Practice Test: IB Business And Management- Business Organisation & Environment #1

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Practice Test: IB Business And Management- Business Organisation & Environment #1 - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The resources used in the production process are collectively known as:

    • A.

      Human capital resources

    • B.

      Raw material

    • C.

      Working capital

    • D.

      Factors of production

    Correct Answer
    D. Factors of production
    Explanation
    The term "factors of production" refers to the resources used in the production process. This includes human capital resources, which are the skills, knowledge, and abilities of the workforce. It also includes raw materials, which are the basic materials used to create a product. Additionally, working capital, which refers to the funds necessary to operate a business on a day-to-day basis, is considered a factor of production. Therefore, the correct answer is factors of production, as it encompasses all of these resources.

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  • 2. 

    Specialization does not benefit from:

    • A.

      Monotony of doing the same job

    • B.

      Productivity gains

    • C.

      Products that are mass produced

    • D.

      Increased competitiveness

    Correct Answer
    A. Monotony of doing the same job
    Explanation
    Specialization does not benefit from monotony of doing the same job because specialization involves focusing on a specific task or area of expertise. Monotony implies repetitive and mundane work, which can lead to boredom and decreased motivation. Specialization, on the other hand, allows individuals to develop their skills and knowledge in a particular field, leading to increased productivity and efficiency. By specializing, individuals can become experts in their chosen area, which can enhance their competitiveness in the job market. Additionally, specialization is often associated with producing unique and specialized products rather than mass-produced ones.

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  • 3. 

    The difference between the costs of inputs in the production process and the price of the final output is known as:

    • A.

      Income

    • B.

      Revenue

    • C.

      Added value

    • D.

      Profit

    Correct Answer
    C. Added value
    Explanation
    Added value refers to the difference between the cost of inputs used in the production process and the price at which the final output is sold. It represents the value that is added to the inputs during the production process. This can include factors such as labor, technology, and expertise that contribute to enhancing the value of the final product. Added value is an important concept in economics as it reflects the economic benefit generated by a business or industry.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is NOT an example of primary production?

    • A.

      Agriculture

    • B.

      Fishing

    • C.

      Mining

    • D.

      Coaching

    Correct Answer
    D. Coaching
    Explanation
    Coaching is not an example of primary production because primary production refers to the economic activities involved in the extraction or cultivation of natural resources, such as agriculture, fishing, and mining. Coaching, on the other hand, is a service-based profession that involves providing guidance, training, and support to individuals or groups in various fields. It does not involve the direct extraction or cultivation of natural resources.

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  • 5. 

    Which occupation does not exist in the tertiary sector?

    • A.

      Estate agent

    • B.

      Secretary

    • C.

      Machinist

    • D.

      Librarian

    Correct Answer
    C. Machinist
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Machinist. The tertiary sector is also known as the service sector, which includes occupations that provide services to individuals or businesses. Estate agents, secretaries, and librarians are all examples of occupations in the tertiary sector as they involve providing services to clients or customers. However, a machinist is typically associated with the secondary sector, which involves manufacturing and production rather than providing services.

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  • 6. 

    The primary sector is the part of the economy that consists of:

    • A.

      Agriculture, fishing and extractive services

    • B.

      Little, if any, government control

    • C.

      Businesses that have been recently set up

    • D.

      Organisations that lack finance

    Correct Answer
    A. Agriculture, fishing and extractive services
    Explanation
    The primary sector refers to the part of the economy that involves the extraction of raw materials and natural resources. This includes activities such as agriculture, fishing, and extractive services. These industries are focused on the production of basic goods and materials, and they typically operate with little government control. The primary sector is important for providing the essential resources needed for other sectors of the economy to function.

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  • 7. 

    The secondary sector:

    • A.

      Forms the largest employment sector in most developed countries

    • B.

      Provides both goods and services

    • C.

      Consists of businesses involved in the manufacturing of goods

    • D.

      Is labour intensive

    Correct Answer
    C. Consists of businesses involved in the manufacturing of goods
    Explanation
    The secondary sector consists of businesses involved in the manufacturing of goods. This means that it includes industries such as automobile manufacturing, textile production, and electronics manufacturing. These businesses are responsible for transforming raw materials into finished products. The secondary sector is often characterized as labor-intensive because it requires a significant amount of manual labor and skilled workers to operate the machinery and equipment used in the manufacturing process. While it does provide goods, it does not provide services directly. In many developed countries, the secondary sector is the largest employment sector, indicating its importance in the economy.

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  • 8. 

    Production is:

    • A.

      The process of making goods and services from the available factor inputs

    • B.

      The manufacturing of goods and services in the secondary industry

    • C.

      Any output other than services

    • D.

      The second stage of the output process

    Correct Answer
    A. The process of making goods and services from the available factor inputs
    Explanation
    The answer is the first option, "The process of making goods and services from the available factor inputs." This option accurately describes production as the process of transforming raw materials and resources into finished goods and services. It highlights the utilization of factor inputs, such as labor, capital, and technology, to create the desired output. The other options are incorrect as they either focus solely on manufacturing or provide vague or incomplete definitions of production.

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  • 9. 

    The advantages of specialization include all those listed except:

    • A.

      A greater amount of output

    • B.

      Development of expertise and skills

    • C.

      Wider choice of options for customers

    • D.

      Increase in overall efficiency of production

    Correct Answer
    C. Wider choice of options for customers
    Explanation
    Specialization allows individuals or businesses to focus on a specific area, which leads to increased expertise and skills. This expertise results in higher productivity and efficiency, leading to a greater amount of output. Additionally, specialization allows for the production process to be streamlined and optimized, resulting in an increase in overall efficiency of production. However, specialization does not necessarily lead to a wider choice of options for customers. In fact, specialization often leads to a narrower range of products or services available to customers, as businesses focus on a specific niche or market segment.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following businesses would not be described as operating in the tertiary sector?

    • A.

      Pest control

    • B.

      Restaurant

    • C.

      Private security

    • D.

      Textiles

    Correct Answer
    D. Textiles
    Explanation
    The business that would not be described as operating in the tertiary sector is "Textiles." The tertiary sector, also known as the service sector, primarily involves providing services rather than producing physical goods. Pest control, restaurants, and private security are all service-oriented businesses that fall within the tertiary sector because they offer services to customers. Textiles, on the other hand, involve the production of physical goods (fabric and clothing), which places it in the secondary sector of the economy, not the tertiary sector.

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  • 11. 

    The process of increasing the value of a resource in the production process is known as:

    • A.

      Adding value

    • B.

      Chain of production

    • C.

      Production function

    • D.

      Value chain analysis

    Correct Answer
    A. Adding value
    Explanation
    The process of increasing the value of a resource in the production process is known as "adding value". This refers to the actions and activities undertaken to enhance the worth or quality of a product or service. By adding value, a company can differentiate its offerings from competitors and potentially command higher prices. This can be achieved through various means such as improving product features, enhancing customer service, implementing efficient production processes, or incorporating innovative technologies. Overall, adding value is crucial for businesses to remain competitive and meet customer demands.

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  • 12. 

    Computers are an example of which type of factor input?

    • A.

      Labour

    • B.

      Land

    • C.

      Capital

    • D.

      Machinery

    Correct Answer
    C. Capital
    Explanation
    Computers are classified as capital inputs because they are man-made resources used in the production process. Capital refers to physical assets, such as machinery, equipment, and technology, which are used to produce goods and services. Computers, being a form of technology, are essential tools used by businesses to enhance productivity and efficiency. They are not considered labor inputs because they do not involve human effort directly. Similarly, land inputs refer to natural resources, which computers do not fall under. Therefore, the correct answer is capital.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is least specialised?

    • A.

      Lawyer of criminal law

    • B.

      Taxi driver

    • C.

      Primary school teacher

    • D.

      Professional basketball player

    Correct Answer
    C. Primary school teacher
    Explanation
    The primary school teacher is the least specialized among the given options because their role involves teaching a wide range of subjects to young children, whereas the other options are more focused on specific areas. A lawyer specializing in criminal law has in-depth knowledge of legal aspects related to crimes, a taxi driver specializes in driving and navigating routes, and a professional basketball player specializes in playing basketball at a high level. In contrast, a primary school teacher needs to have a general understanding of various subjects to educate young students across different areas of study.

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  • 14. 

    Public utilities, such as water and gas supply, are usually considered as being in the tertiary sector because they:

    • A.

      Are owned by the government

    • B.

      Provide services to the general public

    • C.

      Are involved with turning resources into a usable product

    • D.

      Are not extracted or manufactured

    Correct Answer
    B. Provide services to the general public
    Explanation
    Public utilities, such as water and gas supply, are considered to be in the tertiary sector because they provide services to the general public. The tertiary sector is characterized by the provision of services rather than the extraction or manufacturing of goods. These utilities do not involve the extraction or manufacturing of resources but instead focus on delivering essential services to the public, making them part of the tertiary sector.

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  • 15. 

    The term 'product' refers to:

    • A.

      Services only

    • B.

      Goods only

    • C.

      Both goods and services

    • D.

      The physical attributes of a good

    Correct Answer
    C. Both goods and services
    Explanation
    The term 'product' refers to both goods and services. A product can be any tangible item that is produced and sold, such as a car or a smartphone. It can also be intangible, like a service provided by a company, such as banking or consulting services. Therefore, the term 'product' encompasses both goods and services, making the answer "Both goods and services" correct.

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  • 16. 

    The ________ sector of the economy is owned by individuals and companies, usually in pursuit of making   a profit. The ________ sector is controlled by the government that aims to primarily to provide a service by acting in the public's best interest.

    • A.

      Private, Public

    • B.

      Public, Private

    • C.

      Primary, Tertiary

    • D.

      Tertiary, Primary

    Correct Answer
    A. Private, Public
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Private, Public. In the private sector of the economy, individuals and companies own and operate businesses with the goal of making a profit. On the other hand, the public sector is controlled by the government and its main objective is to provide services that benefit the public.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following would not be regarded as part of the tertiary sector?

    • A.

      Leisure and tourism

    • B.

      Insurance

    • C.

      Education and training

    • D.

      Engineering

    Correct Answer
    D. Engineering
    Explanation
    Engineering would not be regarded as part of the tertiary sector because the tertiary sector primarily consists of services that are provided to individuals and businesses. This includes activities such as leisure and tourism, insurance, education and training, which involve providing services to customers. Engineering, on the other hand, is part of the secondary sector, which involves the manufacturing and construction of physical goods. Therefore, engineering would not be considered part of the tertiary sector.

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  • 18. 

    The division of labour is most extensively observed in which of the following cases?

    • A.

      Original oil paintings

    • B.

      Made-to-measure suits

    • C.

      Lecturing at university

    • D.

      Hairdressing

    Correct Answer
    C. Lecturing at university
    Explanation
    The division of labor is most extensively observed in lecturing at university. In this case, there is a clear division of tasks and responsibilities among the faculty members. Each lecturer specializes in a specific subject or field and delivers lectures to students in that area of expertise. This division allows for a more efficient and effective education system, as each lecturer can focus on their specialized knowledge and deliver high-quality instruction to students.

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  • 19. 

    As factors of production, which of the following  is not classified as land?

    • A.

      Fish

    • B.

      Paper

    • C.

      Water

    • D.

      Crude oil

    Correct Answer
    B. Paper
    Explanation
    Paper is not classified as land because it is not a naturally occurring resource. Land refers to the natural resources such as soil, water bodies, minerals, and forests. Paper is a man-made product that is derived from wood pulp, which comes from trees. While trees are classified as land, the final product of paper is not.

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  • 20. 

    An entrepreneur is someone who:

    • A.

      Owns a business as a sole trader or as the primary shareholder

    • B.

      Organises factor inputs and takes risks in business decisions

    • C.

      Is an industrialist who manages production and output

    • D.

      Has a managerial or supervisory role within an organisation

    Correct Answer
    B. Organises factor inputs and takes risks in business decisions
    Explanation
    An entrepreneur is someone who organizes factor inputs and takes risks in business decisions. This means that an entrepreneur is responsible for bringing together the necessary resources, such as labor, capital, and materials, to start and operate a business. Additionally, they must make important decisions that involve taking risks, such as determining which products or services to offer, setting prices, and identifying target markets. This role requires a combination of creativity, innovation, and the ability to assess and manage risks effectively.

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  • 21. 

    A country that has the highest share of its output in the the primary sector is likely to have the greatest share of  its employment in the tertiary sector as workers will be providing a service.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    A country that has the highest share of its output in the primary sector does not necessarily mean it will have the greatest share of its employment in the tertiary sector. While it is true that workers in the tertiary sector provide services, the employment distribution depends on various factors such as the country's economic structure, development level, and government policies. Some countries with a high share of output in the primary sector may also have a significant share of employment in the secondary sector, such as manufacturing industries. Therefore, it cannot be concluded that the country with the highest share of output in the primary sector will have the greatest share of employment in the tertiary sector.

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  • 22. 

    As less developed economies move into developed economy status, there is typically a shift in output and employment from:

    • A.

      Primary to secondary

    • B.

      Secondary to tertiary

    • C.

      Primary to secondary to tertiary

    • D.

      Primary to secondary or tertiary

    Correct Answer
    C. Primary to secondary to tertiary
    Explanation
    As less developed economies move into developed economy status, there is typically a shift in output and employment from primary industries (such as agriculture and mining) to secondary industries (such as manufacturing and construction), and finally to tertiary industries (such as services and technology). This shift occurs as the economy becomes more industrialized and services become more important for economic growth and employment.

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  • 23. 

    _____________ are physical and tangible goods sold to the general public. They include cars and washing machines, which are referred to as durable consumer goods. Non-durable consumer goods include food, drinks and sweets that can only be used once.

    Correct Answer
    Consumer Goods
    Explanation
    Consumer goods are physical and tangible products that are sold to the general public. They can be categorized into durable consumer goods, such as cars and washing machines, which are designed to last for a long time, and non-durable consumer goods, such as food, drinks, and sweets, which are meant to be used once and cannot be reused. These goods are purchased by individuals for personal use and consumption.

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  • 24. 

    ______________ are non-tangible products that are sold to the general public and include hotel accommodation, insurance services and train journeys.

    Correct Answer
    Consumer Services/ consumer services
    Explanation
    Consumer services that are primarily sold to individuals rather than businesses. They include, but are not limited to:
    Hospitality services such as hotel accommodation, which involves providing a place to stay for one or more nights with the aim of providing comfort and convenience.
    Insurance services, which involve the provision of coverage by a company guaranteeing compensation for specified loss, damage, illness, or death in return for payment of a premium.
    Transportation services such as train journeys, which involve the movement of people from one location to another.
    These services are intangible - they do not have a physical presence yet offer value to the consumer.

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  • 25. 

     ______________ are physical goods that are used by an industry to aid in the production of other goods and services, such as machines and commercial vehicles.

    Correct Answer
    Capital Goods
    Explanation
    Capital goods refer to physical items that are utilized by industries to facilitate the production of other goods and services. These goods can include machinery, equipment, tools, and commercial vehicles. Unlike consumer goods, which are used for personal consumption, capital goods are employed in the production process. They are considered essential assets for businesses as they enable them to enhance productivity, efficiency, and output. By investing in capital goods, industries can improve their overall production capabilities and contribute to economic growth.

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  • 26. 

    _______________ are the resources needed by businesses to produce goods or services.

    Correct Answer
    Factors of Production
    Explanation
    Factors of production are the resources needed by businesses to produce goods or services. These factors include land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship. Land refers to natural resources such as water, minerals, and land itself. Labor refers to the human effort and skills required in the production process. Capital refers to the physical and financial assets needed, such as machinery, equipment, and money. Lastly, entrepreneurship refers to the ability to organize and combine the other factors of production to create and manage a business.

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  • 27. 

    Land, Labour, Capital and Enterprise are collectively known as _________________.

    Correct Answer
    The Factors of Production
    The Factor of Production
    Factor of Production
    Factors of Production
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Factors of Production". Land, labor, capital, and enterprise are the four essential elements that combine to produce goods and services in an economy. These factors are collectively known as the factors of production because they are necessary inputs in the production process. Each factor plays a unique role: land provides natural resources, labor contributes human effort, capital includes physical and financial assets, and enterprise combines and organizes the other factors to create and manage production.

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  • 28. 

    ______________:  Natural resources that can be found on the planet. This includes renewable and non-renewable natural resources such as water, wood, fish and physical land itself.

    Correct Answer
    Land
    Explanation
    Land refers to the physical surface of the Earth that includes soil, rocks, and other natural elements. It is considered a natural resource because it provides the space and foundation for various activities such as agriculture, construction, and housing. Land is essential for human survival as it supports the growth of crops, provides habitats for wildlife, and serves as a platform for economic development. Additionally, land can also be used for recreational purposes, conservation efforts, and aesthetic enjoyment. Therefore, land is a crucial natural resource that plays a vital role in sustaining life on the planet.

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  • 29. 

    ___________: The physical and mental human effort used in the production process.

    Correct Answer
    Labour
    Explanation
    Labour refers to the physical and mental human effort that is utilized in the production process. This includes the work done by individuals to create goods or provide services. Labour is an essential factor of production and plays a crucial role in the overall productivity and efficiency of an economy. It encompasses both manual and intellectual tasks performed by workers in various industries and sectors. Without labour, the production process would not be possible, and the economy would not be able to generate goods and services to meet the needs and wants of society.

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  • 30. 

    _____________:  The finance needed to set up a business and pay for its continued operations or expansion. Also includes the man-made goods used in the production process (capital goods).

    Correct Answer
    Capital
    Explanation
    The term "capital" refers to the finance required to establish and sustain a business, as well as to support its growth and expansion. It encompasses the funds needed to set up the business initially and to cover ongoing operational costs. Additionally, capital includes the physical assets and resources, known as capital goods, which are utilized in the production process. These capital goods are man-made items such as machinery, equipment, and infrastructure that contribute to the production and delivery of goods and services.

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  • 31. 

    _______________: Risk taking individuals who combine the other factors of production into a unit that is capable of producing goods and services. It provides a managing, decision-making and coordinating role.

    Correct Answer
    Enterprise
    Entrepreneurship
    Entrepreneur
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Entrepreneur. An entrepreneur is a risk-taking individual who combines the other factors of production into a unit capable of producing goods and services. They play a managing, decision-making, and coordinating role in their enterprise. Entrepreneurship refers to the process of starting and managing a new business venture, while enterprise refers to the organization or entity created by the entrepreneur.

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  • 32. 

    Marketing, Finance, Human Resource Management and Operations Management are collectively known as ______________.

    Correct Answer
    Business Functions
    Functions of business
    The Business Functions
    The Functions of business
    Explanation
    Marketing, Finance, Human Resource Management, and Operations Management are collectively known as "Business Functions" or "Functions of business." These functions are essential components of any organization and are responsible for various aspects of running a business effectively. Marketing focuses on promoting and selling products or services, Finance deals with managing the financial resources of the company, Human Resource Management handles employee recruitment and development, and Operations Management oversees the production and delivery of goods or services.

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  • 33. 

    _____________: The commercial processes involved in creating and designing, promoting and selling and distributing a product or service.

    Correct Answer
    Marketing
    Explanation
    Marketing refers to the various activities and strategies involved in the creation, design, promotion, selling, and distribution of a product or service. It encompasses market research, advertising, public relations, sales, and distribution channels. Marketing plays a crucial role in identifying customer needs, developing products or services that meet those needs, and effectively communicating and promoting them to the target audience. It is a comprehensive process that aims to generate customer interest, increase sales, and ultimately drive business growth.

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  • 34. 

    Which of the following is not a factor of production?

    • A.

      Capital

    • B.

      Finance

    • C.

      Entrepreneurship

    • D.

      Labour

    Correct Answer
    B. Finance
    Explanation
    Finance is not considered a factor of production because it is not directly involved in the production process itself. Factors of production refer to the resources and inputs that are necessary for the production of goods and services. Capital, entrepreneurship, and labor are all factors of production as they contribute to the creation of goods and services. Finance, on the other hand, refers to the management of money and funds, which supports the production process but is not a direct factor in itself.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the following is not a factor of production?

    • A.

      Labour

    • B.

      Capital

    • C.

      Human Resources

    • D.

      Land

    Correct Answer
    C. Human Resources
    Explanation
    Human resources refers to the individuals who make up the workforce of an organization. They are considered a factor of production because they contribute their skills, knowledge, and abilities to produce goods and services. Therefore, the correct answer is that human resources is not a factor of production.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following is not a business function?

    • A.

      Finance

    • B.

      Human resources

    • C.

      Entrepreneurship

    • D.

      Operations

    Correct Answer
    C. Entrepreneurship
    Explanation
    Entrepreneurship is not considered a traditional business function because it is more of a mindset or a skillset rather than a specific department or function within a business. While finance, human resources, and operations are all distinct areas of a business that have specific roles and responsibilities, entrepreneurship is more about the ability to identify opportunities, take risks, and innovate within a business or start a new venture. It is a broader concept that can be applied across all business functions rather than being a standalone function itself.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following is not a business function?

    • A.

      Labour

    • B.

      Marketing

    • C.

      Finance

    • D.

      Operations Management

    Correct Answer
    A. Labour
    Explanation
    Labour is not considered a business function because it refers to the workforce or employees within a business rather than a specific function or department. Business functions typically refer to the core activities that are necessary for the operation and success of a business, such as marketing, finance, and operations management. While labour is an essential component of any business, it is not a specific function in itself, but rather a resource that is utilized within various functions.

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  • 38. 

    _____________ Business Activity: Firms engaged in farming, fishing, oil extraction and all other industries that extract natural resources so that they can be used and processed by other firms.

    Correct Answer
    Primary Sector
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Primary Sector. The primary sector refers to the part of the economy that is involved in the extraction and production of raw materials from the natural environment. This includes activities such as farming, fishing, and oil extraction, where natural resources are harvested or extracted for further processing by other industries. The primary sector is essential for providing the necessary inputs for the secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy.

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  • 39. 

    _______________ Business Activity: Firms that manufacture and process products from natural resources, including computers, brewing, baking, clothing and construction.

    Correct Answer
    Secondary Sector
    Explanation
    The given answer, "Secondary Sector," is correct because it refers to the sector of the economy that involves the manufacturing and processing of products from natural resources. This sector includes industries such as computer manufacturing, brewing, baking, clothing production, and construction. The secondary sector adds value to raw materials by transforming them into finished goods. Therefore, the answer accurately identifies the category of business activity described in the question.

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  • 40. 

    ______________ Business Sector: Firms that provide services to consumers and other businesses, such as retailing, transport, insurance, banking, hotels, tourism and telecommunications.

    Correct Answer
    Tertiary Sector, service sector, tertiary industry, service industry
    Explanation
    The given answer "Tertiary Sector" is correct because it refers to the sector of the economy that involves providing services to consumers and businesses. This sector includes various industries such as retailing, transport, insurance, banking, hotels, tourism, and telecommunications. These industries are primarily focused on providing intangible goods and services rather than producing tangible goods. Therefore, the answer accurately describes the business activity mentioned in the question.

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  • 41. 

    ___________:  Cost measured in terms of the next best alternative forgone when a choice is being made; e.g. when deciding to finance a new promotion strategy, employing an extra sales person may need to be foregone.

    Correct Answer
    Opportunity Cost
    Explanation
    Opportunity cost refers to the cost of the next best alternative that is foregone when making a choice. In other words, it is the value of the next best option that is sacrificed when deciding to pursue a particular course of action. For example, if a company decides to invest in a new promotion strategy, the opportunity cost could be the potential benefits of employing an additional salesperson instead. Opportunity cost helps decision-makers evaluate the trade-offs involved in different choices and make more informed decisions.

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  • 42. 

    The least likely example of an opportunity cost of a business spending $100,000 on developing a new product for market would be:

    • A.

      A cost of $100,000

    • B.

      Not spending $100,000 on the promotion of an existing product

    • C.

      Securing a $100,000 loan from a bank

    • D.

      Purchasing a top-of-the line BMW for the CEO

    Correct Answer
    B. Not spending $100,000 on the promotion of an existing product
    Explanation
    The least likely example of an opportunity cost in this scenario is not spending $100,000 on the promotion of an existing product. Opportunity cost refers to the value of the next best alternative that is forgone when a decision is made. In this case, the business is spending $100,000 on developing a new product, which means they are giving up the opportunity to use that money for other purposes. The other options listed, such as a cost of $100,000, securing a $100,000 loan, or purchasing a top-of-the-line BMW for the CEO, all represent alternative uses of the $100,000 and therefore could be considered opportunity costs. However, not spending $100,000 on the promotion of an existing product does not represent an alternative use of the money, but rather a decision to not spend it at all.

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  • 43. 

    ___________: The specialization of workers in the provision of goods and/or services by breaking a job down into particular roles or components that are repeated by the same workers.

    Correct Answer
    Division of Labour
    Explanation
    Division of labour refers to the practice of dividing a job into smaller tasks or components and assigning them to different workers who specialize in those tasks. This allows workers to become more skilled and efficient in their specific roles, leading to increased productivity and output. By repeating the same tasks over and over, workers can develop expertise and improve their speed and accuracy. This concept is widely used in various industries to streamline production processes and maximize efficiency.

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  • 44. 

    ____________: The part of the economy under the control of private individuals and businesses, rather than the government. Examples may include sole traders, partnerships and companies.

    Correct Answer
    Private Sector
    Explanation
    The private sector refers to the part of the economy that is owned and operated by private individuals and businesses. This means that the control and decision-making power lies in the hands of private entities rather than the government. Examples of the private sector include sole traders, partnerships, and companies. In this sector, businesses aim to generate profits and compete with each other in the market, driving economic growth and development.

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  • 45. 

    _____________: The part of the economy that is under control of the government. examples may include state health and education services, the emergency services and roading infrastructure.

    Correct Answer
    Public Sector
    State sector
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Public Sector. The public sector refers to the part of the economy that is controlled and owned by the government. It includes various services such as state health and education services, emergency services, and roading infrastructure. The state sector is also a valid term used to describe the public sector, so both options are correct.

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  • 46. 

    ___________: A shift in the relative share of national output and employment that is attributed to each business sector; i.e. primary, secondary and tertiary sectors.

    Correct Answer
    Structural Change
    Explanation
    Structural change refers to the shift in the relative share of national output and employment among different business sectors, such as primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors. This means that there are changes in the contribution of each sector to the overall economy. For example, if there is a decrease in the share of the primary sector (agriculture, mining) and an increase in the share of the tertiary sector (services), it indicates a structural change in the economy. This change can be due to various factors like technological advancements, changes in consumer preferences, or government policies.

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  • 47. 

    ____________: Is the difference between a product's price and the total cost of the inputs that went into making it. It is the extra worth created in the production process.

    Correct Answer
    Value Added
    Explanation
    Value Added is the term used to describe the difference between a product's price and the total cost of the inputs used in its production. It represents the additional value or worth that is created during the production process. This can include factors such as labor, materials, and other expenses. Value Added is an important concept in economics as it helps to measure the contribution of each stage in the production chain and assess the overall economic value generated.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Apr 19, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jun 29, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Catherine Halcomb
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