Geology 111: Understanding The Planet Earth Exam Sample Test

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Geology 111: Understanding The Planet Earth Exam Sample Test - Quiz


How much do you understand the planet earth? This quiz can help. Concerning this quiz, you need to recognize the orbit of the earth, the innermost four planets in the solar system, how many minerals exist on earth, what are crystalline substances, what is a mineral, what is the most abundant volcanic rock, and at what temperature do rocks melt. Learn more about our planet by taking this quiz.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The orbit of our earth is:

    • A.

      Closer, or

    • B.

      Farther from the sun than the orbit of mars

    Correct Answer
    A. Closer, or
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Closer". This means that the orbit of Earth is closer to the sun compared to the orbit of Mars.

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  • 2. 

    The innermost 4 planets of our solar system are geologically similar to earth.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The innermost 4 planets of our solar system, namely Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are geologically similar to Earth. They are all terrestrial planets, composed of rock and metal, and have solid surfaces. They also have atmospheres, although the composition and thickness may vary. Additionally, these planets have undergone similar geological processes such as volcanic activity, tectonic plate movement, and erosion. This similarity in geological characteristics makes the statement "True."

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  • 3. 

    Volcanic eruptions teach us that the interior of the earth:

    • A.

      Contains liquid, molten rock.

    • B.

      Is very hot, possibly thousands of degrees

    • C.

      That geologic activity is far from over

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Volcanic eruptions teach us that the interior of the earth contains liquid, molten rock, as the magma that erupts from volcanoes is a result of this molten rock. These eruptions also indicate that the interior of the earth is very hot, possibly reaching temperatures of thousands of degrees. Additionally, volcanic eruptions demonstrate that geologic activity is far from over, as they are a clear indication of ongoing processes within the earth's interior. Therefore, the correct answer is "All of the above."

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  • 4. 

    A new concept in the earth sciences is to look at our planet as a system with four components that interact with each other. check the four spheres of earth.

    • A.

      Geosphere

    • B.

      Atmosphere

    • C.

      Biosphere

    • D.

      Hydrosphere

    • E.

      Ecosphere

    • F.

      Lithosphere

    • G.

      Stratosphere

    • H.

      Asthenosphere

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Geosphere
    B. Atmosphere
    C. Biosphere
    D. Hydrosphere
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Geosphere, Atmosphere, Biosphere, and Hydrosphere. These four components interact with each other to form Earth's system. The geosphere refers to the solid part of the Earth, including the rocks, minerals, and landforms. The atmosphere is the layer of gases surrounding the Earth, responsible for weather and climate. The biosphere includes all living organisms on Earth and their interactions with the environment. The hydrosphere consists of all the water on Earth, including oceans, rivers, lakes, and groundwater. Together, these four spheres play a crucial role in shaping the Earth and its processes.

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  • 5. 

    How many minerals exist on earth?

    • A.

      100-300

    • B.

      300-500

    • C.

      1000-2000

    • D.

      3000-5000

    Correct Answer
    D. 3000-5000
    Explanation
    There are between 3000 and 5000 minerals that exist on Earth. Minerals are naturally occurring inorganic substances with a specific chemical composition and crystal structure. They can be found in various forms and are essential for the formation of rocks and the Earth's crust. The wide range of minerals is a result of different geological processes and conditions that occur on our planet.

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  • 6. 

    Even though most minerals of the earth's crust are made up of the same 8 elements (invariable proportions), the minerals can look and feel very different

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because even though most minerals in the earth's crust are composed of the same 8 elements, their physical and chemical properties can vary greatly. This is due to differences in crystal structure, composition, and the presence of impurities. These variations result in minerals having different colors, textures, hardness, and other characteristics.

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  • 7. 

    Of these substances, pick those that are not crystalline:

    • A.

      Coal

    • B.

      Mineral Oil

    • C.

      Calcite

    • D.

      Graphite

    • E.

      Obsidian

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Coal
    B. Mineral Oil
    E. Obsidian
    Explanation
    Coal, mineral oil, and obsidian are not crystalline substances. Coal is a black, combustible sedimentary rock formed from plant remains. Mineral oil is a clear, odorless liquid derived from petroleum. Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed when lava cools rapidly. On the other hand, calcite and graphite are crystalline substances. Calcite is a crystalline form of calcium carbonate, often found in limestone and marble. Graphite is a crystalline form of carbon, known for its slippery texture and use in pencils.

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  • 8. 

    Considering where we are, in the coastal plain of Virginia, which of these minerals are most abundant at the surface, near the beach, or in riverbeds?

    • A.

      Quartz

    • B.

      K-spar

    • C.

      Graphite

    • D.

      Coal

    • E.

      Calcite

    • F.

      Clay Minerals

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Quartz
    B. K-spar
    E. Calcite
    F. Clay Minerals
    Explanation
    In the coastal plain of Virginia, the most abundant minerals at the surface, near the beach, or in riverbeds are Quartz, K-spar, Calcite, and Clay Minerals. These minerals are commonly found in coastal areas due to the geological processes that occur there. Quartz is a common mineral found in beach sands and riverbeds. K-spar, also known as potassium feldspar, is often found in coastal sediments. Calcite is a mineral commonly found in limestone, which can be found near coastal areas. Clay Minerals, such as kaolinite and montmorillonite, are also abundant in coastal regions due to the weathering of rocks and sediment deposition.

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  • 9. 

    A mineral is (three part answer):

    • A.

      Hard solid

    • B.

      Defined chemical composition

    • C.

      Naturally occuring solid

    • D.

      Ordered atomic structure

    • E.

      Inorganic

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Defined chemical composition
    C. Naturally occuring solid
    E. Inorganic
    Explanation
    A mineral is a naturally occurring solid with a defined chemical composition and an ordered atomic structure. It is inorganic, meaning it is not derived from living organisms. These characteristics distinguish minerals from other substances found in nature.

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  • 10. 

    Which rocks originate from crystallization of a melt?

    • A.

      Igneous

    • B.

      Metamorphic

    • C.

      Sedimentary

    Correct Answer
    A. Igneous
    Explanation
    Igneous rocks originate from the crystallization of a melt, which means that they form when molten rock cools and solidifies. This process can occur either beneath the Earth's surface, resulting in intrusive igneous rocks, or on the surface, resulting in extrusive igneous rocks. As the melt cools, minerals within it begin to crystallize and form the solid rock. This distinguishes igneous rocks from metamorphic rocks, which form from the alteration of pre-existing rocks, and sedimentary rocks, which form from the accumulation and lithification of sediments.

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  • 11. 

    The most abundant volcanic rock is:

    • A.

      Granite

    • B.

      Diorite

    • C.

      Basalt

    • D.

      Rhyolite

    Correct Answer
    C. Basalt
    Explanation
    Basalt is the most abundant volcanic rock because it is formed from the rapid cooling of lava at the Earth's surface. It is commonly found in oceanic crust, volcanic islands, and areas with recent volcanic activity. Basalt is characterized by its dark color, fine-grained texture, and high content of iron and magnesium. Its abundance can be attributed to the widespread occurrence of basaltic lava flows and eruptions throughout geological history, making it the correct answer.

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  • 12. 

    The most abundant intrusive igneous rock:

    • A.

      Granite

    • B.

      Diorite

    • C.

      Basalt

    • D.

      Rhyolite

    Correct Answer
    A. Granite
    Explanation
    Granite is the most abundant intrusive igneous rock because it is formed when magma cools slowly beneath the Earth's surface, allowing large crystals to form. This slow cooling process gives granite its characteristic coarse-grained texture. Granite is commonly found in continental crust and is widely distributed around the world. Its abundance can be attributed to the fact that it is composed of common minerals such as quartz, feldspar, and mica, which are abundant in the Earth's crust. Additionally, granite is resistant to weathering and erosion, which contributes to its prevalence on the Earth's surface.

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  • 13. 

    If lava flow cools too fast for crystals to form, it becomes what?

    • A.

      Basalt

    • B.

      Dacite

    • C.

      Trachyte

    • D.

      Obsidian

    Correct Answer
    D. Obsidian
    Explanation
    When lava flow cools rapidly, it does not have enough time for crystals to form. This results in the formation of a type of volcanic glass called obsidian. Obsidian is smooth, shiny, and typically black in color. It is formed from the rapid cooling of lava with a high silica content.

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  • 14. 

    If lava cools quickly and foams up because of a lot of gas, it is called:

    • A.

      Basalt

    • B.

      Dacite

    • C.

      Trachyte

    • D.

      Pumice

    Correct Answer
    D. Pumice
    Explanation
    Pumice is the correct answer because it is formed when lava cools quickly and traps a lot of gas, causing it to foam up. This results in a lightweight and porous rock with a rough texture. Basalt, Dacite, and Trachyte are all types of volcanic rocks, but they do not form through the same process as pumice.

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  • 15. 

    Which of these igneous rocks is mostly dark colored:

    • A.

      Granite

    • B.

      Diorite

    • C.

      Basalt

    • D.

      Rhyolite

    Correct Answer
    C. Basalt
    Explanation
    Basalt is mostly dark colored because it is composed mainly of mafic minerals such as pyroxene and olivine, which are dark in color. It is a fine-grained igneous rock that forms from the rapid cooling of lava on the Earth's surface. Basalt is commonly found in volcanic regions and is known for its dark gray to black color. It is also dense and heavy due to its high iron and magnesium content.

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  • 16. 

    Which of these igneous rocks is mostly light colored:

    • A.

      Granite

    • B.

      Diorite

    • C.

      Basalt

    • D.

      Rhyolite

    Correct Answer
    A. Granite
    Explanation
    Granite is mostly light colored compared to the other igneous rocks listed. It is composed mainly of light-colored minerals such as quartz, feldspar, and mica. This light coloration gives granite a pale appearance, often with shades of white, gray, or pink. In contrast, diorite and basalt are typically darker in color due to the presence of minerals like amphibole and pyroxene. Rhyolite can vary in color but is generally lighter than diorite and basalt. Therefore, granite stands out as the igneous rock that is mostly light colored.

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  • 17. 

    At what temperature do rocks melt, provided they are water free?

    • A.

      350 degrees

    • B.

      500 degrees

    • C.

      650 degrees

    • D.

      1000 degrees

    Correct Answer
    D. 1000 degrees
    Explanation
    Rocks melt at high temperatures because the heat causes the bonds between the atoms to weaken and break, allowing the solid rock to transform into a liquid state. The given answer of 1000 degrees suggests that this is the temperature at which rocks, without any water content, will melt. This is a high temperature, indicating that rocks require a significant amount of heat to reach their melting point.

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  • 18. 

    Porous volcanic rocks such as basalt contain important ore deposits of copper and gold.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Porous volcanic rocks like basalt are known to contain significant ore deposits of copper and gold. This is because the porous nature of these rocks allows for the accumulation and concentration of these valuable minerals over time. As a result, mining operations often target these types of rocks in search of copper and gold deposits. Therefore, the statement that porous volcanic rocks such as basalt contain important ore deposits of copper and gold is true.

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  • 19. 

    A clastic sedimentary rock comes about by:

    • A.

      Compaction

    • B.

      Cementation

    • C.

      Dilution

    • D.

      Dissolution of clastic particles, which can be minerals or rock fragments.

    Correct Answer
    B. Cementation
    Explanation
    Cementation is the process by which clastic sedimentary rocks are formed. It occurs when minerals or rock fragments are dissolved and then reprecipitated, filling the spaces between the clastic particles. This process helps to bind the particles together, creating a solid rock. Compaction, on the other hand, involves the squeezing together of sediment grains due to the weight of overlying sediments. Dilution and dissolution are not involved in the formation of clastic sedimentary rocks.

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  • 20. 

    Check the four most basic types of sedimentary rocks:

    • A.

      Biogenic

    • B.

      Intrusive

    • C.

      Chemical

    • D.

      Clastic

    • E.

      Biochemical

    • F.

      Other

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Biogenic
    C. Chemical
    D. Clastic
    F. Other
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Biogenic, Chemical, Clastic, Other. These are the four most basic types of sedimentary rocks. Biogenic rocks are formed from the remains of plants and animals. Chemical rocks are formed from the precipitation of minerals from water. Clastic rocks are formed from the accumulation of rock fragments or grains. "Other" refers to any other type of sedimentary rock that does not fit into the previous categories.

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  • 21. 

    Of these types of sedimentary rocks, which one is by far the most abundant?

    • A.

      Sandstone

    • B.

      Limestone

    • C.

      Shale

    • D.

      Conglomerate

    Correct Answer
    C. Shale
    Explanation
    Shale is the most abundant type of sedimentary rock because it is formed from the accumulation of fine-grained sediment, such as clay and silt, over long periods of time. These sediments are easily transported and deposited in calm water environments, resulting in the formation of shale. Additionally, shale has a high clay content, which allows it to easily compact and form solid rock. Due to these factors, shale is found in large quantities worldwide, making it the most abundant type of sedimentary rock.

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  • 22. 

    Even though sedimentary rocks are common near the earth's surface, they still only account for ____ of the volume of the earth's crust.

    • A.

      1%

    • B.

      7%

    • C.

      15%

    • D.

      20%

    Correct Answer
    B. 7%
    Explanation
    Sedimentary rocks are formed by the accumulation and compaction of sediments over time. While they are common near the earth's surface, they only account for a small percentage of the volume of the earth's crust. The correct answer of 7% suggests that sedimentary rocks make up a relatively small portion of the earth's crust, indicating that other types of rocks, such as igneous and metamorphic rocks, are more abundant.

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  • 23. 

    Even though conglomerates are fairly rare amoung sedimentary rocks, they can still tell us quite a lot about past environments, for example the location of ancient beaches.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Conglomerates, although uncommon in sedimentary rocks, can provide valuable information about past environments. They can indicate the presence of ancient beaches, among other things. Therefore, the statement that conglomerates can tell us a lot about past environments, such as the location of ancient beaches, is true.

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  • 24. 

    Of the following types of sediments, which is the most fine-grained?

    • A.

      Gravel

    • B.

      Sand

    • C.

      Silt

    • D.

      Clay

    Correct Answer
    D. Clay
    Explanation
    Clay is the most fine-grained sediment because it has the smallest particle size compared to gravel, sand, and silt. Clay particles are smaller than 0.002 mm in diameter, making them very fine and often sticky when wet. This fine texture allows clay to retain water and nutrients, making it ideal for agriculture. It also gives clay its smooth and cohesive properties, which can be molded and shaped when moist. Due to its small size, clay particles can easily be transported by water and wind, contributing to its widespread distribution in various environments.

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  • 25. 

    A shale, also sometimes called clay- or mudstone, comes about by cementation of slowly settling clay.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Shale is a type of sedimentary rock that is formed by the compaction and cementation of fine-grained clay particles. The process of shale formation begins with the deposition of clay particles in a low-energy environment such as a lake or ocean floor. Over time, these clay particles settle and become compacted under the weight of overlying sediment layers. As the clay particles continue to settle, they undergo a process called diagenesis, where the pressure and temperature increase, causing the clay to become lithified and transformed into shale. Therefore, the statement that shale comes about by cementation of slowly settling clay is true.

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  • 26. 

    Shale, more so than any other clastic sedimentary rock, is subject to severe compaction.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Shale is a type of clastic sedimentary rock that is known for its ability to undergo severe compaction. This means that over time, the layers of shale can become tightly compressed, reducing the pore spaces between the particles. This compaction is due to the fine-grained nature of shale and the weight of the overlying sediment and water. As a result, shale often has a high level of porosity and low permeability, making it an ideal rock for trapping and storing oil and gas. Therefore, the statement that shale is subject to severe compaction is true.

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  • 27. 

    Limestones can be composed of:

    • A.

      Chemically precipitated calcite

    • B.

      Organically produced calcite

    • C.

      Fossil fragments

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Limestones can be composed of chemically precipitated calcite, which refers to the process where calcite is formed through chemical reactions and precipitation. They can also be composed of organically produced calcite, which is formed by organisms like corals and shellfish. Additionally, limestones can contain fossil fragments, which are the remains or traces of ancient organisms. Therefore, all of these components can be found in limestones.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following terms are not sedimentary structures?

    • A.

      Cross beds

    • B.

      Ripple marks

    • C.

      Lava flows

    • D.

      Boulders

    • E.

      Fossils

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Lava flows
    D. Boulders
    Explanation
    Lava flows and boulders are not sedimentary structures because they are not formed through the accumulation and consolidation of sediment particles. Lava flows are formed when molten rock erupts from a volcano and solidifies on the surface, while boulders are large rocks that may be transported and deposited by glaciers or other geological processes. Sedimentary structures, on the other hand, are features that form within sedimentary rocks, such as cross beds, ripple marks, and fossils, which are the result of sediment deposition and subsequent lithification.

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  • 29. 

    Which of these rocks identifies a tropical environment?

    • A.

      Sandstone

    • B.

      Claystone

    • C.

      Coral reefs

    • D.

      Diamicton

    Correct Answer
    C. Coral reefs
    Explanation
    Coral reefs are formed by the accumulation of the skeletons of coral polyps, which thrive in warm, shallow, and clear tropical waters. These reefs are commonly found in areas with high sunlight, warm temperatures, and low nutrient levels, indicating a tropical environment. Sandstone, claystone, and diamicton are not specific to tropical environments and can be found in various climates and regions.

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  • 30. 

    Clay in its natural despositional environment can hold a lot of water

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Clay in its natural depositional environment has a high water-holding capacity due to its small particle size and large surface area. The fine particles in clay can attract and retain water molecules, creating a highly saturated environment. This characteristic of clay is important for various natural processes such as soil fertility, water retention for plant growth, and the formation of clay-rich sedimentary rocks. Therefore, the statement "Clay in its natural depositional environment can hold a lot of water" is true.

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  • 31. 

    Which chemical element is the most abundant, by far, in minerals of the earth's crust (not the whole earth)?

    • A.

      Hydrogen

    • B.

      Oxygen

    • C.

      Nitrogen

    • D.

      Carbon

    Correct Answer
    B. Oxygen
    Explanation
    Oxygen is the most abundant chemical element in minerals of the Earth's crust. This is because oxygen is highly reactive and readily combines with other elements to form minerals. It makes up about 46% of the Earth's crust by weight, followed by silicon at 28%. Oxygen is essential for the formation of silicate minerals, which are the most common type of minerals found in the Earth's crust. Additionally, oxygen is a key component of other important minerals such as oxides, carbonates, and sulfates.

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  • 32. 

    Which mineral is used as an ingredient in toothpaste?

    • A.

      Halite

    • B.

      Gypsum

    • C.

      Apatite

    • D.

      Flourite

    Correct Answer
    D. Flourite
    Explanation
    Fluorite is used as an ingredient in toothpaste because it contains fluoride, which helps to prevent tooth decay. Fluoride strengthens the tooth enamel and protects against acid attacks from bacteria in the mouth. It also helps to remineralize the teeth and reduce the risk of cavities. Therefore, fluorite is commonly added to toothpaste to provide the beneficial effects of fluoride for dental health.

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  • 33. 

    The surface layer of the earth is composed of lithospheric plates that move over the underlying asthenosphere

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the lithospheric plates, which make up the surface layer of the earth, are constantly moving. These plates float on the underlying asthenosphere, which is a semi-fluid layer of the upper mantle. This movement of the plates is responsible for various geological phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the formation of mountain ranges.

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  • 34. 

    What is Lithosphere?

    • A.

      Crust and mantle

    • B.

      Crust and the core

    • C.

      Crust and a portion of the upper mantle

    • D.

      Crust and Asthenosphere

    Correct Answer
    C. Crust and a portion of the upper mantle
    Explanation
    The lithosphere is the rigid outermost layer of the Earth, consisting of the crust and a portion of the upper mantle. This layer is divided into several tectonic plates that float on the semi-fluid asthenosphere below. The crust is the thinnest and outermost layer, while the upper mantle is the layer beneath the crust. Together, the crust and a portion of the upper mantle make up the lithosphere.

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  • 35. 

    How many large lithospheric plates are there?

    • A.

      2

    • B.

      12-16

    • C.

      25-30

    Correct Answer
    B. 12-16
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 12-16. The lithosphere, which is the rigid outer layer of the Earth, is divided into several large plates. These plates are constantly moving and interacting with each other. While the exact number of plates may vary depending on how they are defined, the generally accepted range is between 12 and 16 large lithospheric plates. These plates include the Eurasian Plate, African Plate, North American Plate, South American Plate, Pacific Plate, and many others.

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  • 36. 

    A lithospheric plate can be:

    • A.

      Oceanic

    • B.

      Continental

    • C.

      Continental and Oceanic

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    A lithospheric plate can be oceanic, continental, or both. The Earth's lithosphere is divided into several large plates that float on the semi-fluid asthenosphere beneath them. These plates can be made up of oceanic crust, which is denser and thinner, or continental crust, which is less dense and thicker. Additionally, some plates contain both oceanic and continental crust, such as the plate boundaries where continents collide with oceanic plates. Therefore, the statement "All of the above" is correct as it encompasses all the possible types of lithospheric plates.

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  • 37. 

    The North American plate is

    • A.

      Continental

    • B.

      Oceanic

    • C.

      Continental and Oceanic

    Correct Answer
    C. Continental and Oceanic
    Explanation
    The North American plate is both continental and oceanic. It consists of the North American continent, including parts of the United States, Canada, and Mexico, as well as the floor of the North Atlantic Ocean. This plate boundary is characterized by various geological features such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the San Andreas Fault. The combination of continental and oceanic crust on the North American plate contributes to the diverse geological activity in the region, including the formation of mountains, earthquakes, and volcanic activity.

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  • 38. 

    Movement of lithospheric plates is driven by what?

    • A.

      Underlying Asthenosphere

    • B.

      Magnetic Reversals

    Correct Answer
    A. Underlying Asthenosphere
    Explanation
    The movement of lithospheric plates is driven by the underlying asthenosphere. The asthenosphere is a semi-fluid layer of the Earth's mantle beneath the lithosphere. It is composed of hot, partially molten rock that allows the lithospheric plates to move. The asthenosphere acts as a lubricating layer, allowing the plates to slide past each other or separate, leading to various geological phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the formation of mountain ranges. Magnetic reversals, on the other hand, are not directly responsible for plate movement but are instead a result of the movement of the plates.

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  • 39. 

    The upper part of oceanic lithosphere consists of what?

    • A.

      Basalt

    • B.

      Dacite

    • C.

      Trachyte

    • D.

      Obsidian

    Correct Answer
    A. Basalt
    Explanation
    The upper part of the oceanic lithosphere consists of basalt. Basalt is a type of volcanic rock that is formed from the solidification of lava. It is dark in color and has a fine-grained texture. Basalt is commonly found in areas of volcanic activity, such as mid-ocean ridges, where it forms the upper layer of the oceanic crust. It is also present in volcanic islands and seamounts. Basalt is an important rock in Earth's geology and provides valuable insights into the processes occurring within the Earth's mantle and crust.

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  • 40. 

    The upper mantle consists of:

    • A.

      Basalt

    • B.

      Diorite

    • C.

      Peridotite

    • D.

      Granite

    Correct Answer
    C. Peridotite
    Explanation
    The upper mantle is composed of peridotite. Peridotite is a coarse-grained igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron. It is the main rock type found in the upper mantle, which is the layer of Earth's interior located between the crust and the lower mantle. Peridotite is dense and solid, and its composition plays a crucial role in the geodynamic processes that occur within the Earth, such as plate tectonics and the movement of magma.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following tectonic settings has the most dangerous, explosive volcanism?

    • A.

      Interior of large continents

    • B.

      Subduction zones

    • C.

      Spreading ridges

    • D.

      Hot Spots

    Correct Answer
    B. Subduction zones
    Explanation
    Subduction zones have the most dangerous, explosive volcanism because they occur when one tectonic plate is forced beneath another, creating intense pressure and heat. This leads to the formation of magma chambers, which can result in explosive eruptions when the pressure is released. Additionally, subduction zones often have a high water content due to the subducting plate carrying water-rich sediments, creating conditions for explosive eruptions. These volcanic eruptions can release large amounts of ash, gases, and pyroclastic flows, posing significant hazards to nearby populations and the environment.

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  • 42. 

    Oceanic crust is generated at:

    • A.

      Mid-ocean ridges

    • B.

      Over hot spots

    • C.

      Volcanic island arcs

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Oceanic crust is generated at mid-ocean ridges, over hot spots, and volcanic island arcs. Mid-ocean ridges are underwater mountain ranges where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity. Over hot spots, plumes of hot magma rise through the Earth's mantle, creating volcanic activity and generating new oceanic crust. Volcanic island arcs are formed when one tectonic plate subducts beneath another, causing volcanic activity and the formation of new oceanic crust. Therefore, all of these locations contribute to the generation of oceanic crust.

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  • 43. 

    Hawaii sits atop a:

    • A.

      Hot spot

    • B.

      Mantle plume

    • C.

      Transform fault

    • D.

      Spreading ridge

    Correct Answer
    A. Hot spot
    Explanation
    A hot spot is a location on the Earth's surface where a plume of hot mantle material rises up from deep within the Earth. This causes localized volcanic activity, which is seen in Hawaii with its chain of volcanic islands. The other options, such as mantle plume, transform fault, and spreading ridge, are not applicable in this context as they do not specifically describe the geological phenomenon observed in Hawaii.

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  • 44. 

    Yellowstone is a hot spot

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Yellowstone being a hot spot refers to the geological phenomenon where a mantle plume rises to the surface, creating a volcanic hotspot. This is true for Yellowstone as it sits on top of a supervolcano, which is a result of a hotspot. The area is known for its geothermal features, including the famous Old Faithful geyser, hot springs, and geysers. The volcanic activity in Yellowstone is evidence of it being a hot spot.

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  • 45. 

    The eastern coast of North America is called an:

    • A.

      Active plate margin

    • B.

      Passive plate margin

    Correct Answer
    B. Passive plate margin
    Explanation
    A passive plate margin refers to a tectonic boundary where two lithospheric plates are moving away from each other. In the case of the eastern coast of North America, it is located along the boundary between the North American Plate and the Eurasian Plate. This boundary is characterized by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where new crust is being formed as magma rises and solidifies. The movement of the plates away from each other is not associated with significant volcanic or seismic activity, hence the term "passive."

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  • 46. 

    Name the three most basic types of rocks:  

    • A.

      Igneous, Metamorphic, Sedimentary

    • B.

      Igneous, Metamorphic

    • C.

      Sedimentary, Metamorphic

    Correct Answer
    A. Igneous, Metamorphic, Sedimentary
    Explanation
    The three most basic types of rocks are igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary. Igneous rocks are formed from the solidification of molten material, such as lava or magma. Metamorphic rocks are formed from the transformation of existing rocks due to high heat and pressure. Sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation and cementation of sediments, such as sand or mud, over time.

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  • 47. 

    Sediment turns into a sedimentary rock by____________ of ___________

    • A.

      Petrification, Sediment

    • B.

      Compaction, Sediment

    • C.

      Lithification, Sediment

    • D.

      Cementation, Sediment

    Correct Answer
    C. Lithification, Sediment
    Explanation
    Lithification is the process by which loose sediment is transformed into solid sedimentary rock. This process involves the compaction and cementation of sediment. Compaction occurs when the weight of overlying sediment compresses the lower layers, reducing pore space and increasing density. Cementation happens when minerals precipitate from groundwater and fill the remaining pore spaces, binding the sediment particles together. Therefore, the correct answer is "Lithification, Sediment."

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  • 48. 

    3 pieces of evidence that Alfred Wegener used to support his hypothesis of continental drift

    • A.

      Plants/Rock layers

    • B.

      Fossil Evidence

    • C.

      Magnetic Reversals

    • D.

      Sonar Waves

    • E.

      Land Margins

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Plants/Rock layers
    B. Fossil Evidence
    E. Land Margins
    Explanation
    Alfred Wegener used plants/rock layers, fossil evidence, and land margins as evidence to support his hypothesis of continental drift. He observed that the same types of plants and rock layers were found on different continents, indicating that they were once connected. He also discovered similar fossil remains of plants and animals on different continents, further supporting the idea of continental drift. Additionally, he noticed that the coastlines of different continents fit together like puzzle pieces, suggesting that they were once joined together.

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  • 49. 

    Earthquakes occur primarily on active plate margins

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Earthquakes occur primarily on active plate margins. This is because these plate boundaries are characterized by intense geological activity, where tectonic plates are colliding, sliding past each other, or moving apart. The movement and interaction of these plates result in the accumulation of stress and energy within the Earth's crust. When this stress exceeds the strength of the rocks, it is released in the form of seismic waves, causing an earthquake. Therefore, it is true that earthquakes predominantly occur on active plate margins.

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  • 50. 

    How deep, approximately, is the global ocean at mid-ocean ridge?

    • A.

      1000 meters

    • B.

      2000-3000 meters

    • C.

      6000 meters

    Correct Answer
    B. 2000-3000 meters
    Explanation
    The global ocean at mid-ocean ridges is approximately 2000-3000 meters deep. Mid-ocean ridges are underwater mountain ranges where tectonic plates diverge, creating new oceanic crust. The depth of the ocean at these ridges is determined by the distance between the seafloor and the surface of the water. This depth range is considered typical for mid-ocean ridges, although it can vary depending on specific locations and geological factors.

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