Leedy & Ormrod Ch 1

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Leedy & Ormrod Ch 1 - Quiz

Test Bank Questions for Chapter 1


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

     To be considered true research, a project must:

    • A.

      A. gather together a body of existing information and communicate it in a clear and concise way.

    • B.

      Uncover obscure or esoteric information and bring it to the consideration of the broader research community.

    • C.

      Gather and interpret information in a systematic fashion so as to increase understanding of some phenomenon.

    • D.

      Produce definitive conclusions regarding the subject of study.

    Correct Answer
    C. Gather and interpret information in a systematic fashion so as to increase understanding of some phenomenon.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "gather and interpret information in a systematic fashion so as to increase understanding of some phenomenon." This answer accurately describes the main purpose of true research, which is to collect and analyze information in a structured and organized manner to enhance our understanding of a particular phenomenon. It highlights the importance of a systematic approach in research, indicating that true research involves following a logical and well-defined process to gather data and draw meaningful conclusions.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following examples illustrates research the way it is defined in Leedy and Ormrod (2010)?

    • A.

      Sally is writing a paper about the effects of the Harry Potter books on the reading habits of fourth graders in the United States and United Kingdom. She goes to a research library to find information to include in her paper.

    • B.

      Ian wants to know why the population of songbirds has declined in recent years in the Sutton Wilderness Area. He carefully collects soil and water samples, systematically surveys the entire area for predators, and then sits down to make sense of his findings.

    • C.

      Leonard is starting a woodworking business and is not sure how to calculate the cost of his labor so he can be both profitable and fair to the customers. He asks several established business owners how they calculate labor changes

    • D.

      Bill is doing a report on the sonnets of Shakespeare. He carefully reads a number of sonnets and then carefully reads scholarly reviews of those same sonnets written by various Shakespeare scholars. He synthesizes all of this information in his report.

    Correct Answer
    B. Ian wants to know why the population of songbirds has declined in recent years in the Sutton Wilderness Area. He carefully collects soil and water samples, systematically surveys the entire area for predators, and then sits down to make sense of his findings.
    Explanation
    Ian's actions align with the definition of research in Leedy and Ormrod (2010) because he is conducting a systematic investigation to understand the decline in the songbird population. He collects soil and water samples, surveys the area for predators, and analyzes his findings to gain insights into the problem. This process involves gathering data, analyzing it, and drawing conclusions, which are key components of research.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is defined as an organized body of concepts and principles intended to explain a particular phenomenon?

    • A.

      Theory

    • B.

      Inference

    • C.

      Hypothesis

    • D.

      Interpretation

    Correct Answer
    A. Theory
    Explanation
    A theory is defined as an organized body of concepts and principles intended to explain a particular phenomenon. It is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is based on a vast amount of evidence and has been repeatedly tested and confirmed through scientific research. Theories are used to provide a framework for understanding and predicting phenomena, and they are constantly subject to revision and refinement as new evidence emerges. Therefore, a theory is the most appropriate option among the given choices to describe an organized body of concepts and principles intended to explain a particular phenomenon.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is defined as a reasonable guess, or a logical supposition, for explaining the phenomenon under investigation?

    • A.

      Theory

    • B.

      Inference

    • C.

      Hypothesis

    • D.

      Interpretation

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypothesis
    Explanation
    A hypothesis is a reasonable guess or logical supposition that is used to explain a phenomenon under investigation. It is an educated prediction based on existing knowledge or observations. A hypothesis is formulated before conducting any experiments or gathering data, and it is used to guide the research process. It is a tentative explanation that can be tested and either supported or refuted through further investigation.

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  • 5. 

    The process of formal research begins with the identification of:

    • A.

      Research hypotheses.

    • B.

      A feasible research plan.

    • C.

      Available participants.

    • D.

      A research problem.

    Correct Answer
    D. A research problem.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a research problem. In the process of formal research, the first step is to identify a research problem. This involves recognizing an issue or gap in knowledge that needs to be addressed through research. Once a research problem is identified, it can then be refined into research questions or hypotheses. A feasible research plan, available participants, and research hypotheses are all important components of the research process, but they come after the identification of a research problem.

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  • 6. 

    The purpose of formal research is to:

    • A.

      Prove or disprove the study hypotheses.

    • B.

      Support or fail to support the study hypotheses.

    • C.

      Identify alternative hypotheses.

    • D.

      Move beyond the need for hypotheses.

    Correct Answer
    B. Support or fail to support the study hypotheses.
    Explanation
    The purpose of formal research is to support or fail to support the study hypotheses. Formal research involves a systematic and structured approach to collect and analyze data in order to test the validity of the hypotheses. By conducting research, researchers aim to gather evidence that either supports or contradicts the proposed hypotheses. This process helps to advance knowledge and understanding in a particular field by providing empirical evidence to support or reject the study hypotheses.

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  • 7. 

    Assumptions come into play:

    • A.

      In regard to nearly every aspect of every research study.

    • B.

      In qualitative research but not in quantitative research.

    • C.

      When research is not well thought out.

    • D.

      Rarely, if ever.

    Correct Answer
    A. In regard to nearly every aspect of every research study.
    Explanation
    Assumptions are an integral part of every research study as they shape the researcher's perspective and influence the design, methodology, and interpretation of the study. Assumptions help to guide the research process by providing a foundation for the research question, hypotheses, and data collection methods. They also influence the researcher's beliefs about the subject matter and potential outcomes. Therefore, it can be inferred that assumptions come into play in regard to nearly every aspect of every research study.

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  • 8. 

    Well-designed research manages to minimize or avoid:

    • A.

      Assumptions.

    • B.

      Predictions.

    • C.

      Theory.

    • D.

      Bias.

    Correct Answer
    D. Bias.
    Explanation
    Well-designed research aims to minimize or avoid bias, which refers to any systematic error or distortion in the collection, analysis, interpretation, or publication of data. Bias can arise from various sources, such as the researcher's personal beliefs, preferences, or expectations, as well as flaws in the study design or data collection process. By minimizing or avoiding bias, researchers can increase the validity and reliability of their findings, ensuring that the results accurately reflect the reality being studied. Assumptions, predictions, and theory are all important components of research, but bias is the specific aspect that needs to be minimized or avoided.

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  • 9. 

    Researchers ______ their phenomenon of interest on the basis of data analysis.

    • A.

      Make inferences about

    • B.

      Know facts about

    • C.

      Define

    • D.

      Identify

    Correct Answer
    A. Make inferences about
    Explanation
    Researchers make inferences about their phenomenon of interest on the basis of data analysis. Inferences are conclusions or interpretations drawn from the available data. By analyzing the data, researchers are able to draw meaningful conclusions and make educated guesses about the phenomenon they are studying. This allows them to gain a deeper understanding of the subject and make predictions or hypotheses about it.

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  • 10. 

    A primary function of the methodology is to:

    • A.

      Guide and control the acquisition of data.

    • B.

      Extract meaning from the data that have been gathered.

    • C.

      Both a and b

    • D.

      Neither a nor b

    Correct Answer
    C. Both a and b
    Explanation
    The primary function of the methodology is to guide and control the acquisition of data, as well as extract meaning from the data that have been gathered. This means that the methodology not only helps in collecting data but also in analyzing and interpreting it to derive meaningful insights. Therefore, the correct answer is "both a and b".

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  • 11. 

    Three of the following come into play as the researcher analyzes the data.  Which one does NOT?

    • A.

      The study hypothesis/hypotheses

    • B.

      Preferences for certain outcomes

    • C.

      The logical reasoning process

    • D.

      Assumptions

    Correct Answer
    B. Preferences for certain outcomes
    Explanation
    The researcher analyzes the data by considering the study hypothesis/hypotheses, the logical reasoning process, and assumptions. Preferences for certain outcomes, however, do not come into play during the data analysis. This means that the researcher does not base their analysis on personal preferences or biases towards specific results. Instead, they rely on the other factors mentioned to objectively analyze the data and draw conclusions.

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  • 12. 

    A well-designed and well-conducted study:

    • A.

      Answers questions of importance in the field.

    • B.

      Raises questions of importance to the field.

    • C.

      Answers some questions and raises other questions.

    Correct Answer
    C. Answers some questions and raises other questions.
    Explanation
    A well-designed and well-conducted study is expected to provide answers to certain questions in the field. However, it is also likely to generate new questions or raise further inquiries that may require additional research or investigation. This is because the process of conducting a study often uncovers new insights, complexities, or areas that need further exploration. Therefore, a study that both answers some questions and raises other questions demonstrates its effectiveness in advancing knowledge and understanding in the field.

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  • 13. 

    Reading the professional literature in the field of interest:

    • A.

      Will enhance an individual’s ability to design and conduct high-quality research.

    • B.

      Will stifle creativity and constrain the individual to the status quo.

    • C.

      Will make little difference to the quality and impact of the individual’s work.

    • D.

      Is necessary only for the leaders in the field.

    Correct Answer
    A. Will enhance an individual’s ability to design and conduct high-quality research.
    Explanation
    Reading the professional literature in the field of interest will enhance an individual's ability to design and conduct high-quality research. By keeping up with the latest research and advancements in their field, individuals can gain valuable insights, learn from others' experiences, and stay informed about best practices. This continuous learning process helps individuals improve their research skills, stay updated with current trends, and develop innovative approaches to their work. Ultimately, this leads to the production of high-quality research that contributes to the advancement of knowledge in the field.

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  • 14. 

    One indication that a piece of information is of high quality is that the information:

    • A.

      Is found on the Internet.

    • B.

      Is found in a juried (or refereed) research report.

    • C.

      Resulted from a project that received corporate funding.

    • D.

      Is the firsthand account of a personal experience.

    Correct Answer
    B. Is found in a juried (or refereed) research report.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the information is found in a juried (or refereed) research report. This is because juried or refereed research reports undergo a rigorous review process by experts in the field, ensuring that the information is of high quality and meets certain standards. This process helps to eliminate biases and errors, making the information more reliable and trustworthy.

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  • 15. 

    Your chapter states: “Research is, by its nature, cyclical or, more exactly, helical.”  Explain why “cyclical” is an appropriate description of the research process.  Then explain why “helical” is a better description.

  • 16. 

    Describe an example of the word research being used inappropriately.  Be clear about how your example deviates from the definition of research offered in the chapter.

  • 17. 

    Graduate professors like to insist that the completion of thesis or dissertation research is not merely an “academic exercise” or final hurdle to obtaining the desired degree.  Explain at least one personal benefit that the individual derives from completing a high- quality thesis or dissertation.  Then explain at least one societal benefit that follows from the individual’s completion of a high-quality thesis or dissertation.

  • 18. 

    In the most rigorous tests of hypotheses, the researcher sets out to fail to support the hypothesis.  Why is the attempt to fail to support a more rigorous test of the hypothesis than an attempt to support it? 

  • 19. 

    Good economy of expression may be achieved through using

    • A.

      Short words.

    • B.

      Short sentences.

    • C.

      Direct, simple declarative sentences.

    • D.

      Short paragraphs.

    • E.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above.
    Explanation
    Good economy of expression can be achieved through using short words, as they are concise and get the point across quickly. Short sentences also contribute to economy of expression by eliminating unnecessary information and keeping the message clear and to the point. Direct, simple declarative sentences further enhance economy of expression by avoiding complex sentence structures or excessive use of modifiers. Lastly, using short paragraphs helps to break up the information into manageable chunks, making it easier for the reader to follow and comprehend. Therefore, all of the options mentioned contribute to achieving good economy of expression.

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  • 20. 

    A writer ust be careful when using the pronouns this, that, these, and those.  The writer can eliminate or reduce vagueness of these pronouns by

    • A.

      Using them to modify a noun (e.g., this frenulum, that hypothalamus, these electrodes, those mice).

    • B.

      Using them frequently.

    • C.

      Clarifying what is being referred to for the reader.

    • D.

      A and c.

    Correct Answer
    D. A and c.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a and c. Using pronouns such as this, that, these, and those can lead to vagueness if the writer does not clarify what is being referred to. To avoid this, the writer should use these pronouns to modify a noun, providing more specific information about what is being referred to. This helps to eliminate any confusion or ambiguity for the reader.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Aug 15, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Kaconrad
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