Intro To Sociology, Chapter 4

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Intro To Sociology, Chapter 4 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The process by which existing social structures and norms are transmitted from generation to generation, providing continuity.

    • A.

      Acculturation

    • B.

      Cultural relativity

    • C.

      Social reproduction

    • D.

      Socialization

    Correct Answer
    C. Social reproduction
    Explanation
    Social reproduction refers to the process through which existing social structures and norms are passed down from one generation to another, ensuring continuity in society. This includes the transmission of cultural values, beliefs, and practices, as well as the reproduction of social inequalities and hierarchies. It involves various institutions such as family, education, and media, which play a crucial role in socializing individuals and shaping their behavior and identities according to societal norms and expectations. Social reproduction is essential for maintaining social order and stability over time.

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  • 2. 

    According to sociologist George Herbert Mead, human beings achieve self-awareness when they learn to ___________.

    • A.

      Judge between what is right and wrong in their society.

    • B.

      See themselves through the eyes of others.

    • C.

      Choose a career they think will fit them.

    • D.

      Imitate the actions of others.

    Correct Answer
    B. See themselves through the eyes of others.
    Explanation
    According to sociologist George Herbert Mead, human beings achieve self-awareness when they learn to see themselves through the eyes of others. This means that individuals develop a sense of self by understanding how they are perceived by others and by taking on the role of the other in social interactions. By considering the perspectives and expectations of others, individuals are able to reflect on their own behavior and develop a sense of identity. This process of "taking the role of the other" is essential for the development of self-awareness and socialization.

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  • 3. 

    What are the stages of Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development?

    • A.

      Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational

    • B.

      Preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational, abstract operational

    • C.

      Sensorimotor, concrete operational, formal operational, abstract operational

    • D.

      Option 4

    Correct Answer
    A. Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
    Explanation
    Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development proposes that children progress through four stages of cognitive development: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. During the sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years), infants learn about the world through their senses and motor actions. In the preoperational stage (2 to 7 years), children develop language and symbolic thinking but still struggle with logical reasoning. The concrete operational stage (7 to 11 years) is characterized by the ability to think logically about concrete objects and events. Finally, in the formal operational stage (11 years and older), individuals can think abstractly, reason hypothetically, and engage in scientific and moral reasoning.

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  • 4. 

    Social identity refers to:

    • A.

      The ways in which people understand who they are and what is meaningful to them

    • B.

      The process of self-development through which people create a unique sense of themselves and their relationship to the world

    • C.

      The characteristics that other people attribute to an individual

    • D.

      The process of constant negotiation between an individual's public and private lives that shapes his or her sense of self

    Correct Answer
    C. The characteristics that other people attribute to an individual
    Explanation
    Social identity refers to the characteristics that other people attribute to an individual. It is the perception and recognition of certain traits, roles, and affiliations that others assign to a person based on their social group membership, such as gender, race, nationality, or profession. These attributed characteristics can influence how individuals perceive themselves and how they are perceived by others, shaping their sense of identity and belonging within a larger social context.

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  • 5. 

    From a sociological perspective, what is a characteristic of human beings that most distinguishes us from other animals?

    • A.

      Human beings go through a process of socialization, which begins in infancy.

    • B.

      Human beings tend to pick mates for life, a practice that does not exist among any other animals.

    • C.

      Human beings are aware that they have a distinct identity that is separate from others.

    • D.

      Human beings have social roles, a concept that does not exist in the animal kingdom.

    Correct Answer
    C. Human beings are aware that they have a distinct identity that is separate from others.
    Explanation
    Human beings are aware that they have a distinct identity that is separate from others. This characteristic sets humans apart from other animals as it implies self-awareness and the ability to recognize oneself as an individual entity. This awareness allows humans to develop complex social structures, engage in introspection, and have a sense of personal agency. While other animals may exhibit certain levels of self-awareness, the extent to which humans possess this characteristic is what distinguishes us sociologically.

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  • 6. 

    The process through which people learn the values, norms, and social practices of their culture and thus learn how to function as members of that culture:

    • A.

      Social reproduction

    • B.

      Socialization

    • C.

      Cultural universal

    • D.

      Cognitive development

    Correct Answer
    B. Socialization
    Explanation
    Socialization refers to the process by which individuals acquire the values, norms, and social practices of their culture. It is through socialization that individuals learn how to function as members of their culture, including understanding and following societal rules, expectations, and behaviors. This process begins in childhood and continues throughout life, as individuals internalize and adopt the beliefs and behaviors of their society. Socialization is crucial for the development of social identity, self-awareness, and the ability to interact and communicate effectively with others within a specific cultural context.

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  • 7. 

     Egocentric thinking involves understanding objects and events in the environment solely in terms of the child's own position.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Egocentric thinking refers to a cognitive limitation where individuals interpret the world solely from their own perspective, without considering other viewpoints. This is particularly common in young children who struggle to understand that others may have different thoughts or beliefs. Therefore, the statement that egocentric thinking involves understanding objects and events in the environment solely in terms of the child's own position is true.

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  • 8. 

    Social roles assigned to each sex and labeled as masculine or feminine are known as sexual identity roles.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is incorrect because the social roles assigned to each sex and labeled as masculine or feminine are known as gender roles, not sexual identity roles. Sexual identity refers to an individual's own perception of their sexual orientation, such as being heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual.

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  • 9. 

    Socially defined expectations of an individual in a given status, or social position are known as social roles.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Social roles refer to the socially defined expectations that are associated with a specific social position or status. These expectations outline the behaviors, responsibilities, and obligations that individuals are expected to fulfill within a particular role. Therefore, the statement that socially defined expectations of an individual in a given status or social position are known as social roles is true.

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  • 10. 

    The learning of language is of vital importance to the processes by which the child learns to become a self-conscious being.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that language learning plays a crucial role in the development of a child's self-awareness. Through language, children are able to express their thoughts, emotions, and ideas, which contributes to their understanding of themselves as individuals. Language also enables children to communicate and interact with others, fostering social and cognitive development. Therefore, it can be concluded that the learning of language is indeed vital to the process of becoming a self-conscious being.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 18, 2015
    Quiz Created by
    Klimbert

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