Linux LPI 117-101 # 2 Of 9

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Linux lpi testing


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Type in the file name and full path of the configuration file where you would set the variable HISTSIZE for all users of the system.

    Explanation
    Explanation: /etc/profile is the global login scripts, parsed by all users with
    Borune-style shells including bash and sh. Usually used to set the default path,
    values assign on variable, startup program execution.
    Sample /etc/profile Configuration
    # /etc/profile
    # System wide environment and startup programs, for login setup
    # Functions and aliases go in /etc/bashrc
    pathmunge () {
    if ! echo $PATH | /bin/egrep -q "(^|:)$1($|:)" ; then
    if [ "$2" = "after" ] ; then
    PATH=$PATH:$1
    else
    PATH=$1:$PATH
    fi
    fi
    }
    # Path manipulation
    if [ `id -u` = 0 ]; then
    pathmunge /sbin
    pathmunge /usr/sbin
    pathmunge /usr/local/sbin
    fi
    pathmunge /usr/X11R6/bin after
    # No core files by default
    ulimit -S -c 0 > /dev/null 2>&1
    USER="`id -un`"
    LOGNAME=$USER
    MAIL="/var/spool/mail/$USER"
    HOSTNAME=`/bin/hostname`
    HISTSIZE=1000
    if [ -z "$INPUTRC" -a ! -f "$HOME/.inputrc" ]; then
    INPUTRC=/etc/inputrc
    fi
    export PATH USER LOGNAME MAIL HOSTNAME HISTSIZE INPUTRC
    for i in /etc/profile.d/*.sh ; do
    if [ -r "$i" ]; then
    . $i
    fi
    done
    unset i
    unset pathmunge

    Rate this question:

  • 2. 

    Type only the name of the file or utility that will show you the last system bootup messages.

    Explanation
    dmesg command helps users to print out their bootup messages.

    Rate this question:

  • 3. 

    What does the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard enable? (Select TWO answers)

    • A.

      Software to predict the location of installed files and directories

    • B.

      Software to predict the ownership and access rights of installed files and directories

    • C.

      Users to predict the location of installed files and directories.

    • D.

      Users to predict how the filesystem should be formatted according to need.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Software to predict the location of installed files and directories
    C. Users to predict the location of installed files and directories.
    Explanation
    This standard enables:

    1. Software to predict the location of installed files and directories, and

    2. Users to predict the location of installed files and directories.

    This is done by:

    1. Specifying guiding principles for each area of the filesystem,

    2. Specifying the minimum files and directories required,

    3. Enumerating exceptions to the principles, and

    4. Enumerating specific cases where there has been historical conflict.

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  • 4. 

    You have a machine which serves 100 users. You don't want to include their data in the location database. Where would you specify excluded directories for locate?  

    • A.

      /etc/locate.conf

    • B.

      .locaterc

    • C.

      /etc/updatedb.conf

    • D.

      /etc/exclude_dir

    Correct Answer
    D. /etc/exclude_dir
    Explanation
    In order to specify excluded directories for the locate command, you would need to specify them in the /etc/exclude_dir file. This file allows you to list directories that you do not want to include in the locate database. By adding the directories to this file, the locate command will skip indexing those directories and their contents.

    Rate this question:

  • 5. 

    Identify the proper device for the third partition, on the second hard disk, on the first IDE controller on a PC system.

    • A.

      /dev/hdb3

    • B.

      /dev/hd1b3

    • C.

      /dev/hdc1b3

    • D.

      /dev/hdc1d2p3

    Correct Answer
    A. /dev/hdb3
    Explanation
    Harddisk Recognization
    Primary Master /dev/hda
    Primary Slave /dev/hdb
    Secondary Master /dev/hdc
    Secondary Slave /dev/hdd
    According To question, Device name is /dev/hdb and paratition number is 3.
    /dev/hdb3

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  • 6. 

    You have just upgraded your PC to a 60 gigabyte IDE drive. While partitioning thedrive, you notice that only 32 gigabytes are available. Which of the following willmost likely allow you to use the entire drive?

    • A.

      Create two smaller partitions of 30 gigabytes each.

    • B.

      Set the PC BIOS to use LBA mode.

    • C.

      Create a partition that resides entirely below the first 1024 cylinders.

    • D.

      Use GRUB or the latest version of LILO as a bootloader.

    • E.

      Upgrade the PC BIOS to the latest version available.

    Correct Answer
    E. Upgrade the PC BIOS to the latest version available.
    Explanation
    Not being able to use new, big harddrives is usually connected to the
    BIOS in the computer.

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  • 7. 

    On an ext2 partition, what portion is reserved for the root user?  

    • A.

      100 cylinders

    • B.

      No less than 500 blocks

    • C.

      None

    • D.

      5%

    • E.

      1/32nd of the total space

    Correct Answer
    D. 5%
    Explanation
    Specify the percentage of the filesystem blocks reserved for the super-user. This value defaults to 5%. If you want to change the percentage for super user: mke2fs -m percentage partition

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  • 8. 

    You have a Linux system with a 100GB ext2 partition containing large amounts of data. To minimize the boot time, you decide to convert it to a journaling filesystem. Which journaling file system would be easiest to convert the partition to (without destroying existing data)?

    • A.

      Reiserfs

    • B.

      Vfat

    • C.

      Ext3

    • D.

      Xfs

    Correct Answer
    C. Ext3
    Explanation
    The easiest journaling file system to convert the ext2 partition to without destroying existing data would be ext3. Ext3 is a journaling file system that is backward compatible with ext2, meaning it can be easily converted from ext2 without losing any data. It provides the benefits of journaling, which helps improve system reliability and recovery in case of power failures or system crashes.

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  • 9. 

        Tamika is planning the partition table for her new workstation. Assuming she will    give each of the following directories its own partition, which partition should be the    largest?   

    • A.

      /usr

    • B.

      /lib

    • C.

      /root

    • D.

      /bin

    Correct Answer
    A. /usr
    Explanation
    When we install, most of the user's commands, administrative commands and
    applications are installed on /usr by creating sub directories ie /usr/bin, /usr/sbin. So we
    required more space then other partitions.

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  • 10. 

      You have run out of disk space on a partition. Which of the following would be an  easy way to move data to a new partition without reconfiguring the path to the data  in existing applications? 

    • A.

      Run ext2fs ACL.

    • B.

      Use a hard link.

    • C.

      Use a symbolic link.

    • D.

      Use the loopback device.

    • E.

      Create a block device offset.

    Correct Answer
    C. Use a symbolic link.
    Explanation
    A Symbolic link points to another file and the contents of link file is referenced file. So, symbolic linked file occupied the very less space the original file.

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  • 11. 

    To build a fresh new Linux system, how much free space should you reserve for theLinux partition?

    • A.

      100 - 200MB

    • B.

      200 - 300MB

    • C.

      300 - 400MB

    • D.

      700 - 800MB

    Correct Answer
    D. 700 - 800MB
    Explanation
    According to the technical information available at Linux From Scratch Ver 3.0, Before we can build our new Linux system, we need to have an
    empty Linux partition on which we can build our new system. I recommend a partition size of at least 750 MB. This gives enough space to store all the tarballs
    and to compile all packages without worrying about running out of the necessary
    temporary disk space. But you probably want more space than that if you plan to
    use the LFS system as your primary Linux system.

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  • 12. 

    Which directory is used to store undelivered user email by default?

    • A.

      /var/spool/sendmail/usermail

    • B.

      /var/spool/mail

    • C.

      /var/spool/mailqueue

    • D.

      /var/spool/sendmail/username

    • E.

      /var/mail/sendmail/username

    Correct Answer
    B. /var/spool/mail
    Explanation
    The /var/spool/mail directory contains the spooling mail. Under
    /var/mail/spool file with same as username are here, which contains the user's spooling mail.

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  • 13. 

    What would be the device name of the 2nd SCSI disk on your system? Include thefull path to the device file

    Correct Answer
    /dev/sdb
    Explanation
    First SCSI disk device is filename is /dev/sda and second /dev/sdb.

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  • 14. 

    What is the device file for the first logical drive in the extended partition of theSecondary Master IDE drive? Include the full path and filename.

    Correct Answer
    /dev/hdc5
    Explanation
    Harddisk Recognization
    Primary Master /dev/hda
    Primary Slave /dev/hdb
    Secondary Master /dev/hdc
    Secondary Slave /dev/hdd
    According To QUESTION, drive is secondary master, then device name is /dev/hdc and
    Logical partition start from 5.
    So /dev/hdc5

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following directories would be the least likely to need backing up?Choose Two.

    • A.

      /usr

    • B.

      /etc

    • C.

      /home

    • D.

      /tmp

    • E.

      /swap

    Correct Answer(s)
    D. /tmp
    E. /swap
    Explanation
    Backup and Restore depends on the importance of data, the /usr, /etc,
    /home contains the importance data then /tmp and /swap. /usr/bin, /bin contains all
    user commands, /usr/sbin, /sbin contains the administrative commands, /etc/
    contains the configuration files. So these directory contains the important files.

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  • 16. 

    With a Linux 2.2 Kernel-based machine configuration of 133 MHZ, 32 MB RAMand a 1 GB HD, how much swap should be configured?

    • A.

      512MB

    • B.

      256MB

    • C.

      128MB

    • D.

      64MB

    • E.

      32MB

    Correct Answer
    D. 64MB
    Explanation
    Swap also called the virtual memory, we should give the swap space as
    double of RAM size.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following file system types causes the least impact when upgrading anExt2 file system? 

    • A.

      Ext3

    • B.

      ReiserFS

    • C.

      JFS

    • D.

      XFS

    • E.

      VFS

    Correct Answer
    A. Ext3
    Explanation
    What are the advantages of ext3?
    Why do you want to migrate from ext2 to ext3? Four main reasons: availability, data
    integrity, speed, and easy transition.
    Availability
    After an unclean system shutdown (unexpected power failure, system crash), each ext2
    file system cannot be mounted until its consistency has been checked by the e2fsck
    program. The amount of time that the e2fsck program takes is determined primarily by
    the size of the file system, and for today's relatively large (many tens of gigabytes) file
    systems, this takes a long time. Also, the more files you have on the file system, the
    longer the consistency check takes. File systems that are several hundreds of gigabytes in
    size may take an hour or more to check. This severely limits availability.
    By contrast, ext3 does not require a file system check, even after an unclean system
    shutdown, except for certain rare hardware failure cases (e.g. hard drive failures). This is
    because the data is written to disk in such a way that the file system is always consistent.
    The time to recover an ext3 file system after an unclean system shutdown does not
    depend on the size of the file system or the number of files; rather, it depends on the size
    of the "journal" used to maintain consistency. The default journal size takes about a
    second to recover (depending on the speed of the hardware).
    Data Integrity
    Using the ext3 file system can provide stronger guarantees about data integrity in case of
    an unclean system shutdown. You choose the type and level of protection that your data
    receives. You can choose to keep the file system consistent, but allow for damage to data
    on the file system in the case of unclean system shutdown; this can give a modest speed
    up under some but not all circumstances. Alternatively, you can choose to ensure that the
    data is consistent with the state of the file system; this means that you will never see
    garbage data in recently-written files after a crash. The safe choice, keeping the data
    consistent with the state of the file system, is the default.
    Speed
    Despite writing some data more than once, ext3 is often faster (higher throughput) than
    ext2 because ext3's journaling optimizes hard drive head motion. You can choose from
    three journaling modes to optimize speed, optionally choosing to trade off some data
    integrity.
    1. One mode, data=writeback, limits the data integrity guarantees, allowing old data to
    show up in files after a crash, for a potential increase in speed under some circumstances.
    (This mode, which is the default journaling mode for most journaling file systems,
    essentially provides the more limited data integrity guarantees of the ext2 file system and
    merely avoids the long file system check at boot time.)
    2. The second mode, data=ordered (the default mode), guarantees that the data is
    consistent with the file system; recently-written files will never show up with garbage
    contents after a crash.
    3. The last mode,
    data=journal, requires a larger journal for reasonable speed in most cases and therefore
    takes longer to recover in case of unclean shutdown, but is sometimes faster for certain
    database operations.
    The default mode is recommended for general-purpose computing needs. To change the
    mode, add the data=something option to the mount options for that file system in the
    /etc/fstab file, as documented in the mount man page (man mount).
    Easy Transition
    It is easy to change from ext2 to ext3 and gain the benefits of a robust journaling file
    system, without reformatting. That's right, there is no need to do a long, tedious, and
    error-prone backup-reformat-restore operation in order to experience the advantages of
    ext3. There are two ways to perform the transition:
    1. The Red Hat Linux installation program offers to transition your file systems when
    you upgrade your system. All you have to do is select one checkbox per file system.
    The tune2fs program can add a journal to an existing ext2 file system. If the file system is
    already mounted while it is being transitioned, the journal will be visible as the file
    .journal in the root directory of the file system. If the file system is not mounted, the
    journal will be hidden and will not appear in the file system. Just run tune2fs -j /dev/hda1
    (or whatever device holds the file system you are transitioning) and change ext2 to ext3
    on the matching lines in /etc/fstab. If you are transitioning your root file system, you will
    have to use an initrd to boot. Run the mkinitrd program as described in the manual and
    make sure that your LILO or GRUB configuration loads the initrd. (If you fail to make
    that change, the system will still boot, but the root file system will be mounted as ext2
    instead of ext3 - you can tell this by looking at the output of the command cat
    /proc/mounts.) More information on tune2fs can be found in the tune2fs man page (man
    tune2fs).

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  • 18. 

    According to the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard, what directory trees areconsidered optional on a system's root filesystem? Choose all that apply.          

    • A.

      /mnt

    • B.

      /root

    • C.

      /usr

    • D.

      /var

    • E.

      /opt

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. /usr
    D. /var
    E. /opt
    Explanation
    Optional root filesystem means these filesystem can be separate from the root. Like
    /var, /usr, /opt, /home, /tmp etc filesystem can create in separate partaions but some
    filesystem can't separate from the / (root) filesysteme eg, /lib, /dev/, /etc/, /sbin, /bin
    and /.

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  • 19. 

    When partitioning a disk with more than 1024 cylinders, which of the followingcould affect the systems ability to boot?

    • A.

      Location of LILO on disk

    • B.

      Location of /boot on disk

    • C.

      Location /var on disk

    • D.

      Disk transfer rate

    • E.

      Disk seek time

    Correct Answer
    B. Location of /boot on disk
    Explanation
    If size to boot partitions assigns after the 1024 cylinder then, lilo boot
    loader unable to load the kernel so it effects to boot partaiton. If you are using the
    LILO boot loader boot partitions should be within 1024 cylinder.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is a typical rule for allocating swap space for a Linuxinstallation?

    • A.

      Use 25% of available drive space for a swap partition.

    • B.

      Use 10% of available drive space for a swap partition.

    • C.

      Use 50% of total RAM for the size of a swap partition.

    • D.

      Use 200% of total RAM for the size of a swap partition.

    • E.

      Use 128MB on each hard disk in the system for swap.

    Correct Answer
    D. Use 200% of total RAM for the size of a swap partition.
    Explanation
    The Convention for swap partition is Double of Physical RAM size.

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  • 21. 

    You are building a server that will undergo many hardware and operating systemupgrades. The server is the file server for all users on your 100 user network.Which directory should have its own mountpoint and/or hard drive?

    • A.

      /boot

    • B.

      /sbin

    • C.

      /home

    • D.

      /etc

    Correct Answer
    C. /home
    Explanation
    /home is called typical user's home directory. All user's home directory will be created on /home. So, it should own mount point.

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  • 22. 

    You are formatting a single hard disk for a Linux install. What is the maximumnumber of primary partitions you can create?                                                                   

    • A.

      0

    • B.

      1

    • C.

      2

    • D.

      3

    • E.

      4

    Correct Answer
    E. 4
    Explanation
    Generally in one System we can connect four Physical Harddisks. As a
    Primary Master, Primary Slave, Secondary Master, Secondary Slave.
    In One System: Either four Primary partitions or 1 Primary or 2 Primary or 3 Primary + 1
    extended and all logical partitions will be create under extended partations.
    Hardisk device recognized as follows
    Primary Master : /dev/hda
    Primary Slave : /dev/hdb
    Secondary Master : /dev/hdc
    Secondary Slave : /dev/hdd
    Suppose you have only single harddisk and going to install Linux, Maximum you can
    create 4 primary partitions. If you create four primary partitions you can't create extended
    partitions that mean no logical partitions can create.

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  • 23. 

    In GRUB's configuration file you find the line root (hd1, 4)What is corresponding device name on a Linux system?

    • A.

      /dev/hda4

    • B.

      /dev/hda5

    • C.

      /dev/hdb4

    • D.

      /dev/hdb5

    Correct Answer
    D. /dev/hdb5
    Explanation
    hd0 Primary Master hda
    hd1 Primary Slave hdb
    hd2 Secondary Master hdc
    hd3 Secondary Slave hdd
    Similarly partition number starts from 0 like array index in programming.

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  • 24. 

    When you are looking for brief information about a program in your PATH with itsassociated man pages, you would use ...

    • A.

      Which

    • B.

      Whereis

    • C.

      Locate

    • D.

      Where

    Correct Answer
    B. Whereis
    Explanation
    Whereis - locate the binary, source, and manual page files for a
    command
    Syntax: whereis [options] command
    Options:
    -b à Search only for binaries
    -m à Search only for manual section
    -s à Search only for sources.

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  • 25. 

    Select the default $PATH set by the init command

    • A.

      /bin:/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/etc:/usr/etc

    • B.

      /usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/opt/bin:/bin:/sbin

    • C.

      /usr/local/sbin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin

    • D.

      /bin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin

    Correct Answer
    C. /usr/local/sbin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin
    Explanation
    To display the default set path use echo $PATH command.

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  • 26. 

    Which TWO commands will find the path for the binary vim?

    • A.

      Man vim

    • B.

      Whereis vim

    • C.

      Apropos vim

    • D.

      Which vim

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Whereis vim
    D. Which vim
    Explanation
    which and whereis command displays the executable path of
    commands. Example: which clearàShows actually where clear is stored similarly
    whereis clear.

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  • 27. 

    You want to uninstall lilo. Which of the following would you do to accomplish this?

    • A.

      Lilo -u

    • B.

      Remove lilo

    • C.

      Uninstall lilo

    • D.

      Lilo -r

    Correct Answer
    A. Lilo -u
    Explanation
    Using lilo command we can install the lilo boot loader on MBR. To uninstall lilo bootloader from MBR use the lilo -u command.

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  • 28. 

    You want to set a 30 second delay before your system boots to the default kernel.Which of the following command lines would do this?

    • A.

      Lilo -t 30

    • B.

      Lilo -d 30

    • C.

      Lilo delay 30

    • D.

      Lilo 30

    Correct Answer
    B. Lilo -d 30
    Explanation
    -d delay
    If you have specified several kernels, and press Shift at boot time, the boot loader will
    present you with a choice of which system to boot. After a timeout period the first kernel
    in the list is booted. This option specifies the timeout delay in deciseconds.
    Sample Configuration of /etc/lilo.conf
    prompt
    timeout=20
    default=linux
    boot=/dev/hda
    map=/boot/map
    install=/boot/boot.b
    message=/boot/message
    linear
    image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.9-5.EL
    label=linux
    initrd=/boot/initrd-2.6.9-5.EL.img
    read-only
    append="rhgb quiet root=LABEL=/"

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  • 29. 

    Which lilo.conf parameter will specify the amount of time the system will waitbefore booting to the default image?

    • A.

      Wait

    • B.

      Delay

    • C.

      Pause

    • D.

      Default

    Correct Answer
    B. Delay
    Explanation
    -d delay
    If you have specified several kernels, and press Shift at boot time, the boot loader will
    present you with a choice of which system to boot. After a timeout period the first kernel
    in the list is booted. This option specifies the timeout delay in deciseconds.
    Example: lilo -d 50

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  • 30. 

    What lilo option will list the name and location of available kernels?         

    • A.

      -q

    • B.

      -k

    • C.

      -v

    • D.

      -l

    Correct Answer
    A. -q
    Explanation
    -q List the currently mapped files. lilo maintains a file, by default /boot/map, containing
    the name and location of the kernel(s) to boot. This option will list the names therein.
    Example: lilo -q

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  • 31. 

    What lilo.conf parameter is used to specify vga text mode?        

    • A.

      Vgatext

    • B.

      Svga

    • C.

      Vga

    • D.

      Vtm

    Correct Answer
    C. Vga
    Explanation
    vga=mode
    This specifies the VGA text mode that should be selected when booting. The following
    values are recognized (case is ignored):
    normal: select normal 80x25 text mode.
    extended (or ext): select 80x50 text mode.
    ask: stop and ask for user input (at boot time).
    : use the corresponding text mode. A list of available
    modes can be obtained by booting with vga=ask and pressing
    [Enter].

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  • 32. 

    You want to set a script to run when your Linux system reboots. What lilo option should you use?      

    • A.

      -R

    • B.

      -S

    • C.

      -T

    • D.

      -L

    Correct Answer
    A. -R
    Explanation
    -R command line
    This option sets the default command for the boot loader the next time it executes. The
    boot loader will then erase this line: this is a once-only command. It is typically used in
    reboot scripts, just before calling shutdown -ra.

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  • 33. 

    You have a system that uses LILO from the Master Boot Record. You have justrecompiled a new kernel. You already have a backup kernel setup to boot fromLILO so you overwrite your existing kernel with new kernel image using the samename and location. When you reboot, you find the system does not boot.What is likely to be the problem?        

    • A.

      The new kernel image is above the 1024 cylinder and therefore cannot be loaded.

    • B.

      You did not update your /etc/lilo.conf file to boot the new kernel.

    • C.

      You need to boot the new kernel with a boot floppy to restore the old kernel.

    • D.

      You reboot before re-installing LILO in the Master Boot Record.

    Correct Answer
    A. The new kernel image is above the 1024 cylinder and therefore cannot be loaded.
    Explanation
    Lilo boot loader can't load the OS installed above 1024 cylinder so we can use linear option in /etc/lilo.conf file.

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  • 34. 

    Where can lilo place boot code?          

    • A.

      The boot ROM

    • B.

      The boot RAM

    • C.

      The /boot partition

    • D.

      The MBR on a hard drive

    Correct Answer
    D. The MBR on a hard drive
    Explanation
    lilo command installs the bootloader on MBR (Master Boot Record) and activated on next boot time.

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  • 35. 

    From the LILO: or Boot: prompt you wish to start the kernel named linux and setthe machine at run level 1. Type the command line to do this?         

    Correct Answer
    linux 1
    linux s
    linux S
    linux single
    Explanation
    Standard Runlevel
    0 - halt
    1 or s or single or S- Single user mode
    2 - Multiuser, without NFS (The same as 3, if you do not have networking)
    3 - Full multiuser mode
    4 - unused
    5 - X11
    6 - reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
    To boot the kernel parameter from lilo bootloader, press ctrl+x and then kernel name runlevel. Example to boot linux system on runlevel 3: linux 3

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  • 36. 

    What lilo.conf parameter will cause the root file system to be mounted read only?         

    • A.

      No-write

    • B.

      Read

    • C.

      No-right

    • D.

      Read-only

    Correct Answer
    D. Read-only
    Explanation
    Here is the sample Configuration
    prompt
    timeout=20
    default=linux
    boot=/dev/hda
    map=/boot/map
    install=/boot/boot.b
    message=/boot/message
    linear
    image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.9-5.EL
    label=linux
    initrd=/boot/initrd-2.6.9-5.EL.img
    read-only à Mounts the root filesystem on read only mode
    append="rhgb quiet root=LABEL=/"

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  • 37. 

    What lilo.conf parameter is used to specify what device should be mounted as rootby default?

    • A.

      Root

    • B.

      Drive

    • C.

      Mntroot

    • D.

      Mount

    Correct Answer
    A. Root
    Explanation
    Here is the sample Configuration
    prompt
    timeout=20
    default=linux
    boot=/dev/hda
    map=/boot/map
    install=/boot/boot.b
    message=/boot/message
    linear
    image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.9-5.EL
    label=linux
    initrd=/boot/initrd-2.6.9-5.EL.img
    read-only
    append="rhgb quiet root=LABEL=/" à Here specifying the root partation

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  • 38. 

     While troubleshooting a boot issue you wish to know exactly what parameters are passed to the kernel from your bootloader. One way to do this is to execute cat /proc/__________         

    Correct Answer
    Explanation
    The Linux /proc Directory is a Virtual Filesystem provided by linux kernel. /proc
    contains files and directories that let system administrators and programmers access
    system information.
    If you misconfigured the bootloader, you can't load the Linux. We have different Boot
    loader like lilo, grub etc. If you try to load the Linux using misconfigured bootloader you


    will get kernel panic, no init found or Kernel Panic - Not Suyncing: Attempt to kill init
    etc Error. At this time you can boot the system by passing different parameters from the
    bootloader. If you are using LILO bootloader press ctrl+x, If you are using grub, press a
    or e and edit or pass the different parameter.
    Before passing kernel parameter, you should know what to pass, the file /proc/cmdline
    contains the parameter can pass from bootloader.
    For Grub
    Contains of /proc/cmdline
    ro root=LABEL=/ rhgb queit
    or
    /proc/cmdline
    ro root=/dev/hda2
    This file shows the parameters passed to the kernel at the time it is started.This tells us
    that the kernel is mounted read-only (signi_ed by (ro)) off of the second partition on the
    first IDE device (/dev/hda2).
    For LILO
    BOOT_IMAGE=linux ro BOOT_FILE=/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.9-5.EL rhgb quiet
    root=LABEL=/1

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  • 39. 

    What run level represents basic multi-user?           

    • A.

      2

    • B.

      0

    • C.

      1

    • D.

      5

    Correct Answer
    A. 2
    Explanation
    0 - halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
    1 - Single user mode
    2 - Multiuser, without NFS (The same as 3, if you do not have networking)
    3 - Full multiuser mode
    4 - unused
    5 - X11
    6 - reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
    Runlevel 2 is called the multi user without NFS ( Not Networking services available).

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  • 40. 

    What run level represents multi-user?      

    • A.

      3

    • B.

      0

    • C.

      1

    • D.

      5

    Correct Answer
    A. 3
    Explanation
    Explanation:
    0 - halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
    1 - Single user mode
    2 - Multiuser, without NFS (The same as 3, if you do not have networking)
    3 - Full multiuser mode
    4 - unused
    5 - X11
    6 - reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this)
    Runlevel 3 is called full multi user and Runelvel 5 is called X Window System

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following can be used to switch your system to run level 3?         

    • A.

      Init 3

    • B.

      Rlevel 3

    • C.

      Level 3

    • D.

      Inittab 3

    Correct Answer
    A. Init 3
    Explanation
    System boots in Default Runlevel defined in /etc/inittab file.
    id:3:initdefault:
    After booting the system we can switch from one runlevel to another by using the init
    runlevel command.

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  • 42. 

    What run level represents a system reboot?                                      

    • A.

      6

    • B.

      1

    • C.

      2

    • D.

      5

    Correct Answer
    A. 6
    Explanation
    Runlevel 6 is called reboot. To switch runlevel 6: init 6

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  • 43. 

    What run level represents a power down?

    • A.

      5

    • B.

      0

    • C.

      1

    • D.

      4

    Correct Answer
    B. 0
    Explanation
    Runlevel 0 is called Halt
    To switch runlevel 0:
    init 0

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  • 44. 

    What run level represents administration mode?

    • A.

      0

    • B.

      1

    • C.

      6

    • D.

      5

    Correct Answer
    B. 1
    Explanation
    Single user mode is used for Troubleshooting and maintenance of System boot problem. So, s or S or single or 1 runlevel is called the administration mode.

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  • 45. 

     Which of the following can be used to switch your system to run level 1?    

    • A.

      Init 1

    • B.

      Inittab 1

    • C.

      Rlevel 1

    • D.

      Level 1

    Correct Answer
    A. Init 1
    Explanation
    System boots in Default Runlevel defined in /etc/inittab file.
    id:3:initdefault:
    After booting the system we can switch from one runlevel to another by using the init
    runlevel command.

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  • 46. 

    What command can be used to find the current run level?          

    • A.

      Runlevel

    • B.

      Level

    • C.

      Show level

    • D.

      Rlevel

    Correct Answer
    A. Runlevel
    Explanation
    runlevel -- find the current and previous system runlevel.
    It means currently system running on runlevel 3 and not switched to any runlevel.

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  • 47. 

    What line do you need to add to the /etc/inittab file to boot in runlevel 5?

    Correct Answer
    id:5:initdefault:
    Explanation
    To boot the system in runlevel 5 we should specify the id:5:initdefault:
    in /etc/inittab file. By passing kernel arguments from boot loader we can override
    the specified runlevel in /etc/inittab. If default runlevel is not specified, system boots
    on runlevel 9(unknown runlevel).

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  • 48. 

    Linux is a(n) _________ operating system, meaning the source code is freely  available.

    • A.

      Open sourced

    • B.

      User licensed

    • C.

      Closed source

    • D.

      Open binary

    Correct Answer
    A. Open sourced
    Explanation
    Open source software is that software, which is freely available to
    download from the Internet with source code and no restriction to modify,
    redistribute the software. So, Linux is the Open source OS.

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  • 49. 

    You have compiled a program from source successfully, but you are gettingpermission errors when you try to install the binaries.What is most likely the problem?

    • A.

      Both rpm and dpkg need to be run as root.

    • B.

      You have the wrong permissions set on the /usr/bin directory.

    • C.

      The wrong prefix was used during the configuration or was not properly defined for the compile stage.

    • D.

      The binaries need to be installed into directories that need root privileges to write to them.

    Correct Answer
    D. The binaries need to be installed into directories that need root privileges to write to them.
    Explanation
    when we install the binaries files, it creates the files, directories into the directory. To write the files or directories, there should be the write permission.
    Before examine the Directory permission.
    ls -ld directoryname
    drwxr-xr-x

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  • 50. 

    Which utility would be used to verify the checksum of a downloaded archive file?

    • A.

      Verify

    • B.

      Chksum

    • C.

      Md5sum

    • D.

      Chkrpm

    • E.

      Pkgchk

    Correct Answer
    C. Md5sum
    Explanation
    md5sum - compute and check MD5 message digest.

    Rate this question:

Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jan 29, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Tobyyy
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