Leedy & Ormrod Ch 2

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Leedy & Ormrod Ch 2 - Quiz

Chapter 2 Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A ______ is a specific mechanism or strategy the researcher uses to collect, manipulate, or interpret data.

    • A.

      Research tool

    • B.

      Research methodology

    • C.

      Statistical test

    • D.

      Theory

    Correct Answer
    A. Research tool
    Explanation
    A research tool refers to a specific mechanism or strategy that a researcher uses to collect, manipulate, or interpret data. It can be a questionnaire, survey, interview guide, observation protocol, or any other instrument that aids in the data collection and analysis process. Research tools are essential for gathering reliable and valid data, and they help researchers to effectively investigate their research questions or hypotheses.

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  • 2. 

    Research methodology refers to:

    • A.

      The general approach the researcher takes to conducting a research project.

    • B.

      A specific device the researcher uses to collect data.

    • C.

      The specific theoretical basis of the research project.

    • D.

      The statistical tests to be employed in a research project.

    Correct Answer
    A. The general approach the researcher takes to conducting a research project.
    Explanation
    Research methodology refers to the general approach the researcher takes to conducting a research project. This includes the overall strategy, design, and techniques used to gather and analyze data. It involves making decisions about the research design, sampling methods, data collection procedures, and data analysis techniques. The research methodology provides a framework for the entire research process and helps ensure that the study is conducted in a systematic and rigorous manner.

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  • 3. 

    Sam wants to find high-quality research reports related to attribution theory that have been published in professional journals.  Sam’s best approach would be to:

    • A.

      Consult the library catalog.

    • B.

      Consult an online or electronic database.

    • C.

      Search the World Wide Web.

    • D.

      Browse the shelves in the library.

    Correct Answer
    B. Consult an online or electronic database.
    Explanation
    Sam's best approach would be to consult an online or electronic database because these databases are specifically designed to provide access to high-quality research reports published in professional journals. They allow for targeted searches using keywords and filters, making it easier to find relevant information on attribution theory. Additionally, online databases often provide full-text access to articles, saving time and effort compared to browsing the shelves in the library or searching the World Wide Web, where the quality and relevance of the sources may vary.

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  • 4. 

    Sonya is a college freshman who has just been assigned her first research paper, and she doesn’t know how to get started finding information.  Sonya should:

    • A.

      Search the World Wide Web.

    • B.

      Consult an online or electronic database.

    • C.

      Consult a reference librarian.

    • D.

      Browse the shelves in the library.

    Correct Answer
    C. Consult a reference librarian.
    Explanation
    Sonya, as a college freshman, may not be familiar with the research process and may not know where to start. Consulting a reference librarian would be the best option in this situation because librarians are trained to assist with research and can provide guidance on how to find relevant and reliable information. They can help Sonya navigate through the library's resources, suggest appropriate databases or sources, and teach her how to effectively search for information. This personal assistance would be more beneficial than searching the web, browsing library shelves, or using online databases, especially for someone who is new to research.

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  • 5. 

    ______ allows a researcher to receive news in an area of special interest and discuss that news with others.

    • A.

      A search engine

    • B.

      E-mail

    • C.

      A list server

    • D.

      A Web browser

    Correct Answer
    C. A list server
    Explanation
    A list server allows a researcher to receive news in an area of special interest and discuss that news with others. A list server is a software program that manages email discussion lists, where individuals can subscribe to receive emails related to a specific topic. This allows researchers to stay updated on news relevant to their field of interest and engage in discussions with other like-minded individuals. Unlike a search engine, email, or web browser, a list server specifically caters to facilitating communication and information sharing within a specific community or interest group.

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  • 6. 

    ______ allows researchers to personally correspond practically instantly with other users around the world.

    • A.

      A search engine

    • B.

      E-mail

    • C.

      A list server

    • D.

      A Web browser

    Correct Answer
    B. E-mail
    Explanation
    E-mail allows researchers to personally correspond practically instantly with other users around the world. It is a communication tool that enables sending and receiving messages electronically, making it efficient and convenient for researchers to connect and exchange information with others globally. Unlike search engines, list servers, or web browsers, which serve different purposes, e-mail specifically facilitates direct communication between individuals or groups, making it the most suitable option for this scenario.

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  • 7. 

    John wants to begin using e-mail.  Which of the following steps is NOT necessary for John to get started as an email user?

    • A.

      Request an e-mail account

    • B.

      Obtain necessary software from the e-mail provider and load it onto a computer

    • C.

      Learn to use a Web browser to explore the Internet

    • D.

      Learn how to access and use the e-mail provider’s services

    Correct Answer
    C. Learn to use a Web browser to explore the Internet
    Explanation
    Learning to use a web browser to explore the internet is not necessary for John to get started as an email user. While a web browser is commonly used to access email services, there are alternative methods such as using email client software or mobile apps that do not require a web browser. Therefore, this step is not essential for John to begin using email.

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  • 8. 

    Three of the following statements about measurement in the research setting are accurate.  Which one is NOT accurate?

    • A.

      The purpose of measurement is to systematically limit the data in a way that makes it quantifiable.

    • B.

      Measurement is applied by researchers only to insubstantial phenomena.

    • C.

      Measurement is a tool that aids researchers in interpreting their observations.

    • D.

      Systematic measurement assists researchers in obtaining objectivity in their researcher.

    Correct Answer
    B. Measurement is applied by researchers only to insubstantial phenomena.
    Explanation
    Measurement is not limited to insubstantial phenomena but can be applied to both substantial and insubstantial phenomena. Measurement is a tool used by researchers to quantify data and make it more manageable and interpretable. It helps researchers obtain objectivity in their research by providing a systematic approach to collecting and analyzing data.

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  • 9. 

    An ordinal scale of measurement:

    • A.

      Assigns a name to a category.

    • B.

      Is tied to an absolute zero.

    • C.

      Incorporates equal units of measurement.

    • D.

      Communicates greater than and less than relationships.

    Correct Answer
    D. Communicates greater than and less than relationships.
    Explanation
    An ordinal scale of measurement communicates greater than and less than relationships. This means that the categories or values on the scale can be ranked or ordered in terms of their magnitude or value. However, the scale does not provide information about the exact amount of difference between the categories or values, nor does it have a fixed zero point or equal units of measurement.

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  • 10. 

    An interval level of measurement:

    • A.

      Assigns a name to a category.

    • B.

      Communicates rank-order information.

    • C.

      Incorporates equal units of measurement.

    • D.

      Is tied to an absolute zero.

    Correct Answer
    C. Incorporates equal units of measurement.
    Explanation
    An interval level of measurement incorporates equal units of measurement, meaning that the intervals between values are equal and can be compared. This level of measurement allows for meaningful mathematical operations such as addition and subtraction. However, it does not have a true zero point or absolute zero.

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  • 11. 

    A ratio scale of measurement:

    • A.

      Assigns a name to a category.

    • B.

      Communicates rank-order information.

    • C.

      Is especially appropriate for opinion data.

    • D.

      Is tied to an absolute zero.

    Correct Answer
    D. Is tied to an absolute zero.
    Explanation
    A ratio scale of measurement is tied to an absolute zero. This means that it not only allows for the comparison of values and the establishment of rank-order information, but it also has a true zero point. This zero point represents the absence of the measured attribute, allowing for meaningful calculations such as ratios and proportions. Examples of ratio scales include measurements of weight, height, time, and temperature in Kelvin.

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  • 12. 

    The main difference between an interval and a ratio scale is that only one of them:

    • A.

      Includes an absolute zero.

    • B.

      Uses equal units of measurement.

    • C.

      Supports the use of statistical analyses.

    • D.

      Is used in research with human subjects.

    Correct Answer
    A. Includes an absolute zero.
    Explanation
    The main difference between an interval and a ratio scale is that only the ratio scale includes an absolute zero. An absolute zero represents a complete absence of the measured attribute, such as temperature or weight. In an interval scale, zero does not indicate the absence of the attribute, but rather a point of reference. Both interval and ratio scales use equal units of measurement and support the use of statistical analyses. The use of either scale in research with human subjects depends on the specific variables being measured and the research design.

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  • 13. 

    Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project.  One question asks students to report how politically conservative they are.  It includes a 7-point scale where 1 is “not at all conservative” and 7 is “extremely conservative.”  This is an example of a/an:

    • A.

      Nominal scale.

    • B.

      Ordinal scale.

    • C.

      Interval scale.

    • D.

      Ratio scale.

    Correct Answer
    C. Interval scale.
    Explanation
    This is an example of an interval scale because the scale has equal intervals between each point, allowing for measurement of the degree of conservatism. However, it does not have a true zero point, as there is no absence of conservatism. Therefore, it does not qualify as a ratio scale.

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  • 14. 

    Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project.  One question asks students to report their highest level of education by choosing from these options: “some high school,” “completed high school,” “some college,” or “completed 4-year college degree.”  This is an example of a/an:

    • A.

      Nominal scale.

    • B.

      Ordinal scale.

    • C.

      Interval scale.

    • D.

      Ratio scale.

    Correct Answer
    A. Nominal scale.
    Explanation
    This question is an example of a nominal scale because it categorizes the respondents into distinct groups based on their highest level of education. The options provided are not ranked or ordered in any meaningful way, but rather represent different categories or labels. The nominal scale is used when data can be classified into distinct categories or groups without any numerical significance.

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  • 15. 

    Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project.  One question asks students to report their age in years.  This is an example of a/an:

    • A.

      Nominal scale.

    • B.

      Ordinal scale.

    • C.

      Interval scale.

    • D.

      Ratio scale.

    Correct Answer
    D. Ratio scale.
    Explanation
    This question is an example of a ratio scale because it asks students to report their age in years, which is a continuous variable that can be measured on a scale with equal intervals. A ratio scale allows for meaningful comparisons between values and also includes a true zero point, which is present in this case as age can be zero.

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  • 16. 

    Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project.  One question asks students to report whether they are currently living in an “urban,” “suburban,” or “rural” setting.  This is an example of a/an:

    • A.

      Nominal scale.

    • B.

      Ordinal scale.

    • C.

      Interval scale.

    • D.

      Ratio scale.

    Correct Answer
    A. Nominal scale.
    Explanation
    This question is an example of a nominal scale because it categorizes the responses into distinct and non-overlapping categories (urban, suburban, rural). The categories do not have any inherent order or numerical value associated with them, making it a nominal scale.

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  • 17. 

    ______ refers to whether a measurement tool actually measures what it is intended to measure.

    • A.

      Validity

    • B.

      Reliability

    • C.

      Accountability

    • D.

      Robustness

    Correct Answer
    A. Validity
    Explanation
    Validity refers to whether a measurement tool actually measures what it is intended to measure. In other words, it assesses the extent to which a measurement accurately captures the concept or construct it is designed to represent. A measurement tool can be considered valid if it provides meaningful and accurate results, and if it accurately reflects the underlying concept being measured.

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  • 18. 

    ______ refers to how consistently a measurement tool will yield the same result when the phenomenon under investigation does not change.

    • A.

      Validity

    • B.

      Reliability

    • C.

      Replicability

    • D.

      Dependability

    Correct Answer
    B. Reliability
    Explanation
    Reliability refers to how consistently a measurement tool will yield the same result when the phenomenon under investigation does not change. In other words, it measures the consistency or stability of the measurement. A reliable measurement tool will produce similar results each time it is used, indicating that the tool is consistent in its measurement. This is important in research and experimentation as it ensures that the results obtained are not due to random error or inconsistency in the measurement process.

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  • 19. 

    Kade has spent the past month carefully observing a group of third graders on the playground during recess, taking note of how the students interact with one another.  On the basis of these observations, Kade is drawing conclusions about the interaction styles of boys and girls.  This is an example of:

    • A.

      Hypothetical logic.

    • B.

      Deductive logic.

    • C.

      Inductive logic.

    • D.

      Propositional logic.

    Correct Answer
    C. Inductive logic.
    Explanation
    Kade is using inductive logic because he is drawing conclusions about the interaction styles of boys and girls based on his observations of a specific group of third graders. Inductive logic involves making generalizations or predictions based on specific observations or evidence. Kade's observations serve as the specific evidence that he is using to make a broader conclusion about the interaction styles of boys and girls in general.

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  • 20. 

    Kimberly knows that teenagers often do not make good decisions in areas where they have little knowledge.  She also knows that most teens have little knowledge about human sexuality.  Therefore, Kimberly believes that teens are likely to make poor decisions about sexual activity.  This is an example of:

    • A.

      Inductive logic.

    • B.

      Propositional logic.

    • C.

      Transductive logic.

    • D.

      Deductive logic.

    Correct Answer
    D. Deductive logic.
    Explanation
    This is an example of deductive logic because Kimberly is using general observations about teenagers' decision-making abilities in areas where they have little knowledge and applying it specifically to the area of human sexuality. She is drawing a conclusion based on a general principle and applying it to a specific situation.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Aug 15, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Kaconrad

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