Introduction To Geology: A Comprehensive Exam

88 Questions | Total Attempts: 38

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Geology Quizzes & Trivia

When you get introduced to a new subject or topic you may be excited to learn and actually store most of the knowledge you gather but some of us are so doubtful of our understanding capabilities that we forget much of what we studied. The quiz below will test your comprehension on the introduction to geology. Give it a shot!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which of the following questions is NOT one that could be answered using the scientific method?
    • A. 

      How old is the Earth?

    • B. 

      Is it right to use human subjects in medical trials?

    • C. 

      How much has sea level risen in the last 125 years?

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 2. 
    Earth's global average surface temperature is approximately __.
    • A. 

      76 deg F

    • B. 

      15 deg C

    • C. 

      The same as the temperature at the equator

    • D. 

      Both A and C

  • 3. 
    Climate science __.
    • A. 

      Is exclusively studied by meteorologists

    • B. 

      Requires an Earth system science perspective

    • C. 

      Spans vast temporal scales

    • D. 

      Spans vast spatial scales

    • E. 

      All but A

  • 4. 
    What causes Earth's climate to change over time?
    • A. 

      Changes in Earth's orbit around the Sun

    • B. 

      Changes in the strength of the Sun

    • C. 

      Changes in plate tectonics (geography of land and sea)

    • D. 

      Human activities

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 5. 
    Climate differs from weather in that __.
    • A. 

      Climate change is exclusively global, whereas weather is exclusively regional

    • B. 

      Climate includes temperature, while weather addresses precipitation, snow and ice cover, and wind conditions

    • C. 

      Climate is a broad composite of weather conditions over time scales of years and decades

    • D. 

      Climate and weather do not differ, they are interchangeable terms

  • 6. 
    Positive internal Earth system feedbacks__.
    • A. 

      Always amplify climate changes initially caused by external forcing

    • B. 

      Always cause climate warming

    • C. 

      Help maintain a constant temperature on Earth

    • D. 

      Both A and C

  • 7. 
    What factor(s) determine the response of a climate system component to a change in outside forcing?
    • A. 

      The amplitude (degree) of the forcing

    • B. 

      The frequency of forcing variations

    • C. 

      The response rate of the internal climate system component

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      Both A and C

  • 8. 
    Which of the following statements is correct about climate forcing-response interactions?
    • A. 

      Roughly equal time scales of forcing and response result in varying degrees of response by the climate system to the forcing

    • B. 

      Slow response time permits the climate system to fully track slow forcing

    • C. 

      Fast response time allows little climate response to fast changes in forcing

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 9. 
    Past climate change__.
    • A. 

      Informs scientists about climate forcings and system interactions, which are necessary for predicting future climate change

    • B. 

      Occurred only during the last 1000 years

    • C. 

      Has been influenced by both natural and human forcings

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      Both A and C

  • 10. 
    • A. 

      Typically accumulate on high exposed spots (e.g. mountain tops)

    • B. 

      Will have recorded the same climatic event at the same depth everywhere

    • C. 

      Have a temporal (time) resolution-dependent on the rate that the sediment accumulated and whether it has been disturbed (mixed-up) after deposition

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      Both A and C

  • 11. 
    Consider the study of past climate change and determine which of the following is (are) correct.
    • A. 

      The resolution of climate archives is greater in the recent past than for the distant geologic past.

    • B. 

      The types of climate archives available are generally more diverse in the recent past than they are for the distant geologic past.

    • C. 

      Climate proxies allow scientists to directly determine the temperature of the past

    • D. 

      Both A and B are correct

    • E. 

      None of the above are correct

  • 12. 
    W/c of the following is an example of a biologic proxy that could be used for reconstructing past climate change?
    • A. 

      Burial flux of ice-rafted debris at a deep marine site

    • B. 

      A data set of temperature-sensitive planktic foraminifera species changes over time at a deep marine site

    • C. 

      Instrumental temperature measurements recorded at a weather station

    • D. 

      Isotopes of oxygen in benthic foraminifera from a deep marine site

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 13. 
    W/c of the following approaches do climate scientists use to reconstruct past global climate change?
    • A. 

      Work under the assumption that the terrestrial, ocean, and atmospheric environments are all closed systems

    • B. 

      Recover and study cores from trees, corals, ice, lake sediments, and ocean sediments

    • C. 

      Develop climate models that require no assumptions

    • D. 

      Limit study to a single proxy from any particular archive

    • E. 

      Use all of the above

  • 14. 
    Physical climate computer models__.
    • A. 

      Must simulate the modern climate reasonably well to be trusted as a tool for exploring past climate

    • B. 

      Track geochemical tracers through the climate system

    • C. 

      Are structured to allow continuous interaction of the atmosphere and ocean

    • D. 

      Modify physical laws of radiation and circulation of fluids (ocean and atmosphere) to match data from geologic archives

    • E. 

      Both C and D

  • 15. 
    Numerical simulations of past climate occur in an ordered 3-step sequence. The order is __.
    • A. 

      Analyze the climate data output by comparing them w/independent geologic data-->specify boundary conditions-->Run a climate simulation

    • B. 

      Run a climate simulation, specify boundary conditions, analyze the climate data output by comparing them w/independent geologic data

    • C. 

      Specify boundary conditions-->Run a climate simulation-->Analyze the climate data output by comparing them w/independent geologic data

    • D. 

      Run a climate simulation, analyze the climate data output by comparing them w/independent geologic data, specify boundary conditions

  • 16. 
    How could a tide gauge record indicate sea level fall if global sea level is actually rising?
    • A. 

      The tide gauge is located in an area of active tectonic uplift

    • B. 

      The tide gauge is located in an area where bedrock is rebounding after ice unloading

    • C. 

      The tide gauge is located in Scandinavia

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 17. 
    Approximately how much did global sea level rise during the 20th century (1900s)?
    • A. 

      125 m

    • B. 

      65 m

    • C. 

      0.008 m

    • D. 

      1.8 m

    • E. 

      0.20 m

  • 18. 
    What accounts for the sea level rise of the 20th century?
    • A. 

      Melting of land-based glaciers

    • B. 

      Thermal expansion of sea water

    • C. 

      Melting of sea ice

    • D. 

      Both A and B

    • E. 

      Both B and C

  • 19. 
    Urban heat islands __.
    • A. 

      Have greater back radiation (longwave radiation) at night than do non-urban areas

    • B. 

      Have greater absorption of incoming radiation during the day than do no-urban areas

    • C. 

      Have contributed slightly to the warming trend of the last century

    • D. 

      Have higher temperatures than rural regions do, given the same incoming radiation

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 20. 
    How has the mean temperature of the surface ocean (upper 3000m) changed in the last 50 years?
    • A. 

      It has warmed in the N.Hemisphere, but cooled in the S. Hemisphere

    • B. 

      It has warmed in the NH, but cooled in the SH

    • C. 

      It has cooled in the NH, but warmed in the SH

    • D. 

      The trend of temperature change is similar to that observed on land

    • E. 

      Both C and D are correct

  • 21. 
    Global mean temperature from 1900-2005...
    • A. 

      Global avg temperatures have warmed by ~0.7 deg C in the last ~100 years

    • B. 

      The last year that global avg temperatures dropped by 1975

    • C. 

      Global avg temperatures were significantly colder in 1900 than in 1950

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

    • E. 

      Both A and B are correct

  • 22. 
    Studies of mountain glaciers indicate that __.
    • A. 

      About 50% of mountain glaciers are retreating

    • B. 

      Most (>90%) mountain glaciers are in retreat

    • C. 

      The observed mountain glacier retreat is largely a result of reduced snowfall

    • D. 

      The average retreat of mountain glaciers is only ~1.5 m since the 1850s

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 23. 
    W/c of the following will be measured w/satellites?
    • A. 

      Snow cover in the NH

    • B. 

      Sea ice cover in the Arctic

    • C. 

      Thickness and melting of the Greenland ice sheet

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      A and B only

  • 24. 
    W/c of the following is evidence for warming of the high northern latitudes?
    • A. 

      The last winer snow melting a week earlier in the NH

    • B. 

      Chlorophyll production beginning two weeks earlier in the NH

    • C. 

      The growing season beginning a week earlier in the NH

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      A and C only

  • 25. 
    What percent of the ~0.7 deg C warming since the late 1800s can be attributed to long-term tectonic scale climatic forcing (movement of tectonic plates)?
    • A. 

      Effectively none

    • B. 

      50%

    • C. 

      25%

    • D. 

      5%

    • E. 

      1%

  • 26. 
    Current estimates suggest that changes in solar irradiance (due to sunspots) can account for __ of the ~0.7 deg C global warming since the late 1800s.
    • A. 

      ~0.1 deg C

    • B. 

      ~0.25 deg C

    • C. 

      ~0.4 deg C

    • D. 

      ~0.7 deg C

    • E. 

      None

  • 27. 
    Which is true?
    • A. 

      The effect of large volcanic explosions is not detected by instrumental temperature records.

    • B. 

      The effect of large volcanic explosions contributed to the long-term baseline warming trend.

    • C. 

      Large volcanic explosions caused short-term cooling, but had little effect on the long-term warming

    • D. 

      Strong El Ninos contributed to the long-term baseline warming trend

    • E. 

      Both B and D are correct

  • 28. 
    What is the modern concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere?
    • A. 

      560 ppm

    • B. 

      280 ppm

    • C. 

      385 ppm

    • D. 

      140 ppm

    • E. 

      643 ppm

  • 29. 
    What human activity accounts for the increase in the atmospheric CO2 in the last 200 years?
    • A. 

      Burning of carbon in trees to clear land for agriculture

    • B. 

      Burning of carbon in coal, oil, and natural gas

    • C. 

      Increased production of genetically-modified crops

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      Both A and B

  • 30. 
    In order of size (largest first) where does the CO2 produced by humans go?
    • A. 

      Biosphere, ocean, atmosphere

    • B. 

      Atmosphere, ocean, biosphere

    • C. 

      Atmosphere, biosphere, ocean

    • D. 

      Biosphere, atmosphere, ocean

    • E. 

      Ocean, atmosphere, biosphere

  • 31. 
    W/c of the following is correct?
    • A. 

      An increase in sulfate concentration causes volcanoes to explode

    • B. 

      There have been more volcanic explosions on average since 1900 than during the previous two centuries

    • C. 

      The baseline sulfate concentration increased because of human emissions after 1850 AD.

    • D. 

      Sulfate concentrations were lower in 1990 than in 1980.

  • 32. 
    Global dimming __.
    • A. 

      Is irreversible

    • B. 

      Masks the effects of global warming

    • C. 

      Is caused by rising CO2 levels

    • D. 

      Will produce a solar eclipse

    • E. 

      Is more prominent in polar regions

  • 33. 
    Methane __.
    • A. 

      Occurs in higher abundances in the atmosphere than CO2 does

    • B. 

      Is a more effective greenhouse gas then CO2 on a molecule-by-molecule basis

    • C. 

      Rise for the last 150 years is equivalent to a CO2 rise of 60%

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      Both A and C

  • 34. 
    Sensitivity tests in general circulation models (GCM) indicate that a doubling of pre-industrial CO2 levels should result in a global mean temperature rise of
    • A. 

      ~0.5 deg C

    • B. 

      ~0.25 deg C

    • C. 

      ~5 deg C

    • D. 

      ~7 deg C

    • E. 

      ~10 deg C

  • 35. 
    Which of the following processes is a negative feedback that is taken into account in global climate model temperature sensitivity tests of a doubling of CO2?
    • A. 

      Effect of water vapour

    • B. 

      Effect of CO2

    • C. 

      Effect of snow and ice albedo

    • D. 

      Effect of thick, low clouds

    • E. 

      Both A and C

  • 36. 
    The ~0.7 deg C rise in global avg temperatures since the late 1800s is less than the predicted temperature rise estimated from models of CO2 sensitivity. W/c of the following can explain this?
    • A. 

      Carbon dioxide

    • B. 

      Methane

    • C. 

      Ozone

    • D. 

      Clouds

  • 37. 
    What of the following are factors in estimates of the future increase in CO2 emissions?
    • A. 

      Population changes

    • B. 

      Changes in the quality of life

    • C. 

      Efficiency changes in fossil fuel use

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      Both A and C

  • 38. 
    The primary reason CO2 emissions will probalby fall sometime in the next 20-100 years is because of
    • A. 

      An increase in technological efficiency of fossil fuel use

    • B. 

      Depletion of fossil fuel reserves

    • C. 

      A decrease in global population

    • D. 

      Carbon sequestration by the oceans

  • 39. 
    Human population __.
    • A. 

      Is predicted to reach 10 billion in

    • B. 

      Is predicted to increase most in economically developing countries

    • C. 

      Growth is predicted to cause a rise in carbon emissions

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 40. 
    In the 4 x CO2 scenario, atmospheric CO2 concentrations ___.
    • A. 

      Match the estimated CO2 concentrations of the last interglacial

    • B. 

      Peak at a concentration of 1100 ppm

    • C. 

      Peak at the same time as the peak in CO2 emissions

    • D. 

      Match the CO2 concentration at the time of early hominids

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 41. 
    As atmospheric CO2 is transferred into the deep ocean
    • A. 

      Sea water will become more acidic

    • B. 

      Sea water will dissolve seafloor carbonates

    • C. 

      Corals and other animals that build carbonate hard parts will be stressed

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      Both A and C

  • 42. 
    What is the predicted warming in a 2 x CO2 world?
    • A. 

      0.7 deg C

    • B. 

      1 deg C

    • C. 

      2 deg C

    • D. 

      2.5 deg C

    • E. 

      5 deg C

  • 43. 
    The 2007 IPCC report projects that the rate of sea level rise is likely to increase from 17cm in the last century to __ in the next century.
    • A. 

      18 cm

    • B. 

      20 cm

    • C. 

      30 cm

    • D. 

      50 cm

    • E. 

      100 cm

  • 44. 
    Temperature change caused by a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations will be largest
    • A. 

      In the high mid-latitudes in the winter

    • B. 

      In the tropics in the winter

    • C. 

      In the tropics in the summer

    • D. 

      In the high mid-latitudes in the summer

    • E. 

      None of the above because temp changes will be globally uniform

  • 45. 
    How will mid-latitude seasons be affected by an atmospheric CO2 doubling?
    • A. 

      Winter and summer will both be longer

    • B. 

      Winter will be longer and summer will be shorter

    • C. 

      Winter and summer will both be shorter

    • D. 

      Winter will be shorter and summer will be longer

    • E. 

      There will be no change in length of seasons, since this is controlled by variations in Earth's geometry in space

  • 46. 
    If humans instantly eliminated all industrial and other emissions of greenhouse gases and SO2, then __.
    • A. 

      Sulfates in the atmosphere would decrease within weeks to months

    • B. 

      Atmospheric CO2 would decrease within weeks to months

    • C. 

      Global avg temperatures would decrease within weeks to months

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

    • E. 

      Both B and C are correct

  • 47. 
    The ~0.7 deg C rise in global avg temperatures since the late 1800s is less than the predicted temperature rise estimated from models of CO2 sensitivity. W/c can explain this?
    • A. 

      Carbon-containing brown clouds have not yet fully responded to the CO2 warming

    • B. 

      The ocean has not yet fully responded to the CO2 forcing

    • C. 

      Sulfate aerosols have yet not fully responded to the CO2 forcing

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 48. 
    About ___ percent of our current total energy is produced by burning fossil fuels.
    • A. 

      95%

    • B. 

      85%

    • C. 

      78%

    • D. 

      60%

    • E. 

      30%

  • 49. 
    About ___percent of the petroleum we use is imported is imported from other nations.
    • A. 

      95%

    • B. 

      85%

    • C. 

      78%

    • D. 

      60%

  • 50. 
    Most of the electricity used in the United States is produced from __.
    • A. 

      Wind power

    • B. 

      Oil

    • C. 

      Coal

    • D. 

      Nuclear energy

  • 51. 
    The Peak Oil Theory predicts that the peak in world oil production will occur when about ___ of the total reserves of oil have been used up.
    • A. 

      9/10

    • B. 

      4/5

    • C. 

      1/2

    • D. 

      1/3

    • E. 

      1/4

  • 52. 
    The current production of oil in the United States (including Alaska) ___.
    • A. 

      Has been falling since 1970

    • B. 

      Is slowly rising due to environmental regulations

    • C. 

      Is steady

    • D. 

      Is rapidly rising because of increased offshore drilling

  • 53. 
    If the world's proven reserves of petroleum are approximately 1200 Gbo and we use approximately 30 Gbo per year, how many years would it take to exhaust these proven oil reserves if our current use remains constant?
    • A. 

      ~500 years

    • B. 

      ~100 years

    • C. 

      ~40 years

    • D. 

      ~10 years

  • 54. 
    The price of a barrel of oil is directly determined by ___.
    • A. 

      Oil companies like Exxon Mobil who gouge us everyday.

    • B. 

      Oil commodity traders in future markets in New York and around the world

    • C. 

      Oil consumers primarily in the U.S.

    • D. 

      Oil producing nations like Saudi Arabia

  • 55. 
    Estimate the avg residence time of a molecule of water in the atmosphere (given that the volume of water in the atmosphere at any time is ~13,000 km3, the flux in and out is approximately 500,000 km3 per year.
    • A. 

      ~10 years

    • B. 

      ~1 year

    • C. 

      ~1 month

    • D. 

      ~10 days

  • 56. 
    Which of these activities produces the largest carbon footprint?
    • A. 

      Using 100 kilowatts of electricity generated from coal

    • B. 

      Riding your bicycle to work while breathing very hard

    • C. 

      Burning a small pile of leaves in your yard

    • D. 

      Using one gallon of gasoline while driving

  • 57. 
    Which of the following gases is also a greenhouse gas and contains carbon (and is therefore part of the carbon cycle)?
    • A. 

      Methane

    • B. 

      Water vapor

    • C. 

      Sulfates

    • D. 

      Nitrous oxide

  • 58. 
    The Medieval Warm Period___.
    • A. 

      Occurred after the Little Ice Age

    • B. 

      Was marked by less sea around the coasts of Iceland and Greenland

    • C. 

      Ended very abruptly

    • D. 

      Had a duration of 1000 years

  • 59. 
    The Little Ice Age ___.
    • A. 

      Occurred from about 1400-1850 A.D.

    • B. 

      Was marked by the growth and advance of continental sized ice sheets in North America

    • C. 

      Was global in extent

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 60. 
    The regional variability in climate in the last 1000 years ___.
    • A. 

      Is observable because of the greater number of high-resolution climate proxies than are available for earlier time periods in Earth's history

    • B. 

      Is not real but actually an artifact of an incomplete dataset

    • C. 

      Means that there cannot be a common cause for any trends in the combined records

    • D. 

      Shows a distinct separation between climate changes in oceans compared to it on land

    • E. 

      Both C and D

  • 61. 
    (See # 18 Test 2 for Graph)Examine the ice core data in the following figure to determine which of the following statements is true.
    • A. 

      The 18O concentration in Greenland is more positive during the last 50 years than at any other time in the record

    • B. 

      The average 18O concentration in Tibet is more positive during the last 50 years than at any other time in the record

    • C. 

      The average 18O concentration in Antarctica is more positive during the last 50 years than at any other time in the record

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

    • E. 

      Both A and B are correct

  • 62. 
    Dendroclimatoloy (tree-ring dating) studies ___.
    • A. 

      Require that scientists cut trees down, examining the ring structures in the stumps of the tree

    • B. 

      Involve the comparisons of tree ring width and density to local records of instrumental rainfall and temperature

    • C. 

      Are only effective for reconstructing climate changes occurring over the last few decades

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      Both A and B

  • 63. 
    Examine the following figures (Test 2, #20) which show integrated signals for temperature change based on tree ring analyses in the circum-Arctic (upper record) and in central Asia (lower record) to determine which of the following statements is true.
    • A. 

      The Arctic sustained cool temperatures during the Little Ice Age

    • B. 

      Central Asia sustained cool temperatures during the Little Ice Age

    • C. 

      The climate trends of the circum-Arctic and Central Asia show a similar pattern over the last 320 years

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

    • E. 

      None of the above is correct

  • 64. 
    Tree-ring records are primarily dated using the method of ___.
    • A. 

      Radiocarbon dating

    • B. 

      Potassium-Argon dating

    • C. 

      Ring counting and correlation

  • 65. 
    Rising CO2 levels ___.
    • A. 

      Promote greater photosynthesis and thus tree growth

    • B. 

      Could complicate tree ring interpretations

    • C. 

      Would produce the same effect on the tree ring pattern as would a trend toward wetter climates in dry regions

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 66. 
    During an El Nino year ___.
    • A. 

      The tropical eastern equatorial Pacific becomes cooler

    • B. 

      Upwelling is strong along Peru

    • C. 

      The trade winds weaken

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

    • E. 

      Both B and C are correct

  • 67. 
    Which types of historical records reflect aspects of climate change?
    • A. 

      Records of rivers and lake freeze-up

    • B. 

      Crop and harvest reports

    • C. 

      Ships' logs of fish catches

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      Both A and B

  • 68. 
    How do explosive volcanic eruptions affect climate?
    • A. 

      They generally result in a cooling for a year or two.

    • B. 

      They affect climate for up to 1000 years after an eruption

    • C. 

      They cause warming due to their output of sulfate particles

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

    • E. 

      Both A and C are correct

  • 69. 
    Sun spots ___.
    • A. 

      Cause changes in the amount of back radiation that Earth emits

    • B. 

      Occur in a 100-year cycle

    • C. 

      Were more numerous between A.D. 1645 and 1715 than they are today

    • D. 

      Occur at times when net solar emissions are stronger than normal

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 70. 
    How are beds of volcanic ash used in studies of human evolution?
    • A. 

      3.8 million year old footprints of human ancestors have been preserved in volcanic ash

    • B. 

      The age of fossil remains of human ancestors can be constrained by radiometric dating of interbedded volcanic ash layers

    • C. 

      Volcanic ash has preserved perfect body casts of human ancestors, similar to those found in Pompeii

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

    • E. 

      Both A and B are correct

  • 71. 
    Why is it hard to assess whether climate change affected human evolution?
    • A. 

      Climate hasn't changed during the existence of humans and their ancestors

    • B. 

      Humans didn't evolve until 2000 years ago

    • C. 

      The human fossil record is sparse and human fossils are very rare

    • D. 

      Climate records in Africa for this time are sparse

    • E. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 72. 
    What was the general climate trend during the time of early human evolution?
    • A. 

      The existence of global glacial-interglacial cycles

    • B. 

      A general shift to drier climates in Africa

    • C. 

      Increased variability in the global climate

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 73. 
    The Savanna Hypothesis ___.
    • A. 

      States that desert dust storms were impeded by the expansion of grasslands in North Africa 4 million years ago

    • B. 

      Attempts to explain why conditions became drier in Central Africa in the last 4 million years

    • C. 

      States that the spread of grasslands in Africa was a direct result of deforestation by early human ancestors

    • D. 

      Bases the increase in the growth of hominid braincases on a diet rich in prairie grasses such as wheat

    • E. 

      Suggests that human evolution was driven by a long-term drying of African climates.

  • 74. 
    What evidence is there for a long-term drying in Africa over the last 4 million years?
    • A. 

      Increased Saharan dust deposits in the tropical eastern Atlantic ocean

    • B. 

      Decreased abundances of forest pollen in the tropical eastern Atlantic ocean

    • C. 

      A trend toward heavier 13C values in African soils and fossilized animal teeth

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      Both B and C

  • 75. 
    The first evidence of agriculture
    • A. 

      Dates to 120,000 years ago

    • B. 

      Is based on non-native grains found in the Middle East about 120,000 years ago

    • C. 

      Indicates homo erectus was the first of the human ancestors to cultivate crops

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      Both B and C

  • 76. 
    The tectonic uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas ___.
    • A. 

      Occurred ~15 million years ago

    • B. 

      Produced a unique high elevation area in the late Cenozoic

    • C. 

      Resulted in increased rates of sediment accumulation in the northern Indian Ocean

    • D. 

      Resulted in the development of a strong monsoon system

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 77. 
    Which of the following geological Eras is the oldest?
    • A. 

      Pleistocene

    • B. 

      Cenozoic

    • C. 

      Paleozoic

    • D. 

      Mesozoic

  • 78. 
    What was the general long-term climate trend in the last 50 Myr?
    • A. 

      Stepwise warming

    • B. 

      Erratic cooling

    • C. 

      Gradual warming

    • D. 

      Steady state

    • E. 

      Rapid cooling

  • 79. 
    The long-term 18O trend in benthic foraminifera indicate
    • A. 

      >6 deg C cooling of the deep waters between 50-40 Myr

    • B. 

      Ice sheet growth after 40-35 Ma

    • C. 

      >7 deg C cooling of the deep waters after 40-35 Ma

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      Both B and C

  • 80. 
    Oceanic gateways
    • A. 

      Open and close because of changes in ocean circulation

    • B. 

      Are narrow passages connecting different ocean basins

    • C. 

      Transport land-derived sediment to the deep sea

    • D. 

      Do not exist in the modern ocean

    • E. 

      All but C

  • 81. 
    A complication in assessing the oceanic heat transport hypotheses is that
    • A. 

      GCMs can not yet simulate changes in the strength of ocean currents

    • B. 

      Oceanic gateway changes occur only in the Southern Hemisphere, while climate change is global

    • C. 

      Stepwise-climate changes are slower than gateway changes

    • D. 

      Climate scientists disagree on the relative importance of the release of latent heat and sensible heat

  • 82. 
    Which of the following criteria of the uplift weathering hypotheses are clearly shown in the geologic archives of the last 50 Myr?
    • A. 

      The amount of high-elevation terrain in existence today must be unusually large in comparison with that of earlier intervals.

    • B. 

      This high terrain must be causing unusual amounts of rock fragmentation

    • C. 

      The exposure of fresh debris must be causing unusually high rates of chemical weathering

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 83. 
    What process could serve to moderate the global cooling in the last 50 Myr?
    • A. 

      A reduction of chemical weathering on land not uplifted due to cooler, drier conditions globally

    • B. 

      An increase in freshly fragmented rock by glacial erosion

    • C. 

      Continental ice sheets remaining at or near their maximum extent for millions of years

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      Both A and C

  • 84. 
    Pangea was a supercontinent that began to break up during the ___ Era.
    • A. 

      Cenozoic

    • B. 

      Mesozoic

    • C. 

      Paleozoic

  • 85. 
    Estimate the age of a sample of fossil wood that has radioactivity that is 30% of its original radioactivity (the half life of 14C is 5780 years).
    • A. 

      ~5000 years

    • B. 

      ~9000 years

    • C. 

      ~13,000 years

    • D. 

      ~20, 000 years

  • 86. 
    The oldest sample that can be dated by the radiocarbon method is approximately ___ years old.
    • A. 

      20,000

    • B. 

      40,000

    • C. 

      60,000

    • D. 

      120,000

  • 87. 
    Which of the following materials could NOT be dated with the radiocarbon method?
    • A. 

      Wood

    • B. 

      Bone

    • C. 

      Volcanic ash

    • D. 

      Cloth

    • E. 

      Shells

  • 88. 
    Explain how much (as a % of our current production of CO2) we would need to reduce the amount of CO2 we add to the atmosphere in order to stabilize and then reduce CO2 in the atmosphere (as shown in the rising Keeling Curve). Explain the reasoning behind.