# Questions On Monetary And Fiscal Policy! Macroeconomics Trivia Quiz

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Questions: 34 | Attempts: 329  Settings  .

• 1.

### An increase in the interest rate increases the quantity demanded of money because it increases the rate of return on money.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
An increase in the interest rate actually decreases the quantity demanded of money because it increases the opportunity cost of holding money. When interest rates are higher, individuals and businesses are more likely to invest their money rather than hold onto it, as they can earn a higher return on their investments. Therefore, the statement that an increase in the interest rate increases the quantity demanded of money is false.

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• 2.

### When money demand is drawn on a graph with the interest rate on the vertical axis and the quantity of money on the horizontal axis, an increase in the price level shifts money demand to the right.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
An increase in the price level causes inflation, which leads to a decrease in the purchasing power of money. As a result, people need more money to buy the same amount of goods and services. This increased demand for money causes the money demand curve to shift to the right on the graph, indicating that at any given interest rate, people want to hold more money. Therefore, the statement is true.

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• 3.

### Keynes's theory of liquidity preference suggests that the interest rate is determined by the supply and demand for money.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
Keynes's theory of liquidity preference states that the interest rate is determined by the supply and demand for money. According to this theory, individuals and businesses have a preference for holding money rather than investing it. As a result, when there is an increase in the demand for money, the interest rate will rise. Conversely, when there is a decrease in the demand for money, the interest rate will fall. Therefore, the statement that the interest rate is determined by the supply and demand for money is true, as per Keynes's theory of liquidity preference.

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• 4.

### The interest-rate effect suggests that aggregate demand slopes downward because an increase in the price level shifts money demand to the right, increases the interest rate, and reduces investment.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
The interest-rate effect is a theory in macroeconomics that explains how changes in the price level can impact aggregate demand. According to this theory, an increase in the price level leads to an increase in the demand for money, as individuals and businesses need more money to make purchases. This increased demand for money then leads to an increase in the interest rate, as lenders can charge higher rates due to the increased demand. This higher interest rate, in turn, reduces investment, as borrowing becomes more expensive. Therefore, the correct answer is true, as the interest-rate effect suggests that an increase in the price level leads to a decrease in investment and, consequently, aggregate demand.

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• 5.

### An increase in the money supply shifts the money supply curve to the right, increases the interest rate, decreases investment, and shifts the aggregate-demand curve to the left.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
An increase in the money supply would actually shift the money supply curve to the right, which would decrease the interest rate. A decrease in the interest rate would then increase investment, and ultimately shift the aggregate-demand curve to the right. Therefore, the statement is false.

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• 6.

### Suppose investors and consumers become pessimistic about the future and cut back on expenditures.  If the Fed engages in an activist stabilization policy, the policy response should be to decrease the money supply.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
If investors and consumers become pessimistic and cut back on expenditures, it indicates a decrease in economic activity. In such a situation, the Fed would engage in an activist stabilization policy to stimulate the economy. One of the ways to do this would be to increase the money supply, not decrease it. By increasing the money supply, the Fed can encourage borrowing and spending, which can help boost economic growth. Therefore, the correct answer is false.

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• 7.

### In the short run, a decision by the Fed to increase the money supply is essentially the same as a decision to decrease the interest rate target.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
When the Fed increases the money supply, it means that there is more money available in the economy. This increased supply of money leads to a decrease in the interest rate target. This is because with more money available, banks can lend at lower interest rates, as there is more competition for borrowers. Therefore, in the short run, increasing the money supply by the Fed is essentially the same as decreasing the interest rate target.

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• 8.

### Because of the multiplier effect, an increase in government spending of \$40 billion will shift the aggregate demand curve to the right by more than \$40 billion (assuming there is no crowding out).

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
The multiplier effect refers to the idea that an increase in government spending can have a larger impact on aggregate demand than the initial amount spent. This is because when the government spends money, it goes into the hands of individuals and businesses who then spend it on goods and services, creating a chain reaction of increased spending. Therefore, an increase in government spending of \$40 billion can potentially shift the aggregate demand curve to the right by more than \$40 billion.

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• 9.

### If the MPC (marginal propensity to consume) is .80, then the value of the multiplier is 8.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The value of the multiplier is actually the inverse of the marginal propensity to consume (MPC). Since the MPC is given as 0.80, the value of the multiplier would be 1/0.80, which is equal to 1.25. Therefore, the statement that the value of the multiplier is 8 is false.

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• 10.

### Crowding out occurs when an increase in government spending increases incomes, shifts money demand to the right, raises the interest rate and reduces private investment.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
Crowding out refers to the phenomenon where increased government spending leads to a decrease in private investment. When the government spends more, it increases incomes in the economy. This, in turn, increases the demand for money, which shifts the money demand curve to the right. As a result, the interest rate rises. With higher interest rates, private investors are discouraged from borrowing and investing, leading to a reduction in private investment. Therefore, the statement that an increase in government spending raises the interest rate and reduces private investment is true.

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• 11.

### Suppose the government increases its expenditure by \$10 billion.  If the crowding-out effect exceeds the multiplier effect, then the aggregate-demand curve shifts to the right by more than \$10 billion.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
If the crowding-out effect exceeds the multiplier effect, it means that the increase in government expenditure leads to a decrease in private investment. In this case, the aggregate-demand curve would not shift to the right by more than \$10 billion because the decrease in private investment would offset some of the increase in government expenditure. Therefore, the statement is false.

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• 12.

### Suppose investors and consumers become pessimistic about the future and cut back on expenditures.  If fiscal policymakers engage in activist stabilization policy, the policy response should be the decrease in government spending and increase taxes.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
If investors and consumers become pessimistic and cut back on expenditures, fiscal policymakers would engage in activist stabilization policy by increasing government spending and decreasing taxes. This is because the decrease in private spending needs to be offset by an increase in government spending to stimulate the economy. Additionally, decreasing taxes would provide more disposable income for individuals and encourage them to spend more, further stimulating economic activity. Therefore, the statement that the policy response should be a decrease in government spending and increase in taxes is false.

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• 13.

### Many economists prefer automatic stabilizers because they affect the economy with a shorter lag than activist stabilization policies.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
Automatic stabilizers refer to government programs and policies that automatically adjust to changes in economic conditions, such as unemployment benefits or progressive income taxes. These stabilizers do not require explicit government action and kick in automatically during economic downturns. In contrast, activist stabilization policies require deliberate government intervention and may take longer to implement. Therefore, economists prefer automatic stabilizers as they can provide timely support to the economy, minimizing the lag between the occurrence of an economic shock and the response from the government.

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• 14.

### In the short run, the interest rate is determined by the loanable-funds market, while in the long run, the interest rate is determined by money demand and money supply.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The explanation for the given answer is that in the short run, the interest rate is determined by the supply and demand for loanable funds, which includes factors such as savings and investment. In the long run, however, the interest rate is determined by the overall demand for money and the supply of money in the economy. Therefore, the statement that the interest rate is determined by money demand and money supply in the long run is incorrect.

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• 15.

### Unemployment benefits are an example of an automatic stabilizer because when incomes fall, unemployment benefits rise.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
Unemployment benefits are considered an automatic stabilizer because they automatically increase when incomes fall. This means that during times of economic downturn or recession when many people lose their jobs and incomes decrease, unemployment benefits provide financial support to those who are unemployed. This helps to stabilize the economy by providing a safety net for individuals and families who are facing financial hardship due to unemployment. Thus, the statement is true.

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• 16.

### Keynes's liquidity preference theory of the interest rate suggests that the interest rate is determined by

• A.

They supply and demand for loanable funds

• B.

The supply and demand for money

• C.

The supply and demand for labor

• D.

Aggregate supply and aggregate demand

B. The supply and demand for money
Explanation
Keynes's liquidity preference theory of the interest rate suggests that the interest rate is determined by the supply and demand for money. According to this theory, individuals hold money for speculative and precautionary motives, and the interest rate is the opportunity cost of holding money. When the demand for money increases, individuals are willing to pay a higher interest rate to hold onto their money, leading to an increase in the interest rate. Conversely, when the demand for money decreases, individuals are willing to accept a lower interest rate, resulting in a decrease in the interest rate. Therefore, the supply and demand for money play a crucial role in determining the interest rate.

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• 17.

### When money demand is expressed in a graph with the interest rate on the vertical axis and the quantity of money on the horizontal axis, an increase in the interest rate.

• A.

Increases the quantity demanded of money

• B.

Increases the demand for money

• C.

Decreases the quantity demanded of money

• D.

Decreases the demand for money

• E.

Does none of the above

C. Decreases the quantity demanded of money
Explanation
An increase in the interest rate decreases the quantity demanded of money because higher interest rates make it more expensive to borrow money. As a result, individuals and businesses are less likely to borrow and hold onto less money, leading to a decrease in the quantity demanded of money.

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• 18.

### When the supply and demand for money are expressed in a graph with the interest rate on the vertical axis and the quantity of money on the horizontal axis, an increase in the price level.

• A.

Shifts money demand to the right and increases the interest rate

• B.

Shifts money demand to the left and increases the interest rate

• C.

Shifts money demand to the right and decreases the interest rate

• D.

Shifts money demand to the left and decreases the interest rate

• E.

Does none of the above

A. Shifts money demand to the right and increases the interest rate
Explanation
An increase in the price level will lead to a decrease in the purchasing power of money. As a result, people will demand more money to maintain their desired level of purchasing power. This increase in money demand will shift the money demand curve to the right. At the same time, the increase in money demand will also lead to an increase in the interest rate as lenders will charge higher interest rates to compensate for the decrease in the purchasing power of the money they lend. Therefore, an increase in the price level shifts money demand to the right and increases the interest rate.

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• 19.

### In the market for real output, the initial effect of an increase in the money supply is to

• A.

Shift aggregate demand to the right

• B.

Shift aggregate demand to the left

• C.

Shift aggregate supply to the right

• D.

Shift aggregate supply to the left

A. Shift aggregate demand to the right
Explanation
An increase in the money supply leads to an increase in the overall amount of money available in the economy. This increase in money supply encourages consumers to spend more, as they have more money to use for purchases. As a result, aggregate demand, which represents the total demand for goods and services in the economy, shifts to the right. This shift in aggregate demand indicates an increase in overall spending and economic activity.

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• 20.

### The initial effect of an increase in the money supply is to

• A.

Increase the price level

• B.

Decrease the price level

• C.

Increase the interest rate

• D.

Decrease the interest rate

D. Decrease the interest rate
Explanation
An increase in the money supply leads to a decrease in the interest rate because when there is more money available in the economy, banks and financial institutions have more funds to lend out. This increased supply of loanable funds leads to increased competition among borrowers, causing interest rates to decrease. Lower interest rates encourage borrowing and investment, stimulating economic activity and potentially increasing aggregate demand. As a result, the initial effect of an increase in the money supply is a decrease in the interest rate.

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• 21.

### The long-run effect of an increase in the money supply is to

• A.

Increase the price level

• B.

Decrease the price level

• C.

Increase the interest rate

• D.

Decrease the interest rate

A. Increase the price level
Explanation
An increase in the money supply leads to an increase in the overall amount of money in circulation. With more money available, people have more purchasing power, which leads to an increase in demand for goods and services. As demand increases, businesses raise their prices to take advantage of the higher demand. This increase in prices is known as inflation and results in a higher price level. Therefore, the long-run effect of an increase in the money supply is to increase the price level.

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• 22.

### Suppose a wave of investor and consumer pessimism causes a reduction in spending. If the Federal Reserve chooses to engage in activist stabilization policy, it should

• A.

Increase government spending and decrease taxes

• B.

Decrease government spending and increase taxes

• C.

Increase the money supply and decrease interest rates

• D.

Decrease the money supply and increase interest rates

C. Increase the money supply and decrease interest rates
Explanation
When there is a wave of investor and consumer pessimism causing a reduction in spending, the Federal Reserve can use activist stabilization policy to stimulate the economy. By increasing the money supply, more funds will be available for borrowing and spending, which can help boost economic activity. Additionally, decreasing interest rates makes borrowing cheaper, encouraging businesses and consumers to take loans and make investments. This combination of increasing the money supply and decreasing interest rates can help stimulate spending and counteract the negative effects of pessimism.

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• 23.

### The initial impact of an increase in government spending is to shift

• A.

Aggregate supply to the right

• B.

Aggregate supply to the left

• C.

Aggregate demand to the right

• D.

Aggregate demand to the left

C. Aggregate demand to the right
Explanation
When the government increases its spending, it injects more money into the economy. This leads to an increase in aggregate demand as consumers have more money to spend on goods and services. As a result, businesses experience higher demand for their products, leading to an increase in production and employment. Therefore, the correct answer is that an increase in government spending shifts aggregate demand to the right.

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• 24.

### If the marginal propensity to consume (MPC) is .75, the value of the multiplier is

• A.

.75

• B.

4

• C.

7.5

• D.

None of the above

B. 4
Explanation
The value of the multiplier is 4. The multiplier represents the amount by which an initial change in spending or investment will be multiplied to determine the total impact on the economy. It is calculated as 1/(1-MPC), where MPC is the marginal propensity to consume. In this case, if the MPC is 0.75, the multiplier would be 4. This means that for every dollar increase in spending, the total increase in income will be four times that amount.

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• 25.

### An increase in the marginal propensity to consume (MPC)

• A.

Raises the value of the multiplier

• B.

Lowers the value of the multiplier

• C.

Has no impact on the value of the multiplier

• D.

Rarely occurs because the MPC is set by congressional legislation

A. Raises the value of the multiplier
Explanation
An increase in the marginal propensity to consume (MPC) raises the value of the multiplier because the MPC represents the proportion of additional income that individuals choose to spend rather than save. When the MPC increases, it means that people are more likely to spend a larger portion of their income, leading to a higher multiplier effect. The multiplier effect refers to the phenomenon where an initial increase in spending creates a larger overall increase in economic output. Therefore, an increase in the MPC enhances this effect, resulting in a higher value for the multiplier.

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• 26.

### Suppose a wave of investor and consumer optimism has increased spending so that the current level of output exceeds the long-run natural rate. If policymakers choose to engage in activist stabilization policy, they should

• A.

Decrease taxes, which shifts aggregate demand to the right

• B.

Decrease taxes, which shifts aggregate demand to the left

• C.

Decrease government spending, which shifts aggregate demand to the right

• D.

Decrease government spending, which shifts aggregate demand to the left

D. Decrease government spending, which shifts aggregate demand to the left
Explanation
If the current level of output exceeds the long-run natural rate due to increased spending caused by investor and consumer optimism, policymakers should decrease government spending. This is because decreasing government spending will shift aggregate demand to the left, helping to reduce the level of output and bring it closer to the long-run natural rate. By reducing government spending, policymakers aim to counteract the increased spending and bring the economy back to a more sustainable level.

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• 27.

### When an increase in government purchases raises incomes, shifts money demand to the right, raises the interest rate, and lowers investment, we have seen a demonstration of

• A.

The multiplier effect

• B.

The investment accelerator

• C.

The crowding-out effect

• D.

Supply-side economics

• E.

None of the above

C. The crowding-out effect
Explanation
When an increase in government purchases raises incomes, it leads to an increase in money demand. This increase in money demand causes the interest rate to rise. As a result, investment decreases because higher interest rates make borrowing more expensive for businesses. This decrease in investment is known as the crowding-out effect, where government spending crowds out private investment. Therefore, the correct answer is the crowding-out effect.

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• 28.

### Which of the following statements regarding taxes is correct?

• A.

Most economists believe that, in the short run, the greatest impact of a change in taxes is on aggregate supply, not aggregate demand

• B.

A permanent change in taxes has a greater effect on aggregate demand than a temporary change in taxes

• C.

An increase in taxes shifts the aggregate-demand curve to the right

• D.

A decrease in taxes shifts the aggregate-supply curve to the left

B. A permanent change in taxes has a greater effect on aggregate demand than a temporary change in taxes
Explanation
A permanent change in taxes has a greater effect on aggregate demand than a temporary change in taxes. This is because a permanent change in taxes affects consumers' disposable income and their spending behavior in the long run. It can lead to a significant shift in aggregate demand as consumers may adjust their consumption patterns and make long-term decisions based on the new tax structure. On the other hand, a temporary change in taxes may have a more limited impact as consumers may not significantly alter their spending habits knowing that the tax change is only temporary.

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• 29.

### Suppose the government increases its purchases by \$16 billion. If the multiplier effect exceeds the crowding-out effect, then

• A.

The aggregate-supply curve shifts to the right by more than \$16 billion

• B.

The aggregate-supply curve shifts to the left by more than \$16 billion

• C.

The aggregate-demand curve shifts to the right by more than \$16 billion

• D.

The aggregate-demand curve shifts to the left by more than \$16 billion

C. The aggregate-demand curve shifts to the right by more than \$16 billion
Explanation
When the government increases its purchases by \$16 billion, it injects more money into the economy. This leads to an increase in aggregate demand as consumers and businesses have more money to spend. The multiplier effect refers to the idea that this increase in government spending will have a larger overall impact on the economy, as the money circulates and generates additional spending and income. The crowding-out effect, on the other hand, suggests that increased government spending may lead to higher interest rates, which can reduce private investment and offset some of the initial increase in aggregate demand. If the multiplier effect exceeds the crowding-out effect, it means that the increase in aggregate demand will be greater than the initial \$16 billion, causing the aggregate-demand curve to shift to the right by more than \$16 billion.

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• 30.

### When an increase in government purchases increases the income of some people, and those people spend some of that increase in income on additional consumer goods, we have seen a demonstration of

• A.

The multiplier effect

• B.

The investment accelerator

• C.

The crowding-out effect

• D.

Supply-side economics

• E.

None of the above

A. The multiplier effect
Explanation
The multiplier effect refers to the phenomenon where an increase in government purchases leads to an increase in income for some individuals, who then spend a portion of that additional income on consumer goods. This increased spending by individuals further stimulates the economy, leading to a multiplier effect on overall economic output. In other words, the initial increase in government purchases has a magnified impact on the economy through subsequent rounds of spending. This concept highlights the importance of government spending in stimulating economic growth and is a key principle in macroeconomics.

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• 31.

### When an increase in government purchases causes firms to purchase additional plant and equipment, we have seen a demonstration of

• A.

The multiplier effect

• B.

The investment accelerator

• C.

The crowding-out effect

• D.

Supply-side economics

• E.

None of the above

B. The investment accelerator
Explanation
The correct answer is the investment accelerator. This is because the investment accelerator theory states that an increase in government purchases leads to an increase in firms' purchases of plant and equipment. This is because when the government increases its spending, it creates a higher demand for goods and services, which in turn encourages firms to invest in additional production capacity to meet the increased demand. This demonstrates the concept of the investment accelerator, where changes in aggregate demand lead to changes in investment spending.

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• 32.

### Which of the following is an automatic stabilizer?

• A.

Military spending

• B.

Spending on public schools

• C.

Unemployment benefits

• D.

Spending on the space shuttle

• E.

All of the above are automatic stabilizers

C. Unemployment benefits
Explanation
Unemployment benefits are considered automatic stabilizers because they automatically increase during times of economic downturns. When there is a recession or high unemployment rates, more individuals become eligible for and receive unemployment benefits. This helps to stabilize the economy by providing income to those who have lost their jobs, which in turn boosts consumer spending and helps to stimulate economic growth.

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• 33.

### Which of the following statements about stabilization policy is true?

• A.

In the short run, a decision by the Fed to increase the targeted money supply is essentially the same as a decision to increase the targeted interest rate

• B.

Congress has veto power over the monetary policy decisions by the Fed

• C.

Long lags enhance the ability of policymakers to "fine-tune" the economy

• D.

Many economists prefer automatic stabilizers because they affect the economy with a shorter lab than activist stabilization policy

• E.

All of the above are true

D. Many economists prefer automatic stabilizers because they affect the economy with a shorter lab than activist stabilization policy
• 34.

### Which of the following best describes how an increase in the money supply shifts aggregate demand?

• A.

The money supply shifts right, the interest rate rises, investment decreases, and aggregate demand shifts left

• B.

The money supply shifts right, the interest rate falls, investment increases, and aggregate demand shifts right

• C.

The money supply shifts right, prices rise, spending falls, and aggregate demand shifts left

• D.

The money supply shifts right, prices fall, spending increases, and aggregate demand shifts right Back to top