Which one of the following is not a component of expectancy model of motivation?
A. Positive reinforcement
Positive reinforcement is not a component of the expectancy model of motivation. The expectancy model of motivation focuses on the relationship between effort, performance, and outcomes. It suggests that individuals are motivated to exert effort based on their belief that their effort will lead to successful performance, and that successful performance will result in desired outcomes. Valence refers to the value or attractiveness of the outcomes, the performance-outcome equation relates performance to outcomes, and the effort-performance equation relates effort to performance. Positive reinforcement, on the other hand, is a concept from operant conditioning that involves providing rewards or incentives to increase the likelihood of a behavior occurring again in the future.
Contingency approach to leadership focuses on which
of the following?
I. Task requirements
2. Peers’ expectations
3. Employees’ expectations
4. Organizational policies
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
D. 1,2,3 & 4
The contingency approach to leadership focuses on multiple factors, including task requirements, peers' expectations, employees' expectations, and organizational policies. This approach recognizes that effective leadership is dependent on the specific situation and context. By considering these various elements, leaders can tailor their approach to best meet the needs and demands of their team and organization. Therefore, the correct answer is 1, 2, 3, and 4.
Which one of the following is not included in “hygiene” factors in the Herzberg two-factor theory of motivation?
Responsibility is not included in the "hygiene" factors in the Herzberg two-factor theory of motivation. According to Herzberg, hygiene factors are related to the work environment and include factors such as salary, working conditions, and company policies. These factors are necessary for an employee to feel satisfied and prevent dissatisfaction, but they do not directly contribute to motivation. On the other hand, responsibility is considered a motivator factor, which is related to the nature of the job itself and has a direct impact on an employee's motivation and satisfaction.
Which one of the following is not a component of Max Weber’s ideal bureaucracy?
D. Organization as a social system
Max Weber's ideal bureaucracy consists of several components that contribute to its effectiveness and efficiency. These components include job specialization, impersonality, and career orientation. However, organization as a social system is not considered a component of Weber's ideal bureaucracy. This is because Weber's concept of bureaucracy focuses more on the formal structure and rationality of the organization, rather than its social dynamics and interactions. Therefore, organization as a social system is not included in Weber's ideal bureaucracy.
Match List- I (Leadership Type) with List-II (Main idea/ Model) and select the correct answer using the code given below the lists:
List -I (Leadership Type) List-II (Main idea/Model)
A. Participative 1.Vroom and Yettons Normative Model
B. Contingency 2. The Managerial Grid
C. Behavioral 3. Likerts Leadership Style
D. Situationa 4. Fiedler’s Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) Theory
A B C D
D. 3 4 2 1
The correct answer is 3 4 2 1. This means that the correct match between the Leadership Type and the Main idea/Model is as follows:
A. Participative - 3. Likerts Leadership Style
B. Contingency - 4. Fiedler's Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) Theory
C. Behavioral - 2. The Managerial Grid
D. Situational - 1. Vroom and Yettons Normative Model
This suggests that the Likerts Leadership Style is associated with the Participative Leadership Type, Fiedler's Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) Theory is associated with the Contingency Leadership Type, The Managerial Grid is associated with the Behavioral Leadership Type, and Vroom and Yettons Normative Model is associated with the Situational Leadership Type.
Who among the following developed the classic three- step model of organizational change?
A. Kurt Lewin
Kurt Lewin developed the classic three-step model of organizational change. His model, known as the "unfreeze-change-refreeze" model, suggests that change in organizations should begin by unfreezing the existing mindset and structures, then implementing the desired change, and finally refreezing the new changes to make them permanent. This model has been widely used and is considered a fundamental framework for understanding and managing organizational change.
Which of the following pairs is/are correctly matched?
1. Cybernetic Theory : Norbert Weiner
2. Task-Technology : Joan Woodward
3. Classical Approach to : Frederick Taylor organizational design
A. Only 1 & 2
The correct answer is Only 1 & 2. Cybernetic Theory is indeed associated with Norbert Weiner, who was a mathematician and philosopher. Task-Technology is correctly matched with Joan Woodward, who was a sociologist and management theorist. However, the Classical Approach to organizational design is not correctly matched with Frederick Taylor, as it is more commonly associated with Henri Fayol.
Consider the following statements about managerial grid in the context of leadership theories:
1. It portrays a three-dimensional view of leadership style.
2. The grid shows dominating factors in a leader’s thinking in regard to getting results.
3. The grid does not show results produced.
4. The grid offers a framework for conceptualizing leadership style.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
D. 1,2,3 & 4
The managerial grid is a leadership theory that portrays a three-dimensional view of leadership style. It shows the dominating factors in a leader's thinking in regard to getting results. However, it does not show the actual results produced. The grid offers a framework for conceptualizing leadership style. Therefore, all the statements given above are correct.
Which one of the following statements is not correct’?
In the matrix structure of organization, there is:
D. Less Conflict
The statement "Less Conflict" is not correct in the matrix structure of organization. In a matrix structure, where employees report to both a functional manager and a project manager, there is a potential for conflict due to multiple reporting relationships and competing priorities. This dual reporting can lead to power struggles, confusion, and disagreements among employees, resulting in increased conflict within the organization.
Which of the following are among the 14 principles of management in the classical management work of Henri Fayol?
1. Personnel tenure
2. Unity of command
3. Core competence
4. Scalar chain
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
B. Only 2 & 4
The correct answer is Only 2 & 4. The principles of management in the classical management work of Henri Fayol include Unity of command and Scalar chain. Personnel tenure and Core competence are not among the 14 principles.