Research Methodology MCQs With Answers

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Methodology could best be described as:

    • A.

      The science of knowing

    • B.

      The science of finding out

    • C.

      The discovery of reality through agreement

    • D.

      The discovery of reality through personal experience

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. The science of finding out
    Explanation
    Methodology refers to the systematic approach or set of methods used to conduct research or investigate a particular subject. It involves the process of finding out or discovering information through various scientific techniques and procedures. Therefore, the answer "the science of finding out" accurately describes the nature of methodology.

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  • 2. 

    Our attempts to learn about the world we live in come from:

    • A.

      Direct experience

    • B.

      Tradition

    • C.

      Direct personal inquiry

    • D.

      Authority

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above" because our attempts to learn about the world we live in can come from various sources. Direct experience allows us to learn through firsthand observation and interaction with the world. Tradition refers to the knowledge and beliefs passed down through generations, which shape our understanding of the world. Direct personal inquiry involves seeking knowledge through questioning, investigation, and exploration. Authority refers to learning from experts, teachers, or trusted sources who have expertise in a particular field. Therefore, all these sources contribute to our attempts to learn about the world.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is not an aim to social work research

    • A.

      To produce knowledge for knowledge's sake

    • B.

      To provide practical knowledge to guide social work practice

    • C.

      To provide information needed to alleviate human suffering and promote social welfare

    • D.

      None of the above; all of the above are aims of social work practice

    Correct Answer
    A. To produce knowledge for knowledge's sake
    Explanation
    The aim of social work research is not to produce knowledge for knowledge's sake. Social work research is conducted to provide practical knowledge that can guide social work practice and to provide information needed to alleviate human suffering and promote social welfare. The focus is on generating knowledge that can be applied in real-world contexts and contribute to positive social change.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding practice effectiveness?

    • A.

      It is safe to assume that well trained social workers will be effective regardless of which interventions they employ

    • B.

      Social work practice consists largely of interventions and procedures that have not yet recieved adequate testing

    • C.

      Knowledge of research methods and knowledge areseparate and unrelated

    • D.

      All of the above are true

    • E.

      None of the above are true

    Correct Answer
    B. Social work practice consists largely of interventions and procedures that have not yet recieved adequate testing
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that social work practice consists largely of interventions and procedures that have not yet received adequate testing. This implies that there is a lack of sufficient research and evidence to determine the effectiveness of these interventions.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding your first job as a professional social worker?

    • A.

      You should disregard agency tradition

    • B.

      You should disregard advice based on authority, even if the authority firgure has a high level of training, credentials and xperiences

    • C.

      You should keep in mind that knowledge based on tradition and authority could be wrong, and seek evidence that might support or challenge that knowledge

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. You should keep in mind that knowledge based on tradition and authority could be wrong, and seek evidence that might support or challenge that knowledge
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that as a professional social worker, one should be critical of knowledge based on tradition and authority. It emphasizes the importance of seeking evidence that can either support or challenge such knowledge. This approach promotes a critical and evidence-based practice, ensuring that decisions and actions are grounded in reliable information rather than blindly following tradition or authority.

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  • 6. 

    Scientific evidence should be based on

    • A.

      The teachings of authoritative scientists

    • B.

      Systematic and comprehensive observations

    • C.

      A large and diverse sample of observations

    • D.

      Observations gathered in ways that avoid the influence of reseacher biases

    • E.

      All of the above

    • F.

      B, c, and d only

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    Scientific evidence should be based on the teachings of authoritative scientists, as they are experts in their respective fields and can provide reliable information. Additionally, it should be based on systematic and comprehensive observations, which involve carefully planned and executed experiments or studies. These observations should also come from a large and diverse sample of observations to ensure that the results are representative of the broader population. Lastly, the observations should be gathered in ways that avoid the influence of researcher biases, ensuring that the data collected is objective and unbiased. Therefore, all of the above options are necessary for scientific evidence to be considered reliable.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following statements is (are) true about the scientific method

    • A.

      Some things are not open to question

    • B.

      Good studies need not be replicated

    • C.

      All knowledge is considered provisional

    • D.

      All of the aboce

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. All knowledge is considered provisional
    Explanation
    The statement "all knowledge is considered provisional" is true about the scientific method. This means that scientific knowledge is always subject to change and revision based on new evidence or findings. The scientific method involves formulating hypotheses, conducting experiments or observations, analyzing data, and drawing conclusions. It is a process of continuous learning and improvement, where knowledge is not considered absolute or final, but rather a working understanding that can be modified or expanded upon as new information becomes available.

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  • 8. 

    Reviews of research on social work practice effectiveness show that

    • A.

      There are doubts about the effectiveness of social work practice

    • B.

      All reviewers are equally pessimistic about social work practice effectiveness

    • C.

      We can assume that if social workers are well trained, then they will be effective

    • D.

      Social work practice consists of interventins that have been well tested

    • E.

      Both a and b

    Correct Answer
    C. We can assume that if social workers are well trained, then they will be effective
    Explanation
    The given correct answer suggests that if social workers are well trained, they will be effective. This assumption is based on the statement that "reviews of research on social work practice effectiveness show that there are doubts about the effectiveness of social work practice." If there are doubts about the effectiveness, it implies that social workers may not be effective if they are not well trained. Therefore, the assumption is that with proper training, social workers will be effective in their practice.

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  • 9. 

    What is the level of measurement for the the variable,"Number of Presidential Elections In Which Respondent Voted in Entire Lite', measured by the number the respondent reports?

    • A.

      Nominal

    • B.

      Ordinal

    • C.

      Interval

    • D.

      Ratio

    Correct Answer
    D. Ratio
    Explanation
    The level of measurement for the variable "Number of Presidential Elections In Which Respondent Voted in Entire Life" is ratio. Ratio level of measurement is the highest level of measurement where the data is measured on a scale with a fixed and meaningful zero point. In this case, the number of presidential elections the respondent voted in has a meaningful zero point (0 elections) and can be measured in whole numbers.

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  • 10. 

    What is the level of measurement for the variable,"political ideology", measured as "Very Conservative","Conservative", "Moderate","Liberal" and "Very Liberal'?

    • A.

      Nominal

    • B.

      Ordinal

    • C.

      Interval

    • D.

      Ratio

    Correct Answer
    B. Ordinal
    Explanation
    The variable "political ideology" is measured on a scale that has a clear order or ranking. The categories "Very Conservative," "Conservative," "Moderate," "Liberal," and "Very Liberal" can be arranged in a specific order from most conservative to most liberal. However, the categories do not have a consistent or equal distance between them, and there is no meaningful zero point. Therefore, the level of measurement for this variable is ordinal.

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  • 11. 

    What is level of measurement for the variable "political party affiliation', with values "Democrat", "Independent'; "Republican" or "Green'?

    • A.

      Nominal

    • B.

      Ordinal

    • C.

      Interval

    • D.

      Ratio

    Correct Answer
    A. Nominal
    Explanation
    The level of measurement for the variable "political party affiliation" with values "Democrat", "Independent", "Republican", or "Green" is nominal. This is because the variable represents categories or labels that do not have any inherent order or numerical value associated with them. Each category is distinct and there is no meaningful way to rank or quantify the differences between them.

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  • 12. 

    What is the level of measurement for the variable "Political Ideology Scale', measured on a scale of 6-24, where 6=Very Conservative and 24=Very Liberal?

    • A.

      Nominal

    • B.

      Ordinal

    • C.

      Interval

    • D.

      Ratio

    Correct Answer
    C. Interval
    Explanation
    The level of measurement for the variable "Political Ideology Scale" is interval. This is because the scale has a fixed measurement unit (the numbers 6-24) and the intervals between each value on the scale are equal. However, it is important to note that the scale does not have a true zero point, as there is no inherent meaning to a score of 0 on the political ideology scale.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is a nominal variable?

    • A.

      Education

    • B.

      Age

    • C.

      Employment status

    • D.

      None of the above

    • E.

      Not enough information to know

    Correct Answer
    E. Not enough information to know
    Explanation
    The question asks which of the given options is a nominal variable. A nominal variable is a categorical variable that does not have any inherent order or numerical value. Education, age, and employment status are all potential examples of nominal variables, as they represent categories or groups rather than numerical values. Therefore, the correct answer is "Not enough information to know" because it is not clear which of the options is a nominal variable without further context or clarification.

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  • 14. 

    Professor Chaos developed a new IQ test measure and claims a score of 180 is considered twice as intelligent as a score of 0; and a score of 90 is three times higher han a score of 30. This scale treats IQ as:

    • A.

      A nominal variable

    • B.

      A interval variable

    • C.

      A ratio variable

    • D.

      An ordinal variable

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. A interval variable
    Explanation
    The given scale treats IQ as an interval variable because it assigns numerical values to represent the levels of intelligence (scores). It also maintains the consistent intervals between these values, indicating that the difference between a score of 180 and 0 is the same as the difference between a score of 90 and 30. However, it does not have a true zero point, as a score of 0 does not indicate the absence of intelligence. Therefore, it cannot be considered a ratio variable.

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  • 15. 

    Professor Coreybantic measured the variable "feelings toward national health care insurance" with categories, "strongly agree", "agree", "indifferent", "disagree", and strongly disagree". This Professor was using the          measurement level

    • A.

      Nominal

    • B.

      Interval

    • C.

      Ratio

    • D.

      Ordinal

    • E.

      Not enough information to determine

    Correct Answer
    D. Ordinal
    Explanation
    The Professor measured the variable "feelings toward national health care insurance" using categories that have a specific order or ranking, such as "strongly agree", "agree", "indifferent", "disagree", and "strongly disagree". This indicates that the variable is being measured on an ordinal scale, where the categories have a natural order but the differences between them may not be equal.

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  • 16. 

    The variable "educational level" was measures as last year in school completed (that is, "none, 1st, 2"d, 3rd, and so on).        It is herefore measured at what level:

    • A.

      Nominal

    • B.

      Interval

    • C.

      Ratio

    • D.

      Ordinal

    • E.

      Not enough information to determine

    Correct Answer
    C. Ratio
    Explanation
    The variable "educational level" is measured as the last year in school completed, which means it can be quantified and has a meaningful zero point. This makes it a ratio level of measurement. In ratio measurement, the values have a fixed and equal unit of measurement, and ratios between values are meaningful.

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  • 17. 

    What is the lowest level of measurement in which there is an exact difference between attribute and values:

    • A.

      Nominal

    • B.

      Interval

    • C.

      Ratio

    • D.

      Ordinal

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Interval
    Explanation
    Interval is the lowest level of measurement in which there is an exact difference between attribute and values. In interval measurement, the values have a meaningful numerical difference between them, but there is no true zero point. This means that the values can be ordered and the differences between them can be calculated, but there is no absolute starting point or reference point. Nominal and ordinal levels of measurement do not have exact differences between attribute and values, while ratio level of measurement has an exact difference and a true zero point. Therefore, the correct answer is interval.

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  • 18. 

    What is the Highest level of measurement in which there is an exact difference between attribute and values:

    • A.

      Nominal

    • B.

      Interval

    • C.

      Ratio

    • D.

      Ordinal

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Ratio
    Explanation
    Ratio is the highest level of measurement in which there is an exact difference between attribute and values. In ratio measurement, the data is not only categorized and ordered, but it also has a meaningful and consistent interval between values. Additionally, ratio measurement allows for the presence of a true zero point, meaning that ratios and proportions can be calculated. This level of measurement provides the most precise and comprehensive information about the data.

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  • 19. 

    Dr Howard found that 95of the people in his neighborhood sample have contracted HIV/AIDS through sexual interaction. If he concludes that all HIV/AIDS patients are contracted HIV/AIDS through sexual activities, he would have committed:

    • A.

      The error of overgeneralization

    • B.

      The error of selective observation

    • C.

      The error of illogical reasoning

    • D.

      The error of inaccurate observation

    • E.

      No error

    Correct Answer
    A. The error of overgeneralization
    Explanation
    Dr. Howard's conclusion that all HIV/AIDS patients have contracted the disease through sexual activities is based on a sample from his neighborhood. This is an overgeneralization because he is assuming that the sample represents the entire population of HIV/AIDS patients, which may not be accurate. It is possible that there are other ways of contracting the disease that were not observed in his neighborhood sample. Therefore, his conclusion is not supported by sufficient evidence and is an error of overgeneralization.

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  • 20. 

    A social worker invents a new treatment procedure. She became famous, rich and got a large group of followers. Two studies evaluate her new therapy. One is scientifically  weak in its design and concludes that the therapy  is extremely effective. The other  study is scientifically  strong in its design but concludes that the therapy  is not effective  at all. She wrote a letter  to the editor  of the journal.  In her letter  she severely criticized the second study's authors and praised the other ones. What is involved in this debate a) b)  c) d)  e)

    • A.

      Overgeneralization

    • B.

      Ego-involvement in understanding

    • C.

      Premature closure of inquiry

    • D.

      Made up information

    • E.

      Mystification

    Correct Answer
    B. Ego-involvement in understanding
    Explanation
    The social worker's severe criticism of the authors of the second study and her praise for the authors of the first study suggests that she is personally invested in the success of her new treatment procedure. This indicates ego-involvement in understanding, as she is unable to objectively evaluate the results of the studies and instead allows her personal feelings and interests to influence her judgment.

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  • 21. 

    According to the scientific method, all knowledge should be:

    • A.

      Provisional

    • B.

      Subject to refutation

    • C.

      Based on evidence supported by objective observations

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above". According to the scientific method, all knowledge should be provisional, meaning it is subject to change as new evidence emerges. It should also be subject to refutation, meaning it is open to being disproven or challenged by further research. Additionally, knowledge should be based on evidence supported by objective observations, ensuring that it is reliable and unbiased. Therefore, all these characteristics are essential for knowledge to align with the scientific method.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following  statements is (are true) about the scientific method:

    • A.

      Some things are not open to questions

    • B.

      Good studies need not to be replicated

    • C.

      All knowledge is considered provisional

    • D.

      All of the above are true

    • E.

      None of the above is true

    Correct Answer
    C. All knowledge is considered provisional
    Explanation
    The statement "all knowledge is considered provisional" is true about the scientific method. This means that scientific knowledge is always subject to change and revision based on new evidence and discoveries. Scientists understand that their current understanding of the world is not absolute and can be improved upon with further research and experimentation. This principle of provisionality allows for the advancement of scientific knowledge over time.

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  • 23. 

    Before selecting his study participants, a researcher meets with a large group of adults and their children. He tells them about his research: its objectives, potential implications, and the benefits and risk for the people who would accept to participate  as subjects. What should he do when the parents as well as the youths agree to participate  in the research?

    • A.

      Make the youth and adult promise they keep confidentiality

    • B.

      Make the youths and adults sign a consent contract.

    • C.

      Make the youths sign an assent form

    • D.

      Make the adults sign a consent form

    • E.

      C and d

    Correct Answer
    E. C and d
    Explanation
    When both the parents and the youths agree to participate in the research, the researcher should make the youths sign an assent form, which is a document that explains the study to the youths in a language and manner they can understand. This ensures that the youths are aware of their participation and can provide their voluntary consent. Additionally, the researcher should also make the adults sign a consent form, which outlines the study's objectives, potential implications, and the benefits and risks involved. This ensures that the adults are fully informed and give their voluntary consent for their children's participation. Therefore, both options C and D are appropriate in this scenario.

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  • 24. 

    Practitioners engaged in evidence based practice will              ·

    • A.

      Be critical thinkers

    • B.

      Track down evidence as an ongoing lifelong part of their practice

    • C.

      Question things that are based on tradition or authority

    • D.

      Think for themselves as to the logic and evidence supporting what others may convey as practice wisdom

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    Practitioners engaged in evidence-based practice are critical thinkers who continuously seek and evaluate evidence as an integral part of their professional development. They question practices that are based solely on tradition or authority and rely on their own judgment and the available evidence to support their decision-making. Therefore, the correct answer is "All of the above" as all the options listed are characteristics of practitioners engaged in evidence-based practice.

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  • 25. 

    Evidence based practice questions should

    • A.

      Incorporate client characteristics.

    • B.

      Always inquire about only one specific intervention.

    • C.

      Never be altered in light of the evidence emerging in one's literature search

    • D.

      Always specify at least two alternative interventions in advance

    Correct Answer
    A. Incorporate client characteristics.
    Explanation
    Evidence-based practice involves integrating the best available evidence with clinical expertise and the individual patient's values and preferences. By incorporating client characteristics, practitioners can tailor their interventions to meet the specific needs and circumstances of each individual. This ensures that the treatment approach is personalized and takes into account factors such as the client's age, gender, cultural background, and medical history. By considering these client characteristics, practitioners can provide more effective and individualized care, leading to better outcomes for the client.

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  • 26. 

    Evidence about practice effectiveness will

    • A.

      Always be conclusive

    • B.

      Sometimes indicate what actions not to take.

    • C.

      Usually indicate what is effective with client or situation.

    • D.

      Will point toward taking an action that the client is certain to want

    Correct Answer
    B. Sometimes indicate what actions not to take.
    Explanation
    The evidence about practice effectiveness will sometimes indicate what actions not to take. This means that the evidence may show that certain actions or interventions are not effective or may even be harmful in certain situations. It is important to consider this information when making decisions and to avoid using interventions that have been shown to be ineffective or harmful.

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  • 27. 

    Conceptualization is: A- B- C-

    • A.

      Process of moving from vague to ideas about what you want to study to being able to recognize and measure what you want to study.

    • B.

      Develop specific research procedures that will result in empirical observations of things that represent those concepts in the real world.

    • C.

      Refining and specifying abstracts concepts.

    Correct Answer
    C. Refining and specifying abstracts concepts.
    Explanation
    Conceptualization is the process of refining and specifying abstract concepts. It involves moving from vague ideas about what you want to study to being able to recognize and measure those concepts. Through conceptualization, researchers develop specific research procedures that allow them to make empirical observations of things that represent those concepts in the real world. This process helps to clarify and define abstract concepts, making them more concrete and measurable.

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  • 28. 

    Level of salary is considered what  type  of measurement

    • A.

      Ordinal

    • B.

      Ratio

    • C.

      Nominal

    • D.

      Interval

    Correct Answer
    A. Ordinal
    Explanation
    The level of salary is considered an ordinal measurement because it represents a ranking or ordering of salaries from lowest to highest. In an ordinal measurement, the values have a meaningful order but the differences between the values may not be equal or meaningful. In this case, the different salary levels can be ranked based on their magnitude, but the difference between two salary levels may not necessarily represent the same difference in terms of purchasing power or value.

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  • 29. 

    What is the saturation point?

    Correct Answer
    in the process of collecting data, the point when new infornation is attained
    Explanation
    The saturation point refers to the stage in the data collection process where new information is obtained. It signifies that enough data has been gathered to adequately address the research question or objective. At this point, collecting additional data may not yield significant or novel insights. The saturation point is crucial because it helps researchers determine when they have reached a point of data sufficiency and can stop collecting more information.

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  • 30. 

    List these 4 research designs from  lowest  to highest: exploratory, explanatory, descriptive, experimental

    Correct Answer
    exploratory, descriptive, explanatory, experimental
    Explanation
    The correct order of the research designs from lowest to highest is exploratory, descriptive, explanatory, and experimental. Exploratory research is conducted to gain insights and generate hypotheses, while descriptive research aims to describe and analyze a phenomenon. Explanatory research seeks to explain the relationships between variables, and experimental research involves manipulating variables to establish cause and effect. Therefore, exploratory research is the lowest level as it focuses on exploration, while experimental research is the highest level as it involves rigorous testing and manipulation of variables.

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  • 31. 

    A research technique that  emphasize precise, objective, and generalizable findings is

    • A.

      Qualitative analysis

    • B.

      Quantitative analysis

    • C.

      Qualitative research method

    • D.

      Quantitative research method

    Correct Answer
    D. Quantitative research method
    Explanation
    The correct answer is quantitative research method. This research technique focuses on obtaining precise and objective findings that can be generalized to a larger population. It involves collecting and analyzing numerical data using statistical methods to draw conclusions and make predictions. This approach is often used in scientific studies and experiments where the goal is to measure and quantify variables in order to establish cause-and-effect relationships.

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  • 32. 

    To say that social science research and findings are "provisional" means that: A- B- C-D- E-

    • A.

      Researchers attempt to remove their biases and values from the process.

    • B.

      A theory has been proposed but hypotheses derived from it have not been tested.

    • C.

      The Cavaliers reign control over the Eastern Conference.

    • D.

      Research conclusions are always accepted as tentative and subject to change/review.

    • E.

      Procedures used by researchers are organized, methodical, and recognized by other researchers.

    Correct Answer
    D. Research conclusions are always accepted as tentative and subject to change/review.
    Explanation
    The term "provisional" suggests that research conclusions are not final or absolute, but rather open to revision or modification. This means that the findings are not considered definitive or unquestionable, and are subject to further evaluation and scrutiny. Researchers understand that new evidence or alternative interpretations may emerge, leading to a need for reassessment or adjustment of their conclusions. This recognition of the potential for change and review reflects the dynamic and evolving nature of social science research.

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  • 33. 

    If someone said the more they work the less time they have to spend their money would be an example of A-8- C-

    • A.

      A negative directional hypothesis

    • B.

      A non-directional hypothesis

    • C.

      A null hypothesis

    • D.

      A positive directional hypothesis

    Correct Answer
    A. A negative directional hypothesis
    Explanation
    A negative directional hypothesis suggests that there is a negative relationship between two variables, in this case, the amount of work and the amount of time available to spend money. It implies that as the amount of work increases, the amount of time available to spend money decreases.

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  • 34. 

    Reasoning that involves inferring something about a whole group or class of objects from a knowledge of only a few members of that group is called:

    • A.

      Inductive reasoning

    • B.

      Nomothetic reasoning

    • C.

      Idiographic reasoning

    • D.

      Deductive reasoning

    • E.

      Both b & e

    Correct Answer
    A. Inductive reasoning
    Explanation
    Inductive reasoning involves inferring something about a whole group or class of objects from a knowledge of only a few members of that group. This type of reasoning is based on observations and patterns, and it allows us to make generalizations or predictions about the entire group based on the information we have. It is different from deductive reasoning, which starts with general principles or theories and applies them to specific cases. The term "both b & e" is not a valid option as it does not accurately describe the concept of inductive reasoning.

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  • 35. 

    If an increase in alcohol leads to an increase in risk-taking score but another variable like sexual activity also contributes to risk-taking score sexual activity is a/an

    • A.

      Extraneous variable

    • B.

      Control variable

    • C.

      Independent variable

    • D.

      Dependent variable

    Correct Answer
    A. Extraneous variable
    Explanation
    If an increase in alcohol leads to an increase in risk-taking score, but there is another variable like sexual activity that also contributes to the risk-taking score, sexual activity is considered an extraneous variable. An extraneous variable is any variable other than the independent variable that can affect the dependent variable. In this case, alcohol is the independent variable, risk-taking score is the dependent variable, and sexual activity is an extraneous variable because it is an additional factor that can influence the risk-taking score.

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  • 36. 

    If we predict that an intervention will be effective among females and not males gender is the

    • A.

      Independent variable

    • B.

      Control variable

    • C.

      Extraneous variable

    • D.

      Dependent variable

    Correct Answer
    B. Control variable
    Explanation
    The correct answer is control variable. In this scenario, gender is being used as a control variable because it is being manipulated to determine the effect of the intervention. The intervention is predicted to be effective among females and not males, so gender is being controlled to isolate its impact on the outcome. By holding gender constant, the researcher can focus on the intervention's effect without the influence of gender differences.

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  • 37. 

    If a researchers  attempts to do research on the IQ of adults IQ is what type of measurement

    • A.

      Nominal

    • B.

      Ordinal

    • C.

      Interval

    • D.

      Ratio

    Correct Answer
    C. Interval
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "interval." Interval measurement is a type of measurement where the data is ordered and the intervals between the values are meaningful and consistent. In the given question, the IQ of adults is being measured, which is a continuous variable that can be quantified on a scale. The IQ scale has equal intervals between the values, allowing for meaningful comparisons and calculations. Therefore, it falls under the category of interval measurement.

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  • 38. 

    The Hawthorne effect in observational research refers to:

    • A.

      Observers reacting to the behavior they observe and introducing bias into the measurements.

    • B.

      People behaving differently because they are being observed.

    • C.

      Statistical artifacts that commonly arise in analyzing observational data.

    • D.

      People refusing to let observers make recordings of their behavior.

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. People behaving differently because they are being observed.
    Explanation
    The Hawthorne effect in observational research refers to people behaving differently because they are being observed. This phenomenon suggests that individuals may alter their behavior when they are aware that they are being studied, leading to inaccurate or biased results. This effect highlights the importance of considering the potential influence of observation on participants' behavior in research studies.

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  • 39. 

    A scale that  helps change words into numbers is called?

    • A.

      Likert Scale

    • B.

      Chronbach Alpha Scale

    • C.

      Sliding Scale

    • D.

      Word-to-Number Scale

    Correct Answer
    A. Likert Scale
    Explanation
    A Likert Scale is a type of rating scale that is commonly used in surveys and research to measure attitudes or opinions. It allows respondents to indicate their level of agreement or disagreement with a series of statements by selecting from a range of response options, typically ranging from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree". This scale helps to convert qualitative responses into quantitative data by assigning numerical values to the different response options.

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  • 40. 

    Doing research on research or taking several other research articles and analyzing them to see how the findings are related is an example of what type of data collection?

    • A.

      Content analysis

    • B.

      Meta analysis

    • C.

      Secndary analysis

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Meta analysis
    Explanation
    Meta analysis is the correct answer because it involves the process of collecting and analyzing data from multiple research studies to draw conclusions and make generalizations about a particular research topic. In this case, the researcher is conducting research on research by analyzing several research articles to understand how their findings are related. This process of synthesizing and comparing data from different studies is known as meta analysis.

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  • Current Version
  • Apr 14, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 07, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Gatliff
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