Introduction To Geology: A Comprehensive Exam

88 Questions | Total Attempts: 69

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Geology Quizzes & Trivia

When you get introduced to a new subject or topic you may be excited to learn and actually store most of the knowledge you gather but some of us are so doubtful of our understanding capabilities that we forget much of what we studied. The quiz below will test your comprehension on the introduction to geology. Give it a shot!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which of the following questions is NOT one that could be answered using the scientific method?
    • A. 

      How old is the Earth?

    • B. 

      Is it right to use human subjects in medical trials?

    • C. 

      How much has sea level risen in the last 125 years?

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 2. 
    Earth's global average surface temperature is approximately __.
    • A. 

      76 deg F

    • B. 

      15 deg C

    • C. 

      The same as the temperature at the equator

    • D. 

      Both A and C

  • 3. 
    Climate science __.
    • A. 

      Is exclusively studied by meteorologists

    • B. 

      Requires an Earth system science perspective

    • C. 

      Spans vast temporal scales

    • D. 

      Spans vast spatial scales

    • E. 

      All but A

  • 4. 
    What causes Earth's climate to change over time?
    • A. 

      Changes in Earth's orbit around the Sun

    • B. 

      Changes in the strength of the Sun

    • C. 

      Changes in plate tectonics (geography of land and sea)

    • D. 

      Human activities

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 5. 
    Climate differs from weather in that __.
    • A. 

      Climate change is exclusively global, whereas weather is exclusively regional

    • B. 

      Climate includes temperature, while weather addresses precipitation, snow and ice cover, and wind conditions

    • C. 

      Climate is a broad composite of weather conditions over time scales of years and decades

    • D. 

      Climate and weather do not differ, they are interchangeable terms

  • 6. 
    Positive internal Earth system feedbacks__.
    • A. 

      Always amplify climate changes initially caused by external forcing

    • B. 

      Always cause climate warming

    • C. 

      Help maintain a constant temperature on Earth

    • D. 

      Both A and C

  • 7. 
    What factor(s) determine the response of a climate system component to a change in outside forcing?
    • A. 

      The amplitude (degree) of the forcing

    • B. 

      The frequency of forcing variations

    • C. 

      The response rate of the internal climate system component

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      Both A and C

  • 8. 
    Which of the following statements is correct about climate forcing-response interactions?
    • A. 

      Roughly equal time scales of forcing and response result in varying degrees of response by the climate system to the forcing

    • B. 

      Slow response time permits the climate system to fully track slow forcing

    • C. 

      Fast response time allows little climate response to fast changes in forcing

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 9. 
    Past climate change__.
    • A. 

      Informs scientists about climate forcings and system interactions, which are necessary for predicting future climate change

    • B. 

      Occurred only during the last 1000 years

    • C. 

      Has been influenced by both natural and human forcings

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      Both A and C

  • 10. 
    Sediment archives
    • A. 

      Typically accumulate on high exposed spots (e.g. mountain tops)

    • B. 

      Will have recorded the same climatic event at the same depth everywhere

    • C. 

      Have a temporal (time) resolution-dependent on the rate that the sediment accumulated and whether it has been disturbed (mixed-up) after deposition

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      Both A and C

  • 11. 
    Consider the study of past climate change and determine which of the following is (are) correct.
    • A. 

      The resolution of climate archives is greater in the recent past than for the distant geologic past.

    • B. 

      The types of climate archives available are generally more diverse in the recent past than they are for the distant geologic past.

    • C. 

      Climate proxies allow scientists to directly determine the temperature of the past

    • D. 

      Both A and B are correct

    • E. 

      None of the above are correct

  • 12. 
    W/c of the following is an example of a biologic proxy that could be used for reconstructing past climate change?
    • A. 

      Burial flux of ice-rafted debris at a deep marine site

    • B. 

      A data set of temperature-sensitive planktic foraminifera species changes over time at a deep marine site

    • C. 

      Instrumental temperature measurements recorded at a weather station

    • D. 

      Isotopes of oxygen in benthic foraminifera from a deep marine site

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 13. 
    W/c of the following approaches do climate scientists use to reconstruct past global climate change?
    • A. 

      Work under the assumption that the terrestrial, ocean, and atmospheric environments are all closed systems

    • B. 

      Recover and study cores from trees, corals, ice, lake sediments, and ocean sediments

    • C. 

      Develop climate models that require no assumptions

    • D. 

      Limit study to a single proxy from any particular archive

    • E. 

      Use all of the above

  • 14. 
    Physical climate computer models__.
    • A. 

      Must simulate the modern climate reasonably well to be trusted as a tool for exploring past climate

    • B. 

      Track geochemical tracers through the climate system

    • C. 

      Are structured to allow continuous interaction of the atmosphere and ocean

    • D. 

      Modify physical laws of radiation and circulation of fluids (ocean and atmosphere) to match data from geologic archives

    • E. 

      Both C and D

  • 15. 
    Numerical simulations of past climate occur in an ordered 3-step sequence. The order is __.
    • A. 

      Analyze the climate data output by comparing them w/independent geologic data-->specify boundary conditions-->Run a climate simulation

    • B. 

      Run a climate simulation, specify boundary conditions, analyze the climate data output by comparing them w/independent geologic data

    • C. 

      Specify boundary conditions-->Run a climate simulation-->Analyze the climate data output by comparing them w/independent geologic data

    • D. 

      Run a climate simulation, analyze the climate data output by comparing them w/independent geologic data, specify boundary conditions

  • 16. 
    How could a tide gauge record indicate sea level fall if global sea level is actually rising?
    • A. 

      The tide gauge is located in an area of active tectonic uplift

    • B. 

      The tide gauge is located in an area where bedrock is rebounding after ice unloading

    • C. 

      The tide gauge is located in Scandinavia

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 17. 
    Approximately how much did global sea level rise during the 20th century (1900s)?
    • A. 

      125 m

    • B. 

      65 m

    • C. 

      0.008 m

    • D. 

      1.8 m

    • E. 

      0.20 m

  • 18. 
    What accounts for the sea level rise of the 20th century?
    • A. 

      Melting of land-based glaciers

    • B. 

      Thermal expansion of sea water

    • C. 

      Melting of sea ice

    • D. 

      Both A and B

    • E. 

      Both B and C

  • 19. 
    Urban heat islands __.
    • A. 

      Have greater back radiation (longwave radiation) at night than do non-urban areas

    • B. 

      Have greater absorption of incoming radiation during the day than do no-urban areas

    • C. 

      Have contributed slightly to the warming trend of the last century

    • D. 

      Have higher temperatures than rural regions do, given the same incoming radiation

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 20. 
    How has the mean temperature of the surface ocean (upper 3000m) changed in the last 50 years?
    • A. 

      It has warmed in the N.Hemisphere, but cooled in the S. Hemisphere

    • B. 

      It has warmed in the NH, but cooled in the SH

    • C. 

      It has cooled in the NH, but warmed in the SH

    • D. 

      The trend of temperature change is similar to that observed on land

    • E. 

      Both C and D are correct

  • 21. 
    Global mean temperature from 1900-2005...
    • A. 

      Global avg temperatures have warmed by ~0.7 deg C in the last ~100 years

    • B. 

      The last year that global avg temperatures dropped by 1975

    • C. 

      Global avg temperatures were significantly colder in 1900 than in 1950

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

    • E. 

      Both A and B are correct

  • 22. 
    Studies of mountain glaciers indicate that __.
    • A. 

      About 50% of mountain glaciers are retreating

    • B. 

      Most (>90%) mountain glaciers are in retreat

    • C. 

      The observed mountain glacier retreat is largely a result of reduced snowfall

    • D. 

      The average retreat of mountain glaciers is only ~1.5 m since the 1850s

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 23. 
    W/c of the following will be measured w/satellites?
    • A. 

      Snow cover in the NH

    • B. 

      Sea ice cover in the Arctic

    • C. 

      Thickness and melting of the Greenland ice sheet

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      A and B only

  • 24. 
    W/c of the following is evidence for warming of the high northern latitudes?
    • A. 

      The last winer snow melting a week earlier in the NH

    • B. 

      Chlorophyll production beginning two weeks earlier in the NH

    • C. 

      The growing season beginning a week earlier in the NH

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      A and C only

  • 25. 
    What percent of the ~0.7 deg C warming since the late 1800s can be attributed to long-term tectonic scale climatic forcing (movement of tectonic plates)?
    • A. 

      Effectively none

    • B. 

      50%

    • C. 

      25%

    • D. 

      5%

    • E. 

      1%