Jordan Bioscience II Final Part 1

28 Questions | Total Attempts: 886

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Jordan Bioscience II Final Part 1

Craig Jordan� Bioscience 2� Spring 2011


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The figure to the right describes the evolution of drug resistance in HIV where the drug is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Notice that all 3 colored lines begin on the left axis at a point above 0 % of HIV resistant to 3TC. What is the significance of the observation that the number is greater than zero?
    • A. 

      Apparently prior to the appearance of HIV in human populations, some humans had a characteristic that pre-adapted them to survive upon exposure to the virus.

    • B. 

      In a population of HIV viral particles, a small proportion are of a genetic type that they are not effected by the drug.

    • C. 

      As soon as the human population became exposed to HIV, some individuals adapted to the situation.

    • D. 

      That is probably just a sampling error.

    • E. 

      Upon exposure to the drug, some viral particles adapt by mutation to a form that can thrive in the face of the drug.

  • 2. 
    Sugar gliders in moden Australia and flying squirrels in North America are phenotypically very similar. They are endemic to their current homelands. The explanation is that
    • A. 

      The 2 share a gliding/flying ancestor and as the continents drifted apart. What are now distinct species followed their separate and independent evolutionary courses.

    • B. 

      When humans immigrated to Australia some 9000 years ago, they introduced many species of animals, including the sugar glider which is the European cousin of the flying squirrel.

    • C. 

      The flaps of skin which permit flying and gliding are homologous.

    • D. 

      During their separate evolutionary history, they cam to occupy similar ecological niches and converged on adaptations that permit them to move about in similar ways.

  • 3. 
    The authors of our textbooks describe a study in Chapter 1 that investigated that relationship between warningly colored and venomous coral snakes and theeir non-venomous kingsnake mimics. David Phennig, a former UTSA student, and his coworkers put artificial snakes, some looking like coral snakes and others with a uniformly brown coloration, on the ground at 14 field sites. Seven of the sites were frequented by coral snakes ("Coral snakes present") and seven lacked those snakes ("Coral snakes absent"). After 4 weeks, the artificial snakes were recovered and evaluated for sign of molestation. What can you conclude or infer from the study?
    • A. 

      Where coral snakes are present, the brown snakes lived for a longer time then when coral snakes are absent.

    • B. 

      Overall, the fitness of king snakes and brown snakes is equal.

    • C. 

      King snakes are more likely to avoid predatory attacks when coral snakes are not present.

    • D. 

      Predators innately avoid coral snakes.

    • E. 

      The bright coloration of snakes apparently makes them conspicuous to visually-orienting predators.

  • 4. 
    The forelimbs of penguins appear as "paddles". They are adaptations which permit moving easily through the water. Most birds lack this feature. Whales, doplphins, and porpoises also have "paddles" whereas most other mammals have arms or forelegs. 
    • A. 

      The bones in the penguin's paddles are homologous with the bones in the paddles of the whales, but the paddles themselves are not.

    • B. 

      The bones in the penguin's paddles are homologous with the bones in the paddles of the whales; the paddles are likewise homologous.

    • C. 

      The bones in the penguin's paddles are of a distinct evolutionary origin compared with the bones in paddles of the whales; the paddles similarly have an unrelated evolutionary history.

    • D. 

      The bones in the penguin's paddles are of a distinct evolutionary origin compared with the bones in the paddles of the whales, but the paddles are homologous.

  • 5. 
    Bonsai trees, like the one to the right, have been nurtured over many generations by Japanese gardeners. 
    • A. 

      The adjustment made to the phenotypes of the trees are not heritable.

    • B. 

      The manner in which they have been managed has resulted in the new species or races much like what has occurred with the selection for breeds of cats has occurred with the selection for breeds of cats

    • C. 

      The genetic changes that have occurred, while resulting in interesting and attractive phenotypes, inadvertently have also been responsible for the evolution of varieties that are highly susceptible to pathogens.

    • D. 

      The shape and size of the plants represents the result of artificial selection

  • 6. 
    On which of the following did Linnaeus base his classification system?
    • A. 

      Evolutionary history

    • B. 

      The fossil record

    • C. 

      Genetic similarity

    • D. 

      Morphology and anatomy

    • E. 

      Molecular homologies

  • 7. 
    Females Belding Ground Squirrels live for 5 to 7 years. Males live on average for half as long as females. In response to a potential threat walking in their vicinity, some individuals give warning calls.
    • A. 

      While giving such a call can be risky, the risks are not substantial, otherwise the gene(s) underlying the behavior would be removed by natural selection from the population.

    • B. 

      Giving such a call is risky; that is there can be a substantial cost associated with giving the warning call. The cost takes the form of a reduction in future opportunities to produce offspring. Therefore, one would predict that older individuals wil be more likely to utter such calls than younger ones.

    • C. 

      Males are more likely to give the calls than females. this is because males are polygynous. Since they may have many females and young in their territories, they stand to profit more. Each female will only preotecting a small number of young but each male will be protecting a number of females and their collective young.

  • 8. 
    Which of the following are likely examples of homologous organs or structures?
    • A. 

      The feeding apparatus of the butterfly and the hummingbird.

    • B. 

      The wings of a dragonfly and that of a bird.

    • C. 

      The flagella of prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

    • D. 

      The wings of a bird and the arms of an orangutan.

  • 9. 
    Preying mantises have exsited for about 145 million years. In contrast, orchids have existed for about 80 million years. Mantises are carnivores. The mantis to the right, appears and behaves such that it is very diifcult to see on the orchid.  Orchids are typically pollintaed by solitary bees and wasps. Which of the following statements is least likely to be true?
    • A. 

      One hypothsis for the plant-insect resemblance is that the mantis gains some protection from detection by potential predators.

    • B. 

      It is likely that the distant ancestors of this mantis species had a very different appearance.

    • C. 

      One hypthesis for the plant-insect resemblance is that the mantis is difficult for orchid pollinators to see.

    • D. 

      The orchid may have evolved to resemble the mantis in order to give the mantis protection from predators.

    • E. 

      A bee or wasp visiting the orchid will most likely not be a "worker".

  • 10. 
    Mus musculus, the house mouse, is found on the Portugese island of Medeira off the coast of Morocco. Introduced in the 15th century, there are now numerous small populations on the island, as indicated by the red and yellow dots on the acompanying map. There are instances in the various populations where chromosomes have fused (eg in the western populations chromosomes 2 and 4 have fused, as indicated by the notation "2.4")
    • A. 

      If you notice the phenotypically the mice in the western and eastern populations are the same, natural selection must not be occurring.

    • B. 

      Since all of the mice currently on the island share a fusion of chromosomes 13 and 17, there must have been a single introduction in the 15th century. This could be the only explanation for all populations having that common feature.

    • C. 

      If the western populations have been separated from the eastern ones for centuries, it is unlikely that mice from eastern populations will be able to mate (in the lab) successfully with mice from the western populations because natural selection will have favored different alleles in the 2 regions.

    • D. 

      If the chromosome rearrangements have not disrupted the genes, then it is likely the changes can be attributed to genetic drift.

    • E. 

      One must conclude that the mice were introduced on 2 separate occasions to the island-once on the east side and once on the side.

  • 11. 
    The Australian red-backed spider is related to our black widow. The female is much larger than the male. When mating, males will frequently position themselves in such a fashion that their mates can nibble away at them during the mating process. Which of the following is NOT true?
    • A. 

      By "serving" themselves up to their mates in such a fashion, males may be reducing the likelihood that the females will mate with a second male and thereby dilute the effect of his sperm

    • B. 

      By "serving" themselves up to their mates in such a fashion males may be reducing the size of their own population so as to recude competition among individuals for the limited amount of food available in their desert environment.

    • C. 

      That male Australian red-backed spiders are sometimes eaten by their mates is beneficial to the males because by so doing, they fertilize more eggs than if they did not allow their mate to eat them.

  • 12. 
    One form that "social Darwinism" took in the early twentieth century was 
    • A. 

      The encouragement of the socially disadvantaged citizens to develop skills that would contribute to their social and political advancement.

    • B. 

      The social integration of various "radical" and ethnic groups by promoting non-discriminatory policies.

    • C. 

      Discouraging the reproduction of those deemed to be genetically inferious.

    • D. 

      The demonstration of a philosophical bias by scientists that social behaviors were the consequences of environmental influences.

    • E. 

      None of the above is a good answer.

  • 13. 
    Flightless birds known as ratites, such as ostriches, rheas, emus, and kiwis, are an ancient group.
    • A. 

      That these various birds are all flightless can be most easily explained by convergent evolution.

    • B. 

      Ancestors of these 4 kinds of ratites can be traced to the large land mass known as Gondwana that included what is now South America, Antarctica, Australia, New Zealand, and Africa.

    • C. 

      Of the 4 groups of ratites, African ostriches are the most distinct because they have been isolated from other ratites for the longest period of time.

    • D. 

      2 of the above are true.

    • E. 

      A, B, and C are all true.

  • 14. 
    DNA sequences in many human genes are very similar to the sequences of corresponding genes in chimpanzees. The most likely explanation for this result is that
    • A. 

      Humans evolved from chimpanzees.

    • B. 

      Humans and chimpanzees share a relatively recent common ancestor.

    • C. 

      Chimpanzees evolved from humans.

    • D. 

      Convergent evolution led to the DNA similarities.

  • 15. 
    A basic tenet of modern evolutionary theory is that
    • A. 

      Lineages of organisms become more complex over time.

    • B. 

      Evolutionary progress is slow and gradual.

    • C. 

      Organisms evolve during their lifetime as they adapt to their environment.

    • D. 

      If it would be adaptive for an species to have a particular characteristics, that characteristic will eventually evolve because of the random nature of mutations.

    • E. 

      Organisms with an assemblage of characteristics that are the same probably have those characteristics because they descend from a common ancestor.

  • 16. 
    On the Hawaiian island or Kauai, Teleogryllus oceanicus crickets came from Australia and western Pacific islands. Crickets advertised their reproductive availability by broadcasting an auditory display by using specialized anatomical features. The parasitic fly, Ormia ochracea fly, invaded from North America. In the 1990's, there was an intense fly infestation parasitizing one-third of the crickets. In a 2001 sampling, only one was heard singing and in 2003 no individuals were heard singing. ("Singers" were still present but very rare and in the sample, they were not represented." The crickets were still there, in fact the cricket population was larger than it had been for years but few individuals still had wings with functional chriping equipment. The silencing came from changes in only one or two genes. If you were to take a random sample of the crickets and move them to another island that lacked the fly, you might reasonably expect
    • A. 

      The gene(s) to mutate such that crickets will sing again.

    • B. 

      That singing might become very common if the random sample contained one or more "singers"

  • 17. 
    There is evidence that one or perhaps two individuals of one species of finch originally colonized that Galapagos Islands, and more specifically San Cristobal Island on the eastern end of the archipelago. Since that time, the descendants of that species have prolifeerated into a number of species. The ancestor of the orininal colonizer(s) came from the Americas. One would expect to find that
    • A. 

      There is less diversity in the mitochondrial DNA of finches on San Cristobal than among their finch ancestors remaining in the Americas.

    • B. 

      There is more diversity in the mitochondrial DNA of finches on San Cristobal than among their finch ancestors remaining in the Americas.

    • C. 

      There is the same level of diversity in the mitochondrial DNA of finches on San Cristobal as is found among their finch ancestors remaining in the Americas.

  • 18. 
    That birds have the same bones in their wings as whales have in their flippers may be best interpreted as evidence that
    • A. 

      Birds had ancestors that were capable of swimming.

    • B. 

      Whales had ancestors that were capable of flying.

    • C. 

      Modern birds and whales share a common ancestor.

    • D. 

      Modern flippers evolved from wings.

    • E. 

      Modern wings evolved from flippers.

  • 19. 
    There is a theory that to account for highly complex biological systems as we know them today, it is essential to rely on the presence of a interlligence to explain the complexity of those systems.
    • A. 

      The theory has met with general acceptance because we have otherwise been unsuccessful in explaining the evolution of such complex structures as the human eye

    • B. 

      The theory has not met with approval by evolutionary biologists because it has been demonstrated that there is no such intelligence that could be responsible for the organization of modern biological systems.

    • C. 

      The theory is consistent with the theory set forth by Darwin and Wallace because an intelligence can only explain why evolution progressively leads to higher levels of complexity.

    • D. 

      None of the above is a correct statement.

  • 20. 
    Darwin is credited with:
    • A. 

      Demonstrating that life has existed on Earth for a substantially longer period of time than the BIble suggests

    • B. 

      Promoting an approach to biology such that theories may be proposed without having first compiled an exhausted background of observations.

    • C. 

      First proposing that the characteristics that organisms have can be inherited by their dominance.

    • D. 

      First proposing that evolution occurs.

  • 21. 
    To cast aspersions on evolutionary theory, the moden supporters of "Intelligent Design" theory use an arguement similar to that of the proponent of "Natural Theology", William Paley, around the turn of the 19th century.
    • A. 

      Since no one has observed evolution occurring, there is no reason to believe that it has ever happened.

    • B. 

      Radiometric dating is not an accurate and reliable methodology for dating dead animals and plants.

    • C. 

      Many structures are sufficiently complex that it is not possible that they evolve over some period of time because the earlier and simpler stages would not work properly and be adaptive.

  • 22. 
    Consider an individual infected with HIV who upon discovery of the infection begins to take a reverse transcriptase inhibitor drug which initially shows promise in delaying the course of the infection because the majority of the viral particles can not reproduce in the presence of the drug; they are drug sensitive (Ds). Which the passage of time, the effectiveness of the drug diminishes. This is because the virus population evolves in such a mammer as to circumvent the mechanism that was respoinsible for the initial effectiveness of the drug: there is an increase in viral particles that are drug resistnat (Dx). While an increase in the dosage temporarily gives relief, in time the drug must be discontinued because of loss in its effectiveness and high dosages precipitate serious side effects. 
    • A. 

      One would expect that the frequency of Dx would remain at its elevated level.

    • B. 

      One would expect that the frequency of Dx would continue to increase, as an adaptation to protect the viral popilation from possible introduction of another reverse transcriptase drug.

    • C. 

      One would expect that the frequency of Dx would increase and Ds would decrease.

    • D. 

      One would expect a complete loss of the Dx variety.

  • 23. 
    During the 1970s, on an island in the Galapagos, a species of finch was observed to experience a change in the size of beaks. The size distribution of beaks changes such that average beak size increased compared with what had existed earlier in the decade. The explaination for why the beaks had changed in size was that
    • A. 

      Birds with larger bodies had larger beaks and the larger-bodied birds were preferred by mates (sexual selection).

    • B. 

      Birds with the larger bodies were more successful in avoiding predators and therefore had greater opportunities to reproduce.

    • C. 

      A hurricane had caused a large-scale dying off the species, and by chance the few individuals that survived and then went on to reproduce, had beaks at the larger extreme of the previous generations (genetic drift)

    • D. 

      A captive breeding programs initiated by the national park the oversees wildlife on the islands had unwittingly selected the largest and seemingly most robust individuals to breed. (Unknowing to the park rangers was that these individuals, despite their size, had low fertility, and the program was a disaster).

    • E. 

      Larger-beaked individuals were more successful at harvesting the limited food resources available during the particularly arid period.

  • 24. 
    Which of the following was Darwin familiar with and contributed to his crafting of his theory in the latter part of the 1830s, shortly after returning from voyage on the Beagle:
    • A. 

      Continental drift.

    • B. 

      Gregor Mendel's model of particulate inheritance.

    • C. 

      The modification (domestication) of populations of animals and plants by selective breeding

    • D. 

      Fossil prokaryotes.

    • E. 

      Archaeopteryx.

  • 25. 
    For evolution to occur,
    • A. 

      Populations must be relatively small (or at least not infinitely large).

    • B. 

      There must be no migration.

    • C. 

      Individuals must adapt to their environment.

    • D. 

      There must be variation in the genetic make-up of individuals in a population.