370 Final


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    According to the text, _____ is the set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes people persist in their efforts to accomplish a goal.

    • A.

      Attitude

    • B.

      Self-management

    • C.

      Persistence

    • D.

      Motivation

    • E.

      Compliance

    Correct Answer
    D. Motivation
    Explanation
    Motivation is the set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes people persist in their efforts to accomplish a goal. It is the driving force behind individuals' actions and behaviors, influencing their level of commitment and determination. Motivation can be intrinsic, coming from within oneself, or extrinsic, stemming from external factors such as rewards or recognition. It plays a crucial role in goal achievement and is essential for maintaining focus and perseverance in the face of challenges and obstacles.

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  • 2. 

    Asa and Ruby both sell insurance. Asa is married, has three children, and a new house. Ruby is single and has recently purchased a new Lexus. According to some industrial psychologists ____.

    • A.

      They will be motivated by the same needs

    • B.

      Asa can be motivated through need, and Ruby cannot

    • C.

      Ruby has no needs

    • D.

      How well their employer motivated them relates directly to their individual needs

    • E.

      None of these is true

    Correct Answer
    D. How well their employer motivated them relates directly to their individual needs
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that the motivation of Asa and Ruby is directly related to their individual needs. This means that their employer should consider their specific needs in order to effectively motivate them. This implies that Asa and Ruby have different needs based on their personal circumstances (such as being married with children or having recently purchased a new car), and their motivation will be influenced by these factors.

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  • 3. 

    On the basis of research evidence, the two basic needs categories are ____.

    • A.

      Tangible and intangible needs

    • B.

      Physiological and psychological needs

    • C.

      Higher-order and lower-order needs

    • D.

      Extrinsic and intrinsic needs

    • E.

      Realized and unrealized needs

    Correct Answer
    D. Extrinsic and intrinsic needs
    Explanation
    The two basic needs categories are extrinsic and intrinsic needs. Extrinsic needs refer to external motivators such as rewards, recognition, and status, which are driven by external factors. Intrinsic needs, on the other hand, are internal motivators such as personal growth, autonomy, and purpose, which are driven by internal factors. Research evidence supports the existence of these two categories, highlighting the importance of both external and internal motivators in fulfilling individuals' needs.

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  • 4. 

    Marketer often appeal to consumers' needs as defined by Maslows hierarchy. Schlage, a lock manufacturer, shows how much protection its locks provide. Clorox developed several types of wipes to eliminate concerns about infectious germs. Both marketers are appealing to which need as defined by Maslow?

    • A.

      Achievement

    • B.

      Belongingness

    • C.

      Safety

    • D.

      Physiological needs

    • E.

      Achievement

    Correct Answer
    C. Safety
    Explanation
    The correct answer is safety. Both Schlage and Clorox are appealing to consumers' need for safety by emphasizing the protection and elimination of germs that their products provide. This aligns with Maslow's hierarchy of needs, as safety is one of the fundamental needs that individuals strive to fulfill.

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  • 5. 

    Extrinsic rewards are____.

    • A.

      Intangible

    • B.

      Exemplified by bonuses, trophies, and plaques

    • C.

      Exemplified by a sense of accomplishment at the conclusion of a difficuly assignment

    • D.

      Rewards associated with performing a task for its own sake

    • E.

      Much more effective motivators than intrinsic rewards

    Correct Answer
    B. Exemplified by bonuses, trophies, and plaques
    Explanation
    Extrinsic rewards are exemplified by bonuses, trophies, and plaques. These rewards are external to the task itself and are given as recognition or incentives for completing a task or achieving a specific goal. They are tangible and can be seen or touched, providing a physical representation of accomplishment. Extrinsic rewards are often used to motivate individuals to perform better or to encourage specific behaviors. They are different from intrinsic rewards, which are the internal satisfaction or enjoyment that comes from performing a task for its own sake.

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  • 6. 

    Managers can motivate employees to increase their efforts by____.

    • A.

      Relying on the innate value of extrinsic rewards

    • B.

      Satisfying higher-order needs first

    • C.

      Asking employees what their needs are then matching rewards to those needs

    • D.

      Expecting employees' needs to remain stable

    • E.

      Doing all of these

    Correct Answer
    C. Asking employees what their needs are then matching rewards to those needs
    Explanation
    Asking employees what their needs are and then matching rewards to those needs can be an effective way for managers to motivate employees to increase their efforts. This approach recognizes that different individuals have different needs and motivations, and tailoring rewards to meet those needs can create a stronger incentive for employees to perform at a higher level. By understanding and addressing the specific needs of employees, managers can create a more engaging and motivating work environment.

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  • 7. 

    Although both Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendments and the advent of professional women's sporting leagues have led to dramatics increases in opportunities for women in sports at high school, collegiate, and professional levels, significant discrepancies still exist between men;s and women's sports. For exam[le, women receive less media coverage, promotion, and institutional support. According to equity theory, media coverage, access, promotion, and institutional support are all examples of undesirable ___ for females athletes.

    • A.

      Referents

    • B.

      Valences

    • C.

      Expectancies

    • D.

      Outcomes

    • E.

      Certainties

    Correct Answer
    D. Outcomes
    Explanation
    According to equity theory, outcomes refer to the rewards or benefits that individuals receive as a result of their efforts or performance. In this context, the outcomes for female athletes refer to media coverage, access, promotion, and institutional support, which are all examples of rewards or benefits that women in sports may receive. However, the question suggests that there are significant discrepancies between men's and women's sports in terms of these outcomes, indicating that women may receive less of these rewards or benefits compared to men.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following is a basic component of equity theory?

    • A.

      Valences

    • B.

      Reinforcement

    • C.

      Referents

    • D.

      Instrumentality

    • E.

      Expectancy

    Correct Answer
    C. Referents
    Explanation
    Referents are a basic component of equity theory. In equity theory, individuals compare their inputs and outcomes to those of others, known as referents. Referents provide a basis for individuals to assess fairness and determine whether they are being treated equitably in comparison to others. By comparing themselves to referents, individuals can evaluate the equity or inequity of their own situations and make adjustments if necessary.

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  • 9. 

    According to equity theory, when employees perceive ____, they tend to experience anger or frustration.

    • A.

      Overreward

    • B.

      Underreward

    • C.

      Adverse instumentality

    • D.

      Negotiate motivational cues

    • E.

      Negative reinforcement

    Correct Answer
    B. Underreward
    Explanation
    According to equity theory, when employees perceive underreward, they tend to experience anger or frustration. This means that if employees feel that they are not being adequately rewarded or compensated for their efforts and contributions in comparison to others, they may become dissatisfied and feel unfairly treated. This perception of underreward can lead to negative emotions and potentially impact their motivation and overall job satisfaction.

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  • 10. 

    For workers who feel underpaid, creating a union at their place of employment to attain higher wages can be a mechanism for restoring equity by ____.

    • A.

      Reducing inputs

    • B.

      Increasing outcomes

    • C.

      Changing the referent

    • D.

      Rationalizing inputs or outcomes

    • E.

      Reducing employee turnover

    Correct Answer
    B. Increasing outcomes
    Explanation
    Creating a union at their place of employment allows workers to collectively negotiate for higher wages, which in turn increases their outcomes. By joining forces and bargaining as a group, workers can address their concerns about being underpaid and strive for fairer compensation. This mechanism helps restore equity by improving the financial outcomes for workers, ensuring they receive better wages for their work.

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  • 11. 

    In equity theory, ____ refers to the fairness of the process used to make reward allocation decisions.

    • A.

      Process objectivity

    • B.

      Procedural justice

    • C.

      Conventional wisdom

    • D.

      Altruism

    • E.

      Distributive justice

    Correct Answer
    B. Procedural justice
    Explanation
    Procedural justice refers to the fairness of the process used to make reward allocation decisions in equity theory. This means that individuals perceive fairness when the procedures used to determine how rewards are distributed are transparent, consistent, and free from bias. It emphasizes the importance of fair decision-making procedures rather than the actual outcomes or distribution of rewards.

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  • 12. 

    According to a survey done on teaching evaluations, engineering students consider the improvement of teaching to be the most important outcome of the evaluation process. For engineering students who believe their efforts will lead to better teaching, the motivation to fill out a teach evaluation would have a _____.

    • A.

      Low valence

    • B.

      Weak expectancy

    • C.

      Low performance value

    • D.

      High valence

    • E.

      Strong instumentality

    Correct Answer
    D. High valence
    Explanation
    The given answer, "high valence," suggests that engineering students who believe their efforts in filling out a teaching evaluation will lead to better teaching have a positive attitude towards the outcome. Valence refers to the value or desirability of an outcome. In this case, the outcome of improved teaching is considered important by engineering students, indicating a high valence. This means that they are motivated to fill out the evaluation because they believe it will result in a positive outcome.

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  • 13. 

    In expectancy theory, ____ is the perceived relationship between performance and rewards.

    • A.

      Valence

    • B.

      Reciprocity

    • C.

      Expectancy

    • D.

      Instrumentality

    • E.

      Synergy

    Correct Answer
    D. Instrumentality
    Explanation
    Instrumentality in expectancy theory refers to the belief that a certain level of performance will lead to a specific outcome or reward. It is the perceived connection between performance and the rewards that are expected to follow. This means that individuals believe that their efforts will result in desired outcomes, and they understand the link between their performance and the rewards they will receive.

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  • 14. 

    ____ are the cause-and-effect relationships between the performance of specific behaviors and specific consequences.

    • A.

      Reinforcement temporality effects

    • B.

      Reinforcement contingencies

    • C.

      Reinforcement schedules

    • D.

      Consequences of reinforcement

    • E.

      Reinforcement expectancies

    Correct Answer
    B. Reinforcement contingencies
    Explanation
    Reinforcement contingencies refer to the cause-and-effect relationships between the performance of specific behaviors and specific consequences. These contingencies determine whether a behavior will be reinforced or not, based on the consequences that follow. It is through reinforcement contingencies that individuals learn which behaviors are likely to lead to positive outcomes and which behaviors are not. By understanding these cause-and-effect relationships, individuals can modify their behavior to increase the likelihood of receiving desired consequences.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following is NOT a type of reinforcement contingency?

    • A.

      Negative reinforcement

    • B.

      Punishment

    • C.

      Extinction

    • D.

      Overreward

    • E.

      Positive reinforcement

    Correct Answer
    D. Overreward
    Explanation
    Overreward is not a type of reinforcement contingency because it refers to excessively rewarding behavior, which can lead to negative consequences such as entitlement or a decrease in motivation. In contrast, the other options listed are all types of reinforcement contingencies commonly used in behavior modification. Negative reinforcement involves removing an unpleasant stimulus to increase the likelihood of a behavior, punishment involves adding an aversive stimulus to decrease the likelihood of a behavior, extinction involves withholding reinforcement to decrease the likelihood of a behavior, and positive reinforcement involves adding a desirable stimulus to increase the likelihood of a behavior.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is also called avoidance learning?

    • A.

      Positive reinforcement

    • B.

      Negative reinforcement

    • C.

      Punishment

    • D.

      Extinction

    • E.

      Intermittent reinforcement

    Correct Answer
    B. Negative reinforcement
    Explanation
    Negative reinforcement is also called avoidance learning because it involves the removal or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus in order to increase the likelihood of a desired behavior. In negative reinforcement, a behavior is strengthened by the removal of an aversive stimulus. This creates an association between the behavior and the removal of the aversive stimulus, leading to the avoidance of the aversive stimulus in the future.

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  • 17. 

    A(n) ____ is the set of rules regarding reinforcement contingencies such as which behaviors will be reinforced, which consequences will follow those behaviors, and the schedule by which those consequences will be delivered.

    • A.

      Contingency of reinforcement

    • B.

      Instrumentality of reinforcement

    • C.

      Schedule of reinforcement

    • D.

      Expectancy of reinforcement

    • E.

      PERT (Positive Examples through Reinforced Timing) plan

    Correct Answer
    C. Schedule of reinforcement
    Explanation
    A schedule of reinforcement refers to a set of rules that determine when and how often a behavior will be reinforced. It outlines the timing and frequency of reinforcement, which can vary depending on the desired outcome. This schedule helps to shape and maintain behaviors by providing consistent consequences for specific actions.

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  • 18. 

    The number of people who play high-stakes poker is increasing as a result of a number of cable television shows featuring professional poker players vying for $100,000 pots. In terms of reinforcement theory, what kind of a reinforcement schedule motivates the behavior of these card players?

    • A.

      Variable ratio

    • B.

      Fixed ratio

    • C.

      Continuous

    • D.

      Intermittent

    • E.

      Variable interval

    Correct Answer
    A. Variable ratio
    Explanation
    The behavior of these card players is motivated by a variable ratio reinforcement schedule. In this type of schedule, the reinforcement (winning a $100,000 pot) is delivered after an unpredictable number of responses (playing high-stakes poker). The players do not know how many hands they need to play before winning, which creates excitement and keeps them motivated to continue playing. This type of reinforcement schedule is highly effective in maintaining behavior because it leads to high response rates and persistence.

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  • 19. 

    In a(n) ____ reinforcement schedule, consequences follow a behavior only have a fixed time has elapsed.

    • A.

      Fixed interval

    • B.

      Variable interval

    • C.

      Fixed ratio

    • D.

      Variable ratio

    • E.

      Intermittent interval

    Correct Answer
    A. Fixed interval
    Explanation
    In a fixed interval reinforcement schedule, consequences follow a behavior only after a fixed amount of time has elapsed. This means that the reinforcement is delivered at a consistent interval, regardless of how many times the behavior is performed within that time frame. For example, if a rat is given a food pellet every 5 minutes, it will only receive the pellet if it presses a lever after 5 minutes have passed since the last pellet was delivered. This type of schedule often leads to a low rate of responding immediately after reinforcement and an increase in responding as the time for the next reinforcement approaches.

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  • 20. 

    Logan Stein is the manager of an ad agency. Recently her employees have shown an unwillingness to work as a team. Stein has decided to use reinforcement to encourage more team cohesiveness. What advice can you giver her on how to motivate with reinforcement theory?

    • A.

      Avoid intermittent reinforcement scheduling

    • B.

      Administer punishment on an intermittent schedule

    • C.

      Choose a complicated reinforcement schedule so the employees will be surprised when rewarded

    • D.

      Don't reinforce the wrong behaviors

    • E.

      Reinforcement theory will always produce the desired results

    Correct Answer
    D. Don't reinforce the wrong behaviors
    Explanation
    The advice to "don't reinforce the wrong behaviors" is a valid recommendation for Logan Stein to motivate her employees using reinforcement theory. This means that Stein should only provide positive reinforcement when employees exhibit the desired behaviors that contribute to team cohesiveness. By not reinforcing wrong behaviors, Stein can encourage her employees to focus on and repeat the behaviors that promote teamwork. This approach aligns with the principles of reinforcement theory, which suggest that reinforcing desired behaviors increases the likelihood of their recurrence.

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  • 21. 

    A ___ is a target, objective, or result.

    • A.

      Vision

    • B.

      Motivational drive

    • C.

      Need

    • D.

      Goal

    • E.

      Mission

    Correct Answer
    D. Goal
    Explanation
    A goal refers to a specific target, objective, or result that an individual or organization aims to achieve. It represents a desired outcome and serves as a guiding principle for planning and decision-making. Goals provide direction, focus, and motivation to individuals or teams, helping them stay on track and work towards achieving their desired results.

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  • 22. 

    According to Don Vlcek, a former Domino's Pizza vice president, "To achieve results, you've got to properly define the goal--and that's not always easy. Vague goals are worthless. For instance, "Work harder!" isn't a goal that motivates anybody. But "increase productivity by 12 percent within three weeks"--that is a clear, useful goal." Vlcek is discussing ____.

    • A.

      Performance feedback

    • B.

      Goal congruity

    • C.

      Goal specificity

    • D.

      Goal difficulty

    • E.

      Goal acceptance

    Correct Answer
    C. Goal specificity
    Explanation
    Don Vlcek is discussing the importance of properly defining goals and states that vague goals are worthless. He provides an example of a clear and useful goal, which is to increase productivity by 12 percent within three weeks. This indicates that Vlcek is emphasizing the significance of having specific goals rather than vague ones. Therefore, the correct answer is "goal specificity."

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  • 23. 

    For workers to truly accept organizational goals, the workers must ___.

    • A.

      Respond to an autocratic management style

    • B.

      Trust management

    • C.

      Not require any more training in order to achieve the goal

    • D.

      Operate outside the organizational communication channel

    • E.

      Do none of these

    Correct Answer
    B. Trust management
    Explanation
    For workers to truly accept organizational goals, they must trust management. Trust is an essential factor in building a positive and productive work environment. When workers trust management, they are more likely to believe in the goals set by the organization and work towards achieving them. Trust fosters open communication, collaboration, and a sense of loyalty, which are all crucial for the success of any organization. Without trust in management, workers may resist or be skeptical of organizational goals, leading to a lack of commitment and potentially hindering the achievement of those goals.

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  • 24. 

    ____ is the extent to which goals are detailed, exact, and unambiguous.

    • A.

      Goal specificity

    • B.

      Goal difficulty

    • C.

      Goal acceptance

    • D.

      Goal clarity

    • E.

      Goal congruity

    Correct Answer
    A. Goal specificity
    Explanation
    Goal specificity refers to the level of detail and clarity in a goal. It indicates how well-defined and unambiguous a goal is. When goals are specific, they leave no room for interpretation or confusion, and individuals have a clear understanding of what needs to be achieved. This helps in enhancing motivation, focus, and performance as individuals can effectively plan and work towards achieving the goal. Therefore, goal specificity is the extent to which goals are detailed, exact, and unambiguous.

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  • 25. 

    Effective managers define ___ as the process of influencing others to achieve group or organizational goals.

    • A.

      Management

    • B.

      Leadership

    • C.

      Interpersonal influence

    • D.

      Supervision

    • E.

      Autonomy

    Correct Answer
    B. Leadership
    Explanation
    Leadership is the correct answer because it refers to the process of influencing others to achieve group or organizational goals. Effective managers need to possess leadership skills in order to guide and motivate their team members towards achieving common objectives. Leadership involves inspiring and influencing others, setting a vision, making important decisions, and providing guidance and support to achieve desired outcomes. It is a crucial aspect of effective management and plays a significant role in achieving success in any organization.

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  • 26. 

    Ford Motor Company has always attracted and nurtured capable mangers, but it has failed to do the same for leaders. So, as part of an overhaul of the automaker's organizational culture, Ford is embarking on a sweeping attempt to mass-manufacture leaders. It wants to build an army of "warrior-entrepreneurs." Ford's "warrior-entrepreneurs" will be expected to___.

    • A.

      Take a long-term perspective

    • B.

      Inspire and motivate employees to embrace change

    • C.

      Realize that results are more important than processes

    • D.

      Be architects rather than builders

    • E.

      Do all of these things

    Correct Answer
    E. Do all of these things
    Explanation
    The given passage states that Ford Motor Company is aiming to create a culture shift and mass-produce leaders within the organization. These leaders, referred to as "warrior-entrepreneurs," are expected to possess several qualities and abilities. They should be able to take a long-term perspective, meaning they can think beyond immediate goals and consider the future implications of their actions. They should also be able to inspire and motivate employees to embrace change, as the company is undergoing an organizational overhaul. Additionally, they should understand that results are more important than processes, indicating that they prioritize outcomes over rigid adherence to procedures. Lastly, they should be architects rather than builders, meaning they focus on designing and strategizing rather than solely executing tasks. Therefore, the correct answer is that Ford's "warrior-entrepreneurs" are expected to do all of these things.

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  • 27. 

    Relatively stable characteristics such as abilities, psychological motives, or consistent patterns of behavior, form the basis for the ___ of leadership.

    • A.

      Situational theory

    • B.

      Behavioral theory

    • C.

      Trait theory

    • D.

      Expectancy theory

    • E.

      Path-goal theory

    Correct Answer
    C. Trait theory
    Explanation
    The correct answer is trait theory. Trait theory suggests that certain stable characteristics, such as abilities, psychological motives, or consistent patterns of behavior, form the foundation for effective leadership. This theory focuses on identifying the specific traits and qualities that make individuals natural leaders, and suggests that these traits are inherent and difficult to develop or change.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following traits refers to the extent to which leaders are truthful with others?

    • A.

      Honesty

    • B.

      Self-confidence

    • C.

      Emotional stability

    • D.

      Charisma

    • E.

      Extroversion

    Correct Answer
    A. Honesty
    Explanation
    Honesty refers to the extent to which leaders are truthful with others. It is a trait that reflects transparency, integrity, and trustworthiness. Leaders who are honest are open and sincere in their communication, and they prioritize telling the truth even in difficult situations. Honesty is essential for building strong relationships, fostering trust, and promoting ethical behavior within a team or organization. It enables leaders to establish credibility and authenticity, which are crucial for effective leadership.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following statements about what makes a successful leader is true?

    • A.

      Successful leaders have the same traits that nonleaders have

    • B.

      Successful leaders have drive, which is defined as the ability to attract and retain the best employees

    • C.

      Successful leaders are confident about their ability to make long-term strategic decisions even if the decisions seem risky to others.

    • D.

      Successful leaders believe in individual reciprocity

    • E.

      None of these statements about what makes a successful leader is true

    Correct Answer
    C. Successful leaders are confident about their ability to make long-term strategic decisions even if the decisions seem risky to others.
    Explanation
    Successful leaders are confident about their ability to make long-term strategic decisions even if the decisions seem risky to others. This statement suggests that successful leaders possess the self-assurance and conviction to make bold decisions, even in the face of potential criticism or opposition. They trust their judgment and are willing to take calculated risks for the benefit of their organization. This confidence is a key attribute that sets successful leaders apart from non-leaders, who may lack the same level of conviction or willingness to take risks.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following is another term for considerate leadership behavior?

    • A.

      Initiating structure behavior

    • B.

      Job-centered leadership

    • C.

      Concern for people

    • D.

      Concern for production

    • E.

      Participative management

    Correct Answer
    C. Concern for people
    Explanation
    Concern for people is another term for considerate leadership behavior. This type of leadership focuses on the well-being and needs of the employees. Leaders who exhibit concern for people prioritize building relationships, supporting their team members, and showing empathy. They actively listen to their employees, provide support and encouragement, and create a positive work environment. This leadership style promotes teamwork, employee satisfaction, and engagement, ultimately leading to higher productivity and success for the organization.

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  • 31. 

    United Fruit Company is the owner of the Chiquite brand of bananas. To get the bananas picked, United Fruit used a leadership style high in ___ and emphasized how the fruit was to be picked and packed for transportation. It showed no concern for the workers.

    • A.

      Achievement

    • B.

      Charisma

    • C.

      Consideration

    • D.

      Initating structure

    • E.

      Vision

    Correct Answer
    D. Initating structure
    Explanation
    United Fruit Company used a leadership style high in initiating structure. This means that they focused on clearly defining tasks, roles, and goals for the workers involved in picking the bananas. They emphasized how the fruit was to be picked and packed for transportation, indicating a strong emphasis on organizing and directing the work process. The fact that they showed no concern for the workers suggests a lack of consideration for their well-being and a focus solely on task accomplishment.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following is another term for initiating structure leadership behavior?

    • A.

      Considerate leader behavior

    • B.

      Employee-centered leadership

    • C.

      Concern for people

    • D.

      Concern for production

    • E.

      Formalized people skills

    Correct Answer
    D. Concern for production
    Explanation
    Concern for production is another term for initiating structure leadership behavior. This type of leadership behavior focuses on setting clear goals, organizing work, and defining roles and responsibilities to ensure that tasks are completed efficiently and effectively. Leaders who exhibit concern for production prioritize task accomplishment and are focused on achieving high levels of productivity and performance within their team or organization. They are proactive in planning, organizing, and monitoring work processes to meet production targets and deliver results.

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  • 33. 

    Which of the following statements about the two basic leader behaviors that are central to successful leadership is true?

    • A.

      These behaviors are referred to as initiating structure and constructing networks

    • B.

      These behaviors are independent, meaning that leaders can do both at the same time

    • C.

      These behaviors both impact primarily on job performance

    • D.

      These behaviors have minimal impact on work environments

    • E.

      All of these statments about the two basic leader behaviors that are central to successful leadership are true.

    Correct Answer
    B. These behaviors are independent, meaning that leaders can do both at the same time
    Explanation
    The statement that "these behaviors are independent, meaning that leaders can do both at the same time" is true because initiating structure and constructing networks are two distinct leader behaviors that can be performed simultaneously. Initiating structure involves organizing and defining work tasks, while constructing networks involves building relationships and connections. Leaders can engage in both behaviors concurrently, as they are not mutually exclusive. This allows leaders to effectively manage tasks and relationships, contributing to their overall success in leadership roles.

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  • 34. 

    Which of the following leadership theories assumes that leadership styles are consistent and difficult to change?

    • A.

      Path-goal theory

    • B.

      Normative decision theory

    • C.

      The Vroom theory

    • D.

      The status quo theory of leadership

    • E.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    E. None of these
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "none of these" because none of the listed theories assume that leadership styles are consistent and difficult to change. The path-goal theory focuses on how leaders motivate their followers, the normative decision theory suggests that leaders should involve subordinates in decision-making, the Vroom theory emphasizes the importance of expectancy and motivation in leadership, and the status quo theory of leadership suggests that leaders maintain the existing state of affairs. Therefore, none of these theories assume that leadership styles are consistent and difficult to change.

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  • 35. 

    Stan O'Neal began his tenure as the CEO of Merrill Lynch by firing the entire managment committee. A few months later he fired two of his hand-picked senior executive because they were "plotting to diminish his authority" and did not want to follow his orders unquestioningly. In terms of Fielder's contingency theory, O'Neal was most concerned with establishing ____.

    • A.

      Situational favorableness

    • B.

      Consideration

    • C.

      Position power

    • D.

      Goal commitment

    • E.

      Empowerment quality

    Correct Answer
    A. Situational favorableness
    Explanation
    Stan O'Neal's actions of firing the entire management committee and two senior executives suggest that he was most concerned with establishing situational favorableness. This theory suggests that leaders will adapt their leadership style based on the situation they are in. O'Neal wanted to ensure that he had complete authority and control over the company, and believed that by removing those who were plotting against him, he could establish a more favorable situation for himself as the CEO.

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  • 36. 

    According to the path-goal theory of leadership, ____ involved letting employees know precisely what is expected of them, giving them specific guidelines for performing tasks, scheduling work, setting standards of performance, and making sure that people follow standard rules and regulations.

    • A.

      People-oriented leadership

    • B.

      Supportive leadership

    • C.

      Participative leadership

    • D.

      Achievement-oriented leadership

    • E.

      Directive leadership

    Correct Answer
    E. Directive leadership
    Explanation
    Directive leadership is the correct answer because it aligns with the description provided in the question. According to the path-goal theory of leadership, directive leadership involves providing clear expectations, guidelines, schedules, and standards to employees. This style of leadership focuses on giving specific instructions and ensuring that individuals follow established rules and regulations. It emphasizes a structured and task-oriented approach to leadership, aiming to clarify roles and responsibilities for employees.

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  • 37. 

    According to the path-goal theory of leadership, ___ is very similar to considerate leader behavior.

    • A.

      Directive leadership

    • B.

      Supportive leadership

    • C.

      Participative leadership

    • D.

      Achievement-oriented leadership

    • E.

      People-oriented leadership

    Correct Answer
    B. Supportive leadership
    Explanation
    According to the path-goal theory of leadership, supportive leadership is very similar to considerate leader behavior. Supportive leadership involves showing concern for the well-being and needs of subordinates, providing emotional support, and creating a positive work environment. Similarly, considerate leader behavior also focuses on the welfare of employees, demonstrating empathy, and treating them with respect. Both styles emphasize the importance of building relationships, fostering trust, and creating a supportive atmosphere within the team.

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  • 38. 

    According to the path-goal theory of leadership, ____ involves consulting employees for their suggestions and input before making decisions.

    • A.

      Directive leadership

    • B.

      Supportive leadership

    • C.

      Participatve leadership

    • D.

      Consultative leadership

    • E.

      Achievement-oriented leadership

    Correct Answer
    C. Participatve leadership
    Explanation
    According to the path-goal theory of leadership, participative leadership involves consulting employees for their suggestions and input before making decisions. This style of leadership encourages collaboration and involvement from team members, allowing them to contribute their ideas and perspectives. By including employees in the decision-making process, participative leaders foster a sense of ownership and commitment among team members, leading to increased job satisfaction and motivation. This approach is effective in situations where employees have the knowledge and expertise to contribute valuable insights and when their input is valued and implemented.

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  • 39. 

    During his tenure as the CEO of Credit Suisee First Boston (CSFB), John Mack turned the money-losing bank into a profitable firm by "goading workers to move out of their comfort zones" and setting challenging goals for them. His high expectation for his employees indicates that Mack used a(n) _____ leadership style.

    • A.

      Achievement-oriented

    • B.

      Supportive

    • C.

      Charismatic

    • D.

      Democratic

    • E.

      Participative

    Correct Answer
    A. Achievement-oriented
    Explanation
    The correct answer is achievement-oriented. This is because the statement mentions that John Mack set challenging goals for his employees and had high expectations for them. This indicates that he focused on pushing his employees to achieve their best and emphasized on accomplishing goals and targets.

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  • 40. 

    The normative decision theory ____.

    • A.

      States that the situation determines what leadership style to use

    • B.

      Assumes that certain inalienable characteristics determine the most effective leaders

    • C.

      Helps managers determine how much employee participation should be used in decision making

    • D.

      Assumes leader behavior can be fitted to subordinate characteristics

    • E.

      Assumes leaders are generally unable to change their leadership style

    Correct Answer
    C. Helps managers determine how much employee participation should be used in decision making
    Explanation
    The normative decision theory helps managers determine how much employee participation should be used in decision making. This theory provides guidelines and frameworks for managers to assess the situation and determine the appropriate level of employee involvement in the decision-making process. It recognizes that different situations may require varying degrees of employee participation and allows managers to make informed decisions on how to involve employees in the decision-making process.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following leadership theories uses a decision tree to determine the appropriate level of participation by subordinates in decision making?

    • A.

      Fiedler's contingency theory

    • B.

      Blake and Mouton's leadership grid

    • C.

      Path-goal theory

    • D.

      Vroom-Yetton-Jargo's normative decision model

    • E.

      Trait theory

    Correct Answer
    D. Vroom-Yetton-Jargo's normative decision model
    Explanation
    Vroom-Yetton-Jargo's normative decision model uses a decision tree to determine the appropriate level of participation by subordinates in decision making. This model suggests that the leader should consider various factors such as the significance of the decision, the importance of subordinate commitment, and the leader's own expertise when deciding whether to involve subordinates in decision making. The decision tree provides a systematic approach to determine the most effective decision-making method based on these factors.

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  • 42. 

    Malcolm Thompson was brought in as the CEO of Novalux, a company involved in laser research, to save the company's promise of innovation. It's what he loves: turning ideas into companies, then shaping those business to meet evolving challenges. "you're never done," he says. "It always looks like you're near the finish line, but there are alwasys new opportunities along the road--and new obstacles you'd never thought of. That's part of the exploration--constantly looking at the next problem and the next solution." Apparently, Thompson is an example of a(n) ____.

    • A.

      Leadership substitute

    • B.

      Trait leader

    • C.

      Leadership neutralizer

    • D.

      Visionary leader

    • E.

      Transactional leader

    Correct Answer
    D. Visionary leader
    Explanation
    The passage describes Malcolm Thompson as someone who loves turning ideas into companies and shaping businesses to meet evolving challenges. He believes that there are always new opportunities and obstacles along the road, and he constantly looks for the next problem and solution. These characteristics align with those of a visionary leader, who is known for their ability to envision and drive change, and who constantly seeks new opportunities and solutions.

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  • 43. 

    The 1993 stand-off between federal agents and people inside the Branch Davidian compound at Waco, TX, resulted in the deaths of approx. 80 Branch Davidians, including leader David Koresh who had declared himself the new messiah. Koresh used ____ to create the strong relationships between him and his followers who were willing to die for him.

    • A.

      A leadership substitute

    • B.

      Transactional leadership

    • C.

      A leadership neutralizer

    • D.

      Charismatic leadership

    • E.

      Trait leadership

    Correct Answer
    D. Charismatic leadership
    Explanation
    Koresh used charismatic leadership to create strong relationships with his followers who were willing to die for him. Charismatic leadership is characterized by a leader's ability to inspire and influence others through their personal qualities and charm. Koresh likely possessed qualities that attracted and captivated his followers, such as his charisma, persuasive communication skills, and the ability to instill a sense of purpose and devotion. This type of leadership often creates a strong emotional bond between the leader and their followers, leading to a high level of commitment and loyalty.

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  • 44. 

    Leaders known as ____ will control and manipulate followers, do what is best for themselves instead of his or her organization, only to hear positive feedback, only share information that is beneficial to themselves, and have moral standards that put their interests before everyone else's.

    • A.

      Manipulative charismatics

    • B.

      Machiavellian charismatics

    • C.

      Unethical charismatics

    • D.

      Illegititmate charismatics

    • E.

      Charismatic ombudsmen

    Correct Answer
    C. Unethical charismatics
    Explanation
    Unethical charismatics are leaders who prioritize their own interests over the well-being of their organization and followers. They manipulate and control their followers, only sharing information that benefits themselves and seeking positive feedback. Their moral standards prioritize their own interests above everyone else's.

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  • 45. 

    Which of the following is NOT a component of transformational leadership?

    • A.

      Idealized influence

    • B.

      Supportive influence

    • C.

      Intellectual stimulation

    • D.

      Individualized consideration

    • E.

      Inspirational motivation

    Correct Answer
    B. Supportive influence
    Explanation
    Supportive influence is not a component of transformational leadership. Transformational leadership is characterized by four components: idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration. Supportive influence, on the other hand, is a component of transactional leadership, which focuses on maintaining the status quo and providing rewards and punishments based on performance. Transformational leaders inspire and motivate their followers, challenge their thinking, and provide individualized support, whereas transactional leaders focus on providing rewards and maintaining the existing system.

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  • 46. 

    ___ is based on an exchange process, in which followers are rewarded for good performance and punished for poor performance.

    • A.

      Visionary leadership

    • B.

      Charismatic leadership

    • C.

      Leadership empowerment

    • D.

      Transformational leadership

    • E.

      Transactional leadership

    Correct Answer
    E. Transactional leadership
    Explanation
    Transactional leadership is based on an exchange process, in which followers are rewarded for good performance and punished for poor performance. This style of leadership focuses on setting clear expectations, providing rewards and recognition for meeting goals, and implementing corrective actions for underperformance. Transactional leaders use a system of rewards and punishments to motivate their followers and ensure that tasks are completed efficiently. They emphasize the importance of meeting targets and adhering to established procedures and policies. This style of leadership is often effective in situations where routine tasks need to be accomplished and immediate results are required.

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  • 47. 

    Which of the following statements about the importance of communication is true?

    • A.

      Many of the basic management processes cannot be performed without effective communication.

    • B.

      Oral communication is the most important skill for college graduates who are entering the work force

    • C.

      Poor communication skill is the single most important reason that people do not advance in their careers

    • D.

      Communication is especially important for top managers

    • E.

      All of these statements about the importance of communication are true.

    Correct Answer
    E. All of these statements about the importance of communication are true.
    Explanation
    All of these statements about the importance of communication are true. Effective communication is crucial for basic management processes as it ensures clear understanding and coordination among team members. Oral communication is indeed a vital skill for college graduates entering the workforce as it facilitates effective collaboration and expression of ideas. Poor communication skills can hinder career advancement as it affects relationships, teamwork, and overall productivity. Communication is particularly important for top managers as they need to effectively convey goals, strategies, and expectations to their teams. Therefore, all the given statements accurately highlight the significance of communication in various aspects of professional life.

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  • 48. 

    Which of the following statements about perception and perceptual filters is true?

    • A.

      People pay attention to similar things

    • B.

      People organize and interpret what they pay attention to similarily

    • C.

      People remember things similarly

    • D.

      People are unaffected by differences in stimuli

    • E.

      People perceive according to personaloty-, psychology-, and experience-based filters.

    Correct Answer
    E. People perceive according to personaloty-, psychology-, and experience-based filters.
    Explanation
    People perceive according to personaloty-, psychology-, and experience-based filters. This means that individuals' perception is influenced by their unique personality traits, psychological factors, and past experiences. These filters shape how people pay attention to stimuli, how they organize and interpret what they pay attention to, and how they remember things. Therefore, perception is not a universal process, but rather a subjective and individualized experience.

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  • 49. 

    The steps in the basic perception process include all of the following EXCEPT _____.

    • A.

      Attention

    • B.

      Organization

    • C.

      Analysis

    • D.

      Interpretation

    • E.

      Retention

    Correct Answer
    C. Analysis
    Explanation
    The basic perception process involves several steps, including attention, organization, interpretation, and retention. Analysis, however, is not considered one of the steps in the process. Analysis typically refers to the breaking down of information or data into smaller parts to understand its components or relationships, whereas perception is more focused on how we perceive and make sense of the world around us. Therefore, analysis is not included in the basic perception process.

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  • 50. 

    ___ is the tendency to fill in gaps of missing information by assuming that what we don't know is consitent with what we already know.

    • A.

      Selective perception

    • B.

      Kinesics

    • C.

      Closure

    • D.

      Defensive bias

    • E.

      Attribution

    Correct Answer
    C. Closure
    Explanation
    Closure is the tendency to fill in gaps of missing information by assuming that what we don't know is consistent with what we already know. This means that when faced with incomplete or ambiguous information, our brain automatically tries to complete the missing parts based on our existing knowledge and assumptions. Closure helps us make sense of the world by creating a cohesive and complete perception of our surroundings, even when some details are missing or unclear.

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