Introduction To Geology: A Comprehensive Exam

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Geology Quizzes & Trivia

When you get introduced to a new subject or topic you may be excited to learn and actually store most of the knowledge you gather but some of us are so doubtful of our understanding capabilities that we forget much of what we studied. The quiz below will test your comprehension on the introduction to geology. Give it a shot!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following questions is NOT one that could be answered using the scientific method?

    • A.

      How old is the Earth?

    • B.

      Is it right to use human subjects in medical trials?

    • C.

      How much has sea level risen in the last 125 years?

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Is it right to use human subjects in medical trials?
    Explanation
    The question "Is it right to use human subjects in medical trials?" is not one that could be answered using the scientific method because it involves ethical considerations and subjective judgments. The scientific method is a systematic approach to answering questions by formulating hypotheses, conducting experiments, and analyzing data. Questions that can be answered using the scientific method typically involve objective observations and measurements, while ethical questions involve personal values and societal norms. Therefore, determining whether it is right or wrong to use human subjects in medical trials requires ethical, philosophical, and societal discussions rather than scientific investigation.

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  • 2. 

    Earth's global average surface temperature is approximately __.

    • A.

      76 deg F

    • B.

      15 deg C

    • C.

      The same as the temperature at the equator

    • D.

      Both A and C

    Correct Answer
    B. 15 deg C
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 15 deg C. This is the global average surface temperature of the Earth. It is a commonly used unit of measurement in scientific research and climate studies. It represents the average temperature across the entire surface of the planet, taking into account variations in temperature across different regions and seasons.

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  • 3. 

    Climate science __.

    • A.

      Is exclusively studied by meteorologists

    • B.

      Requires an Earth system science perspective

    • C.

      Spans vast temporal scales

    • D.

      Spans vast spatial scales

    • E.

      All but A

    Correct Answer
    E. All but A
    Explanation
    Climate science requires an Earth system science perspective, as it involves studying the interactions between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere. It also spans vast temporal scales, as it investigates climate patterns and changes over long periods of time. Additionally, it spans vast spatial scales, as climate phenomena occur on a global scale. However, it is not exclusively studied by meteorologists, as scientists from various disciplines such as geology, biology, and environmental science also contribute to the field.

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  • 4. 

    What causes Earth's climate to change over time?

    • A.

      Changes in Earth's orbit around the Sun

    • B.

      Changes in the strength of the Sun

    • C.

      Changes in plate tectonics (geography of land and sea)

    • D.

      Human activities

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The Earth's climate changes over time due to a combination of factors. Changes in Earth's orbit around the Sun, known as Milankovitch cycles, can lead to variations in the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Changes in the strength of the Sun, such as fluctuations in solar activity and output, can also influence the climate. Additionally, plate tectonics, which involve the movement and arrangement of the Earth's land and sea, can impact climate patterns. Lastly, human activities, including the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation, contribute to climate change. Thus, all of these factors play a role in causing Earth's climate to change over time.

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  • 5. 

    Climate differs from weather in that __.

    • A.

      Climate change is exclusively global, whereas weather is exclusively regional

    • B.

      Climate includes temperature, while weather addresses precipitation, snow and ice cover, and wind conditions

    • C.

      Climate is a broad composite of weather conditions over time scales of years and decades

    • D.

      Climate and weather do not differ, they are interchangeable terms

    Correct Answer
    C. Climate is a broad composite of weather conditions over time scales of years and decades
    Explanation
    Climate and weather are not interchangeable terms. Climate refers to the long-term patterns and trends of weather conditions in a particular region, including temperature, precipitation, wind, and other factors. It is a composite of weather conditions over a period of years and decades. Weather, on the other hand, refers to the short-term atmospheric conditions such as temperature, precipitation, and wind that occur on a daily or weekly basis. Therefore, the correct answer is that climate is a broad composite of weather conditions over time scales of years and decades.

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  • 6. 

    Positive internal Earth system feedbacks__.

    • A.

      Always amplify climate changes initially caused by external forcing

    • B.

      Always cause climate warming

    • C.

      Help maintain a constant temperature on Earth

    • D.

      Both A and C

    Correct Answer
    D. Both A and C
    Explanation
    Positive internal Earth system feedbacks can both amplify climate changes initially caused by external forcing and help maintain a constant temperature on Earth. These feedbacks occur when a change in one component of the Earth system leads to changes in other components, which in turn further amplify or stabilize the initial change. For example, if increased greenhouse gas concentrations from external forcing cause a rise in temperature, this can lead to the release of additional greenhouse gases from melting permafrost, further amplifying the warming. At the same time, these feedbacks can also help maintain a constant temperature by buffering or counteracting external changes.

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  • 7. 

    What factor(s) determine the response of a climate system component to a change in outside forcing?

    • A.

      The amplitude (degree) of the forcing

    • B.

      The frequency of forcing variations

    • C.

      The response rate of the internal climate system component

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      Both A and C

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The response of a climate system component to a change in outside forcing is determined by multiple factors. The amplitude or degree of the forcing plays a role in determining the response. A larger or stronger forcing will likely result in a larger response from the climate system component. The frequency of forcing variations also affects the response. Different frequencies of forcing can lead to different patterns of response in the climate system component. Additionally, the response rate of the internal climate system component is another determining factor. Some components may respond more quickly or slowly to changes in forcing. Therefore, all of these factors (amplitude, frequency, and response rate) contribute to determining the response of a climate system component to a change in outside forcing.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following statements is correct about climate forcing-response interactions?

    • A.

      Roughly equal time scales of forcing and response result in varying degrees of response by the climate system to the forcing

    • B.

      Slow response time permits the climate system to fully track slow forcing

    • C.

      Fast response time allows little climate response to fast changes in forcing

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Roughly equal time scales of forcing and response result in varying degrees of response by the climate system to the forcing
    Explanation
    Roughly equal time scales of forcing and response result in varying degrees of response by the climate system to the forcing. This means that when the time scale of the forcing (such as changes in greenhouse gas concentrations) is similar to the time scale of the climate system's response, the climate system will respond to the forcing in varying degrees. This suggests that the climate system has the ability to adjust and adapt to changes in forcing, but the degree of response will depend on the specific time scales involved.

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  • 9. 

    Past climate change__.

    • A.

      Informs scientists about climate forcings and system interactions, which are necessary for predicting future climate change

    • B.

      Occurred only during the last 1000 years

    • C.

      Has been influenced by both natural and human forcings

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      Both A and C

    Correct Answer
    E. Both A and C
    Explanation
    Past climate change informs scientists about climate forcings and system interactions, which are necessary for predicting future climate change. It has also been influenced by both natural and human forcings. This means that studying past climate change helps scientists understand the factors that have caused climate to change in the past and how these factors may continue to affect climate in the future.

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  • 10. 

    Sediment archives

    • A.

      Typically accumulate on high exposed spots (e.g. mountain tops)

    • B.

      Will have recorded the same climatic event at the same depth everywhere

    • C.

      Have a temporal (time) resolution-dependent on the rate that the sediment accumulated and whether it has been disturbed (mixed-up) after deposition

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      Both A and C

    Correct Answer
    C. Have a temporal (time) resolution-dependent on the rate that the sediment accumulated and whether it has been disturbed (mixed-up) after deposition
    Explanation
    Sediment archives typically accumulate on high exposed spots, such as mountain tops. They will have recorded the same climatic event at the same depth everywhere. The temporal resolution of sediment archives is dependent on the rate at which the sediment accumulated and whether it has been disturbed or mixed up after deposition. This means that the rate of sediment accumulation and post-deposition disturbances affect the ability to accurately determine the timing of events recorded in the sediment archives. Therefore, the correct answer is that sediment archives have a temporal resolution dependent on the rate of accumulation and post-deposition disturbances.

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  • 11. 

    Consider the study of past climate change and determine which of the following is (are) correct.

    • A.

      The resolution of climate archives is greater in the recent past than for the distant geologic past.

    • B.

      The types of climate archives available are generally more diverse in the recent past than they are for the distant geologic past.

    • C.

      Climate proxies allow scientists to directly determine the temperature of the past

    • D.

      Both A and B are correct

    • E.

      None of the above are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. Both A and B are correct
    Explanation
    Both A and B are correct. The resolution of climate archives is greater in the recent past than for the distant geologic past because more detailed and accurate records have been preserved in recent times. Additionally, the types of climate archives available are generally more diverse in the recent past than they are for the distant geologic past, as technological advancements have allowed for the collection of a wider range of data sources. However, it is important to note that climate proxies, not climate archives, allow scientists to indirectly estimate the temperature of the past.

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  • 12. 

    W/c of the following is an example of a biologic proxy that could be used for reconstructing past climate change?

    • A.

      Burial flux of ice-rafted debris at a deep marine site

    • B.

      A data set of temperature-sensitive planktic foraminifera species changes over time at a deep marine site

    • C.

      Instrumental temperature measurements recorded at a weather station

    • D.

      Isotopes of oxygen in benthic foraminifera from a deep marine site

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. A data set of temperature-sensitive planktic foraminifera species changes over time at a deep marine site
    Explanation
    A data set of temperature-sensitive planktic foraminifera species changes over time at a deep marine site can be used as a biologic proxy for reconstructing past climate change. Planktic foraminifera are microscopic marine organisms that are sensitive to changes in water temperature. By studying the composition and abundance of different species of planktic foraminifera in sediment cores from a deep marine site, scientists can infer past changes in ocean temperatures. This data set provides valuable information about historical climate patterns and can help in understanding and predicting future climate change.

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  • 13. 

    W/c of the following approaches do climate scientists use to reconstruct past global climate change?

    • A.

      Work under the assumption that the terrestrial, ocean, and atmospheric environments are all closed systems

    • B.

      Recover and study cores from trees, corals, ice, lake sediments, and ocean sediments

    • C.

      Develop climate models that require no assumptions

    • D.

      Limit study to a single proxy from any particular archive

    • E.

      Use all of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Recover and study cores from trees, corals, ice, lake sediments, and ocean sediments
    Explanation
    Climate scientists use the approach of recovering and studying cores from various sources such as trees, corals, ice, lake sediments, and ocean sediments to reconstruct past global climate change. By analyzing these cores, scientists can gather information about past climate conditions, such as temperature and precipitation patterns. This approach allows them to understand how the climate has changed over time and make predictions about future climate change.

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  • 14. 

    Physical climate computer models__.

    • A.

      Must simulate the modern climate reasonably well to be trusted as a tool for exploring past climate

    • B.

      Track geochemical tracers through the climate system

    • C.

      Are structured to allow continuous interaction of the atmosphere and ocean

    • D.

      Modify physical laws of radiation and circulation of fluids (ocean and atmosphere) to match data from geologic archives

    • E.

      Both C and D

    Correct Answer
    A. Must simulate the modern climate reasonably well to be trusted as a tool for exploring past climate
    Explanation
    Physical climate computer models must simulate the modern climate reasonably well to be trusted as a tool for exploring past climate. This is because if the models cannot accurately reproduce the current climate conditions, it is unlikely that they will be able to accurately simulate past climate conditions. Therefore, the ability to simulate the modern climate is an important criterion for the reliability and credibility of these models in studying past climate.

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  • 15. 

    Numerical simulations of past climate occur in an ordered 3-step sequence. The order is __.

    • A.

      Analyze the climate data output by comparing them w/independent geologic data-->specify boundary conditions-->Run a climate simulation

    • B.

      Run a climate simulation, specify boundary conditions, analyze the climate data output by comparing them w/independent geologic data

    • C.

      Specify boundary conditions-->Run a climate simulation-->Analyze the climate data output by comparing them w/independent geologic data

    • D.

      Run a climate simulation, analyze the climate data output by comparing them w/independent geologic data, specify boundary conditions

    Correct Answer
    C. Specify boundary conditions-->Run a climate simulation-->Analyze the climate data output by comparing them w/independent geologic data
    Explanation
    The correct order for numerical simulations of past climate is to first specify the boundary conditions, then run a climate simulation, and finally analyze the climate data output by comparing them with independent geologic data. This sequence ensures that the simulation is conducted with accurate and relevant boundary conditions, and the output is then analyzed and validated against independent geologic data to ensure its accuracy and reliability.

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  • 16. 

    How could a tide gauge record indicate sea level fall if global sea level is actually rising?

    • A.

      The tide gauge is located in an area of active tectonic uplift

    • B.

      The tide gauge is located in an area where bedrock is rebounding after ice unloading

    • C.

      The tide gauge is located in Scandinavia

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the above." This means that all three options mentioned in the question can explain how a tide gauge record could indicate a sea level fall despite global sea level rise. The first option suggests that the tide gauge is located in an area of active tectonic uplift, which means that the land is rising relative to the sea level. The second option states that the tide gauge is located in an area where the bedrock is rebounding after ice unloading, which can also cause the sea level to appear to fall. Lastly, the third option mentions that the tide gauge is located in Scandinavia, which is known for experiencing tectonic uplift and rebounding bedrock.

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  • 17. 

    Approximately how much did global sea level rise during the 20th century (1900s)?

    • A.

      125 m

    • B.

      65 m

    • C.

      0.008 m

    • D.

      1.8 m

    • E.

      0.20 m

    Correct Answer
    E. 0.20 m
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 0.20 m. This means that global sea level rose by approximately 0.20 meters during the 20th century (1900s). This rise in sea level is attributed to various factors such as thermal expansion of seawater due to global warming and the melting of glaciers and ice sheets.

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  • 18. 

    What accounts for the sea level rise of the 20th century?

    • A.

      Melting of land-based glaciers

    • B.

      Thermal expansion of sea water

    • C.

      Melting of sea ice

    • D.

      Both A and B

    • E.

      Both B and C

    Correct Answer
    E. Both B and C
    Explanation
    The sea level rise of the 20th century can be attributed to both the thermal expansion of sea water and the melting of sea ice. As the global temperatures increase, the water in the oceans expands, causing a rise in sea levels. Additionally, the melting of sea ice adds more water to the oceans, further contributing to the rise in sea levels. Therefore, both factors, the thermal expansion of sea water and the melting of sea ice, account for the sea level rise observed in the 20th century.

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  • 19. 

    Urban heat islands __.

    • A.

      Have greater back radiation (longwave radiation) at night than do non-urban areas

    • B.

      Have greater absorption of incoming radiation during the day than do no-urban areas

    • C.

      Have contributed slightly to the warming trend of the last century

    • D.

      Have higher temperatures than rural regions do, given the same incoming radiation

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    Urban heat islands have all of the above characteristics. They have greater back radiation at night, meaning they retain more heat, due to the presence of buildings and pavement that absorb and re-emit longwave radiation. They also have greater absorption of incoming radiation during the day, as the built environment absorbs and retains more heat compared to non-urban areas. Urban heat islands have contributed slightly to the warming trend of the last century, as the increase in urbanization has led to higher temperatures in cities. Therefore, they have higher temperatures than rural regions do, given the same incoming radiation.

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  • 20. 

    How has the mean temperature of the surface ocean (upper 3000m) changed in the last 50 years?

    • A.

      It has warmed in the N.Hemisphere, but cooled in the S. Hemisphere

    • B.

      It has warmed in the NH, but cooled in the SH

    • C.

      It has cooled in the NH, but warmed in the SH

    • D.

      The trend of temperature change is similar to that observed on land

    • E.

      Both C and D are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. The trend of temperature change is similar to that observed on land
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the trend of temperature change in the surface ocean (upper 3000m) is similar to that observed on land. This means that the temperature has generally increased over the last 50 years in both the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere.

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  • 21. 

    Global mean temperature from 1900-2005...

    • A.

      Global avg temperatures have warmed by ~0.7 deg C in the last ~100 years

    • B.

      The last year that global avg temperatures dropped by 1975

    • C.

      Global avg temperatures were significantly colder in 1900 than in 1950

    • D.

      All of the above are correct

    • E.

      Both A and B are correct

    Correct Answer
    A. Global avg temperatures have warmed by ~0.7 deg C in the last ~100 years
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that global average temperatures have warmed by approximately 0.7 degrees Celsius in the last 100 years. This is supported by the statement that global average temperatures have warmed by ~0.7 deg C in the last ~100 years.

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  • 22. 

    Studies of mountain glaciers indicate that __.

    • A.

      About 50% of mountain glaciers are retreating

    • B.

      Most (>90%) mountain glaciers are in retreat

    • C.

      The observed mountain glacier retreat is largely a result of reduced snowfall

    • D.

      The average retreat of mountain glaciers is only ~1.5 m since the 1850s

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Most (>90%) mountain glaciers are in retreat
    Explanation
    Most (>90%) mountain glaciers are in retreat. This is supported by studies of mountain glaciers, which have shown that a significant majority of them are experiencing retreat rather than growth. This indicates that the overall trend for mountain glaciers is one of decline. The other options, such as the retreat being largely a result of reduced snowfall or the average retreat being only ~1.5 m since the 1850s, may also be true to some extent, but they do not encompass the entirety of the findings from studies of mountain glaciers. Therefore, the correct answer is that most mountain glaciers are in retreat.

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  • 23. 

    W/c of the following will be measured w/satellites?

    • A.

      Snow cover in the NH

    • B.

      Sea ice cover in the Arctic

    • C.

      Thickness and melting of the Greenland ice sheet

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      A and B only

    Correct Answer
    E. A and B only
    Explanation
    Satellites are used to measure snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and sea ice cover in the Arctic. These measurements can be obtained through remote sensing techniques, allowing satellites to capture images and data from these regions. On the other hand, the thickness and melting of the Greenland ice sheet are typically measured using ground-based instruments, such as radar and ice cores. Therefore, the correct answer is A and B only, as satellites are not commonly used to directly measure the thickness and melting of the Greenland ice sheet.

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  • 24. 

    W/c of the following is evidence for warming of the high northern latitudes?

    • A.

      The last winer snow melting a week earlier in the NH

    • B.

      Chlorophyll production beginning two weeks earlier in the NH

    • C.

      The growing season beginning a week earlier in the NH

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      A and C only

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the given options provide evidence for warming of the high northern latitudes. The fact that the last winter snow is melting a week earlier in the NH indicates a warmer climate. Similarly, the beginning of chlorophyll production two weeks earlier and the growing season starting a week earlier in the NH also suggest a warming trend. Therefore, all three options provide evidence for warming in the high northern latitudes.

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  • 25. 

    What percent of the ~0.7 deg C warming since the late 1800s can be attributed to long-term tectonic scale climatic forcing (movement of tectonic plates)?

    • A.

      Effectively none

    • B.

      50%

    • C.

      25%

    • D.

      5%

    • E.

      1%

    Correct Answer
    A. Effectively none
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Effectively none." This means that the percent of the ~0.7 deg C warming since the late 1800s that can be attributed to long-term tectonic scale climatic forcing is negligible or insignificant. Tectonic plate movement is not a significant factor in causing the observed warming during this time period.

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  • 26. 

    Current estimates suggest that changes in solar irradiance (due to sunspots) can account for __ of the ~0.7 deg C global warming since the late 1800s.

    • A.

      ~0.1 deg C

    • B.

      ~0.25 deg C

    • C.

      ~0.4 deg C

    • D.

      ~0.7 deg C

    • E.

      None

    Correct Answer
    A. ~0.1 deg C
    Explanation
    Changes in solar irradiance, specifically due to sunspots, have been suggested as a factor that can contribute to global warming. Current estimates indicate that these changes may account for approximately 0.1 degrees Celsius of the overall global warming observed since the late 1800s. This suggests that while solar activity can have some impact on global temperatures, it is not the sole or primary driver of the observed warming trend. Other factors, such as greenhouse gas emissions, are likely playing a more significant role in the overall increase in global temperatures.

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  • 27. 

    Which is true?

    • A.

      The effect of large volcanic explosions is not detected by instrumental temperature records.

    • B.

      The effect of large volcanic explosions contributed to the long-term baseline warming trend.

    • C.

      Large volcanic explosions caused short-term cooling, but had little effect on the long-term warming

    • D.

      Strong El Ninos contributed to the long-term baseline warming trend

    • E.

      Both B and D are correct

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Large volcanic explosions caused short-term cooling, but had little effect on the long-term warming
    D. Strong El Ninos contributed to the long-term baseline warming trend
    Explanation
    Large volcanic explosions caused short-term cooling, but had little effect on the long-term warming. This is because volcanic eruptions release large amounts of ash and gases into the atmosphere, which can temporarily block sunlight and cause a cooling effect. However, these effects are relatively short-lived and do not significantly impact the long-term warming trend caused by human activities such as greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, strong El Ninos, which are characterized by unusually warm ocean temperatures in the equatorial Pacific, can contribute to the long-term baseline warming trend by releasing stored heat into the atmosphere. Therefore, both statements B and D are correct.

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  • 28. 

    What is the modern concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere?

    • A.

      560 ppm

    • B.

      280 ppm

    • C.

      385 ppm

    • D.

      140 ppm

    • E.

      643 ppm

    Correct Answer
    C. 385 ppm
    Explanation
    The modern concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is 385 ppm. This means that for every million molecules of air, there are 385 molecules of CO2. This concentration is considered high and is a result of human activities such as burning fossil fuels and deforestation. The increase in CO2 levels is a major contributor to climate change and global warming.

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  • 29. 

    What human activity accounts for the increase in the atmospheric CO2 in the last 200 years?

    • A.

      Burning of carbon in trees to clear land for agriculture

    • B.

      Burning of carbon in coal, oil, and natural gas

    • C.

      Increased production of genetically-modified crops

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      Both A and B

    Correct Answer
    E. Both A and B
    Explanation
    Both A and B are correct because the burning of carbon in trees to clear land for agriculture and the burning of carbon in coal, oil, and natural gas are both human activities that release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. These activities have significantly contributed to the increase in atmospheric CO2 levels over the last 200 years. The increased production of genetically-modified crops, although a human activity, does not directly account for the increase in atmospheric CO2.

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  • 30. 

    In order of size (largest first) where does the CO2 produced by humans go?

    • A.

      Biosphere, ocean, atmosphere

    • B.

      Atmosphere, ocean, biosphere

    • C.

      Atmosphere, biosphere, ocean

    • D.

      Biosphere, atmosphere, ocean

    • E.

      Ocean, atmosphere, biosphere

    Correct Answer
    B. Atmosphere, ocean, biosphere
    Explanation
    CO2 produced by humans primarily goes into the atmosphere, where it contributes to the greenhouse effect and climate change. Some of this CO2 is then absorbed by the ocean, where it can have negative impacts on marine life and contribute to ocean acidification. A smaller portion of the CO2 is taken up by the biosphere through processes like photosynthesis, where plants convert CO2 into oxygen. Therefore, the correct order of where CO2 produced by humans goes is atmosphere, ocean, and biosphere.

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  • 31. 

    W/c of the following is correct?

    • A.

      An increase in sulfate concentration causes volcanoes to explode

    • B.

      There have been more volcanic explosions on average since 1900 than during the previous two centuries

    • C.

      The baseline sulfate concentration increased because of human emissions after 1850 AD.

    • D.

      Sulfate concentrations were lower in 1990 than in 1980.

    Correct Answer
    C. The baseline sulfate concentration increased because of human emissions after 1850 AD.
    Explanation
    An increase in sulfate concentration causes volcanoes to explode. The given answer is correct because it states that the baseline sulfate concentration increased due to human emissions after 1850 AD. This implies that the increase in sulfate concentration is caused by human activities and not directly related to volcanic explosions.

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  • 32. 

    Global dimming __.

    • A.

      Is irreversible

    • B.

      Masks the effects of global warming

    • C.

      Is caused by rising CO2 levels

    • D.

      Will produce a solar eclipse

    • E.

      Is more prominent in polar regions

    Correct Answer
    B. Masks the effects of global warming
    Explanation
    Global dimming refers to the phenomenon where the amount of sunlight reaching the Earth's surface is reduced due to the presence of atmospheric pollutants such as aerosols. This reduction in sunlight has the effect of cooling the Earth's surface, which in turn masks or hides the true extent of global warming. In other words, global dimming counteracts or mitigates the warming effects of greenhouse gases like CO2, making it appear as though global warming is not as severe as it actually is.

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  • 33. 

    Methane __.

    • A.

      Occurs in higher abundances in the atmosphere than CO2 does

    • B.

      Is a more effective greenhouse gas then CO2 on a molecule-by-molecule basis

    • C.

      Rise for the last 150 years is equivalent to a CO2 rise of 60%

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      Both A and C

    Correct Answer
    B. Is a more effective greenhouse gas then CO2 on a molecule-by-molecule basis
    Explanation
    Methane is a more effective greenhouse gas than CO2 on a molecule-by-molecule basis. This means that even though methane is present in lower concentrations in the atmosphere compared to CO2, it has a greater warming potential. Methane has a higher ability to trap heat in the atmosphere, contributing to the greenhouse effect and climate change. Additionally, the rise in methane levels over the past 150 years is equivalent to a CO2 rise of 60%, further emphasizing its impact on global warming.

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  • 34. 

    Sensitivity tests in general circulation models (GCM) indicate that a doubling of pre-industrial CO2 levels should result in a global mean temperature rise of

    • A.

      ~0.5 deg C

    • B.

      ~0.25 deg C

    • C.

      ~5 deg C

    • D.

      ~7 deg C

    • E.

      ~10 deg C

    Correct Answer
    B. ~0.25 deg C
    Explanation
    Sensitivity tests in general circulation models (GCM) have shown that a doubling of pre-industrial CO2 levels is likely to result in a global mean temperature rise of approximately 0.25 degrees Celsius. This means that if the CO2 levels were to double from pre-industrial levels, the average global temperature would increase by about 0.25 degrees Celsius.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the following processes is a negative feedback that is taken into account in global climate model temperature sensitivity tests of a doubling of CO2?

    • A.

      Effect of water vapour

    • B.

      Effect of CO2

    • C.

      Effect of snow and ice albedo

    • D.

      Effect of thick, low clouds

    • E.

      Both A and C

    Correct Answer
    D. Effect of thick, low clouds
    Explanation
    The effect of thick, low clouds is a negative feedback that is taken into account in global climate model temperature sensitivity tests of a doubling of CO2. Thick, low clouds have a cooling effect on the climate by reflecting sunlight back into space, which helps to counteract the warming effect of increased CO2. Therefore, including the effect of thick, low clouds in climate models is important for accurately predicting the temperature sensitivity to CO2 doubling.

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  • 36. 

    The ~0.7 deg C rise in global avg temperatures since the late 1800s is less than the predicted temperature rise estimated from models of CO2 sensitivity. W/c of the following can explain this?

    • A.

      Carbon dioxide

    • B.

      Methane

    • C.

      Ozone

    • D.

      Clouds

    Correct Answer
    D. Clouds
    Explanation
    Clouds can explain the discrepancy between the predicted temperature rise estimated from models of CO2 sensitivity and the actual rise in global average temperatures. Clouds have a complex relationship with temperature, as they can either trap heat or reflect sunlight back into space. If cloud cover increases, it can have a cooling effect on the Earth's surface, offsetting some of the warming caused by greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and methane. Therefore, the presence of clouds can lead to a lower temperature rise than what is predicted based solely on CO2 sensitivity models.

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  • 37. 

    What of the following are factors in estimates of the future increase in CO2 emissions?

    • A.

      Population changes

    • B.

      Changes in the quality of life

    • C.

      Efficiency changes in fossil fuel use

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      Both A and C

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the above factors are considered in estimates of the future increase in CO2 emissions. Population changes play a significant role as an increasing population leads to higher energy consumption and thus more CO2 emissions. Changes in the quality of life also impact CO2 emissions as improved living standards often result in increased energy use. Efficiency changes in fossil fuel use are important as they can help reduce CO2 emissions by using fossil fuels more effectively. Therefore, all three factors contribute to estimates of future CO2 emissions.

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  • 38. 

    The primary reason CO2 emissions will probalby fall sometime in the next 20-100 years is because of

    • A.

      An increase in technological efficiency of fossil fuel use

    • B.

      Depletion of fossil fuel reserves

    • C.

      A decrease in global population

    • D.

      Carbon sequestration by the oceans

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. An increase in technological efficiency of fossil fuel use
    B. Depletion of fossil fuel reserves
    Explanation
    The primary reason CO2 emissions will probably fall sometime in the next 20-100 years is due to an increase in technological efficiency of fossil fuel use and depletion of fossil fuel reserves. As technology continues to advance, new methods and techniques are being developed to extract and utilize fossil fuels more efficiently, resulting in lower emissions. Additionally, as fossil fuel reserves continue to deplete over time, there will be less fuel available to burn, leading to a decrease in emissions. These two factors combined contribute to the likelihood of a decrease in CO2 emissions in the future.

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  • 39. 

    Human population __.

    • A.

      Is predicted to reach 10 billion in

    • B.

      Is predicted to increase most in economically developing countries

    • C.

      Growth is predicted to cause a rise in carbon emissions

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above." This means that all of the statements mentioned in the options are true. The human population is predicted to reach 10 billion in the future. Additionally, the population is expected to increase the most in economically developing countries. Moreover, this population growth is also predicted to cause a rise in carbon emissions.

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  • 40. 

    In the 4 x CO2 scenario, atmospheric CO2 concentrations ___.

    • A.

      Match the estimated CO2 concentrations of the last interglacial

    • B.

      Peak at a concentration of 1100 ppm

    • C.

      Peak at the same time as the peak in CO2 emissions

    • D.

      Match the CO2 concentration at the time of early hominids

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Match the estimated CO2 concentrations of the last interglacial
    Explanation
    In the 4 x CO2 scenario, atmospheric CO2 concentrations are expected to match the estimated CO2 concentrations of the last interglacial. This means that the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere would be similar to the levels seen during the previous interglacial period, which occurred thousands of years ago. This suggests that the increase in CO2 emissions would result in a significant rise in atmospheric CO2 levels, potentially reaching levels similar to those seen in the past.

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  • 41. 

    As atmospheric CO2 is transferred into the deep ocean

    • A.

      Sea water will become more acidic

    • B.

      Sea water will dissolve seafloor carbonates

    • C.

      Corals and other animals that build carbonate hard parts will be stressed

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      Both A and C

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    As atmospheric CO2 is transferred into the deep ocean, several processes occur. Firstly, the increase in CO2 leads to a decrease in pH, causing the sea water to become more acidic. This increased acidity can have detrimental effects on marine organisms, including corals and other animals that build carbonate hard parts. Additionally, the increased CO2 levels in the ocean can lead to the dissolution of seafloor carbonates. Therefore, all of the given options (A, B, and C) are correct.

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  • 42. 

    What is the predicted warming in a 2 x CO2 world?

    • A.

      0.7 deg C

    • B.

      1 deg C

    • C.

      2 deg C

    • D.

      2.5 deg C

    • E.

      5 deg C

    Correct Answer
    D. 2.5 deg C
    Explanation
    The predicted warming in a 2 x CO2 world is 2.5 deg C. This means that if the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere doubles, it is expected to result in a temperature increase of 2.5 degrees Celsius. This prediction is based on scientific models and studies that analyze the relationship between CO2 emissions and global temperature rise.

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  • 43. 

    The 2007 IPCC report projects that the rate of sea level rise is likely to increase from 17cm in the last century to __ in the next century.

    • A.

      18 cm

    • B.

      20 cm

    • C.

      30 cm

    • D.

      50 cm

    • E.

      100 cm

    Correct Answer
    C. 30 cm
    Explanation
    The 2007 IPCC report predicts that the rate of sea level rise will likely increase from 17cm in the last century to 30 cm in the next century. This projection is based on scientific research and modeling that takes into account factors such as global warming and melting ice caps. The increase in sea level rise is concerning as it can lead to coastal erosion, flooding, and the displacement of populations living in low-lying areas. It is important to take action to mitigate climate change and its impacts on sea levels.

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  • 44. 

    Temperature change caused by a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations will be largest

    • A.

      In the high mid-latitudes in the winter

    • B.

      In the tropics in the winter

    • C.

      In the tropics in the summer

    • D.

      In the high mid-latitudes in the summer

    • E.

      None of the above because temp changes will be globally uniform

    Correct Answer
    A. In the high mid-latitudes in the winter
    Explanation
    In the high mid-latitudes in the winter, the temperature change caused by a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations will be largest. This is because the high mid-latitudes experience colder temperatures during winter compared to other regions. The increase in CO2 concentrations will trap more heat in the atmosphere, leading to a greater temperature increase in these colder regions.

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  • 45. 

    How will mid-latitude seasons be affected by an atmospheric CO2 doubling?

    • A.

      Winter and summer will both be longer

    • B.

      Winter will be longer and summer will be shorter

    • C.

      Winter and summer will both be shorter

    • D.

      Winter will be shorter and summer will be longer

    • E.

      There will be no change in length of seasons, since this is controlled by variations in Earth's geometry in space

    Correct Answer
    D. Winter will be shorter and summer will be longer
    Explanation
    An increase in atmospheric CO2 levels would lead to a warming of the Earth's climate. This warming effect would cause winter to be shorter, as temperatures would not drop as low and the cold season would be milder. On the other hand, summer would be longer because higher temperatures would persist for a longer duration. This change in the length of seasons is due to the impact of increased CO2 on the climate system, rather than variations in Earth's geometry in space.

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  • 46. 

    If humans instantly eliminated all industrial and other emissions of greenhouse gases and SO2, then __.

    • A.

      Sulfates in the atmosphere would decrease within weeks to months

    • B.

      Atmospheric CO2 would decrease within weeks to months

    • C.

      Global avg temperatures would decrease within weeks to months

    • D.

      All of the above are correct

    • E.

      Both B and C are correct

    Correct Answer
    E. Both B and C are correct
    Explanation
    If humans were to instantly eliminate all industrial and other emissions of greenhouse gases and SO2, both atmospheric CO2 and global average temperatures would decrease within weeks to months. This is because greenhouse gases, such as CO2, trap heat in the atmosphere, leading to global warming. By eliminating these emissions, the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere would decrease, resulting in a decrease in global average temperatures. Therefore, both options B and C are correct.

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  • 47. 

    The ~0.7 deg C rise in global avg temperatures since the late 1800s is less than the predicted temperature rise estimated from models of CO2 sensitivity. W/c can explain this?

    • A.

      Carbon-containing brown clouds have not yet fully responded to the CO2 warming

    • B.

      The ocean has not yet fully responded to the CO2 forcing

    • C.

      Sulfate aerosols have yet not fully responded to the CO2 forcing

    • D.

      All of the above are correct

    Correct Answer
    B. The ocean has not yet fully responded to the CO2 forcing
    Explanation
    The ocean has not yet fully responded to the CO2 forcing. This is because the ocean has a large heat capacity and takes a longer time to warm up compared to the atmosphere. The thermal inertia of the ocean means that it takes time for the heat from increased CO2 concentrations to be absorbed and distributed throughout the ocean. Therefore, the full impact of CO2 forcing on global average temperatures may not have been realized yet.

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  • 48. 

    About ___ percent of our current total energy is produced by burning fossil fuels.

    • A.

      95%

    • B.

      85%

    • C.

      78%

    • D.

      60%

    • E.

      30%

    Correct Answer
    B. 85%
    Explanation
    Approximately 85% of our current total energy is produced by burning fossil fuels. This means that a large majority of the energy we use comes from non-renewable sources such as coal, oil, and natural gas. Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, contributing to climate change. Transitioning to renewable energy sources is crucial to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate the environmental impact of energy production.

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  • 49. 

    About ___percent of the petroleum we use is imported is imported from other nations.

    • A.

      95%

    • B.

      85%

    • C.

      78%

    • D.

      60%

    Correct Answer
    D. 60%
    Explanation
    Approximately 60% of the petroleum we use is imported from other nations. This suggests that a significant portion of the petroleum consumed in the country is sourced from foreign countries. It implies that the country relies heavily on imports to meet its petroleum needs, which could have various implications such as vulnerability to supply disruptions, geopolitical considerations, and trade balance impacts.

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  • 50. 

    Most of the electricity used in the United States is produced from __.

    • A.

      Wind power

    • B.

      Oil

    • C.

      Coal

    • D.

      Nuclear energy

    Correct Answer
    C. Coal
    Explanation
    Most of the electricity used in the United States is produced from coal. Coal has historically been the dominant source of electricity generation in the country due to its abundance and relatively low cost. However, it is also a major contributor to air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. In recent years, there has been a shift towards cleaner and more sustainable sources of energy such as wind power and nuclear energy, but coal still remains an important part of the energy mix in the United States.

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