Hl Life Science Final Exam

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Hl Life Science Final Exam - Quiz

End of year exam for 6-8th grade Life Science.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Avery collected the gas given off by a glowing piece of charcoal. The Gas was then bubbled through a small amount of colorless limewater. Part of Avery’s report stated, "After the gas was put into the jar, the limewater gradually changed to a milky white color." This statement is:

    • A.

      An observation

    • B.

      A conclusion

    • C.

      An assumption of the investigation

    • D.

      A research statistic

    • E.

      A hypothesis

    Correct Answer
    A. An observation
    Explanation
    The statement provided describes a direct observation made by Avery during the experiment. Avery observed that the limewater gradually changed to a milky white color after the gas was put into the jar. This observation is a factual statement based on what was directly observed during the experiment, making it an observation rather than a conclusion, assumption, research statistic, or hypothesis.

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  • 2. 

    The diagram below shows an example of interdependence among living organisms. During the day the organisms either use up or give off (A) or (B) as shown by the arrows.

    • A.

      (a) is oxygen and (b) is carbon dioxide.

    • B.

      (a) nitrogen and (b) is carbon dioxide.

    • C.

      (a) is carbon dioxide and (b) is oxygen.

    • D.

      (a) is carbon dioxide and (b) is carbohydrate.

    Correct Answer
    A. (a) is oxygen and (b) is carbon dioxide.
    Explanation
    The diagram shows that during the day, the organisms use up oxygen and give off carbon dioxide. This suggests that the organisms are undergoing respiration, where they take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide as a waste product. Therefore, the correct answer is (a) is oxygen and (b) is carbon dioxide.

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  • 3. 

    In bell pepper plants, the gene for long stems (L) is dominant over the gene for short stems (l).  If a pure long-stemmed plant (LL) is crossed with a pure short-stemmed plant (ll), which statement describes the offspring plants that will result from this cross?  (Draw a Punnet square to help you figure it out.)

    • A.

      Half of the plants will have short stems and half will have long stems.

    • B.

      All of the plants will have short stems.

    • C.

      All of the plants will have stems of medium length.

    • D.

      All of the plants will have long stems.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the plants will have long stems.
    Explanation
    When a pure long-stemmed plant (LL) is crossed with a pure short-stemmed plant (ll), the offspring will all have the genotype Ll. Since the gene for long stems (L) is dominant over the gene for short stems (l), all of the plants will have long stems.

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  • 4. 

    There are three subatomic particles that form atoms.  Name the  particle  which has a negative charge.

    Correct Answer
    electron
    elektron
    elktron
    Explanation
    The correct answer is electron. An electron is a subatomic particle that carries a negative charge. It orbits around the nucleus of an atom and plays a crucial role in determining the chemical and electrical properties of an element. The other options, elektron and elktron, are likely misspellings or variations of the correct term.

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  • 5. 

    Which BEST describes our planet?

    • A.

      A liquid core surrounded by many layers of solid rock and metal

    • B.

      A solid core surrounded by liquid and semi-solid layers on top of which “float” relatively thin plates of solid rock and earth which are constantly moving.

    • C.

      A solid mantle which is sandwiched between liquid inner and outer layers.

    • D.

      A liquid core encased in a solid crust through which magma sometimes erupts.

    Correct Answer
    B. A solid core surrounded by liquid and semi-solid layers on top of which “float” relatively thin plates of solid rock and earth which are constantly moving.
    Explanation
    The correct answer describes our planet as having a solid core surrounded by liquid and semi-solid layers. On top of these layers, there are relatively thin plates of solid rock and earth that are constantly moving. This explanation accurately describes the structure of the Earth, with the solid core at the center and the dynamic movement of tectonic plates on the surface.

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  • 6. 

    The trachea, lungs, bronchial tubes and diaphragm comprise the                         system.

    Correct Answer
    respiratory
    respritory
    respratory
    Explanation
    The correct answer is respiratory. The trachea, lungs, bronchial tubes, and diaphragm are all parts of the respiratory system, which is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body. The other options, respritory and respratory, are misspellings of the correct term.

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  • 7. 

    Which is the primary means by which oxygen travels throughout a mammal's body to reach all tissues?

    • A.

      Neural pathways

    • B.

      Arteries

    • C.

      Veins

    • D.

      Bronchial tubes

    • E.

      Muscles

    Correct Answer
    B. Arteries
    Explanation
    Arteries are the primary means by which oxygen travels throughout a mammal's body to reach all tissues. Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from the heart and distribute it to various parts of the body. They have thick, muscular walls that allow them to withstand the high pressure generated by the pumping of the heart. As blood flows through the arteries, it branches into smaller vessels called arterioles, which further divide into capillaries. Oxygen diffuses from the capillaries into the surrounding tissues, ensuring that all cells receive the oxygen they need for proper functioning.

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  • 8. 

    Muscle cells use large amounts of energy.  Which organelles would be more abundant in an animal’s muscle tissue than in its other cells?

    • A.

      Chromosomes

    • B.

      Golgi bodies

    • C.

      Lysosomes

    • D.

      Mitochondria

    • E.

      Vacuoles

    Correct Answer
    D. Mitochondria
    Explanation
    hint: which organelle produces energy to power cell functions?

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following affects does smoking cigarettes have?

    • A.

      Causes wrinkles and yellow teeth

    • B.

      Paralyzes cilia that help remove toxins in the respiratory tract

    • C.

      Causes lung and/or mouth cancer

    • D.

      Increases heart rate and blood pressure

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    Smoking cigarettes has multiple negative effects on the body. It causes wrinkles and yellow teeth due to the chemicals and toxins present in cigarettes. It also paralyzes cilia, which are tiny hair-like structures in the respiratory tract that help remove toxins. Smoking cigarettes is a major risk factor for developing lung and/or mouth cancer. Additionally, it increases heart rate and blood pressure, putting strain on the cardiovascular system. Therefore, all of the mentioned effects are caused by smoking cigarettes.

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  • 10. 

    If a neutral atom loses an electron, what is formed?

    • A.

      A gas

    • B.

      An ion

    • C.

      An acid

    • D.

      A molecule

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. An ion
    Explanation
    When a neutral atom loses an electron, it becomes positively charged and forms an ion. An ion is an atom or molecule that has gained or lost electrons, resulting in a net positive or negative charge. This process is known as ionization. The other options, such as gas, acid, and molecule, do not necessarily apply to all cases when a neutral atom loses an electron. Therefore, the correct answer is an ion.

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  • 11. 

    What is the best reason for including fruits and leafy vegetables in a healthy diet?

    • A.

      They are a good source of protein, which gives long-lasting energy.

    • B.

      They are the best source of energy because they have lots of calories.

    • C.

      They are rich in minerals and vitamins and have lots of fiber to make you feel full.

    • D.

      They are high in fat which is the quickest form of energy for the body.

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. They are rich in minerals and vitamins and have lots of fiber to make you feel full.
    Explanation
    Including fruits and leafy vegetables in a healthy diet is beneficial because they are rich in minerals and vitamins. Additionally, they contain a significant amount of fiber, which helps in making you feel full. This combination of minerals, vitamins, and fiber ensures that your body receives essential nutrients while also promoting satiety, making it an ideal choice for a healthy diet.

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  • 12. 

    Which human body system controls production of the hormones that regulate body functions?

    • A.

      The respiratory system

    • B.

      The skeletal system

    • C.

      The circulatory system

    • D.

      The digestive system

    • E.

      The endocrine system

    Correct Answer
    E. The endocrine system
    Explanation
    The endocrine system is responsible for controlling the production of hormones that regulate various body functions. This system consists of glands, such as the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, and adrenal glands, which release hormones into the bloodstream. These hormones then travel to target organs and tissues, where they help regulate processes such as metabolism, growth and development, reproduction, and stress response. Therefore, the endocrine system plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis and coordinating the functions of different body systems.

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  • 13. 

    Blake and Grant want to know why they see bumblebees in the summer but not in the winter.  To solve the problem, which step of the scientific method should they do first?

    • A.

      Write up a set of procedures

    • B.

      Form a hypothesis

    • C.

      Draw a conclusion

    • D.

      Perform an experiment

    • E.

      State the problem

    Correct Answer
    E. State the problem
    Explanation
    In order to solve the problem of why they see bumblebees in the summer but not in the winter, Blake and Grant should first state the problem. This step is essential as it helps to clearly define the issue they are trying to investigate. By stating the problem, they can then proceed to formulate a hypothesis, design an experiment, collect data, and draw conclusions based on their findings. However, without stating the problem, they would not have a clear direction or objective for their scientific inquiry.

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  • 14. 

    Based on its features and organelles, the cell in the diagram belongs to which kingdom of living organisms?

    • A.

      Protists

    • B.

      Bacteria

    • C.

      Plants

    • D.

      Animals

    • E.

      Fungi

    Correct Answer
    C. Plants
    Explanation
    The cell in the diagram is most likely from the kingdom of Plants. This can be inferred from the features and organelles present in the cell, such as a cell wall, chloroplasts, and a large central vacuole. These characteristics are typically found in plant cells and are not commonly seen in cells from the other kingdoms of living organisms.

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  • 15. 

    If Mitchell, when he is 72 years old, has a stroke in the left frontal lobe of his cerebrum, what type of damage to his body will he most likely suffer?

    • A.

      His heart will stop beating and he will die within a few minutes

    • B.

      He will no longer be able to absorb nutrients from his food

    • C.

      The right side of his body will be paralyzed

    • D.

      He will have no feeling in his arms or legs

    • E.

      His kidneys will shut and down and will require dialysis

    Correct Answer
    C. The right side of his body will be paralyzed
    Explanation
    The left frontal lobe of the cerebrum controls the movement of the right side of the body. Therefore, if Mitchell has a stroke in this area, it is likely that he will experience paralysis on the right side of his body.

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  • 16. 

    When messenger RNA leaves the nucleus and hooks up with a ribosome, what is made from the amino acids that are linked together during the translation process?

    • A.

      A new DNA strand

    • B.

      A protein

    • C.

      A carbohydrate molecule

    • D.

      A lipid

    • E.

      ATP

    Correct Answer
    B. A protein
    Explanation
    During the translation process, messenger RNA (mRNA) carries the genetic information from the nucleus to the ribosome. At the ribosome, the mRNA is read and translated into a chain of amino acids. This chain of amino acids, known as a polypeptide, is then folded and modified to form a functional protein. Therefore, the correct answer is a protein.

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  • 17. 

    Cells spend most of their lives in which phase of the cell cycle?

    • A.

      Prophase

    • B.

      Interphase

    • C.

      Cytokinesis

    • D.

      Metaphase

    • E.

      Anaphase

    Correct Answer
    B. Interphase
    Explanation
    Cells spend most of their lives in interphase, which is the longest phase of the cell cycle. During interphase, the cell grows, carries out its normal functions, and duplicates its DNA in preparation for cell division. This phase is divided into three subphases: G1 phase, S phase, and G2 phase. G1 phase is the period of cell growth, S phase is when DNA replication occurs, and G2 phase is the stage where the cell prepares for mitosis. Only a small portion of the cell cycle is spent in the actual phases of mitosis, such as prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and cytokinesis.

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  • 18. 

    The image below illustrates what phase of mitosis?

    • A.

      Prophase

    • B.

      Metaphase

    • C.

      Anaphase

    • D.

      Telophase

    Correct Answer
    B. Metaphase
    Explanation
    The image shows chromosomes aligned along the equatorial plane of the cell, which is characteristic of metaphase in mitosis. During metaphase, the spindle fibers attach to the centromeres of the chromosomes and align them at the center of the cell. This alignment ensures that each daughter cell receives an equal number of chromosomes during cell division. Therefore, the correct answer is metaphase.

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  • 19. 

    While digging, a person found that most of the rocks were igneous rock. What can be concluded?

    • A.

      The rocks were probably carried there by ancient people.

    • B.

      The area was once covered by an ocean.

    • C.

      A glacier passed through at one time.

    • D.

      A volcano was nearby at one time.

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. A volcano was nearby at one time.
    Explanation
    Based on the information provided, the person found that most of the rocks were igneous rock. Igneous rocks are formed through the solidification of molten material, usually from volcanoes. Therefore, it can be concluded that a volcano was nearby at one time.

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  • 20. 

    Sexual reproduction requires two different sets of chromosomes coming together to form a new, unique organism.  Asexual reproduction involves only one set of genes in which offspring are identical to the parent (because they have the exact same genetic information).  Is binary fission (which bacteria use to replicate) an example of sexual or asexual reproduction?

    • A.

      Sexual

    • B.

      Asexual

    Correct Answer
    B. Asexual
    Explanation
    Binary fission, which bacteria use to replicate, is an example of asexual reproduction. In binary fission, a single organism divides into two identical offspring, each with the exact same genetic information as the parent. This process does not involve the fusion of two different sets of chromosomes, which is characteristic of sexual reproduction. Therefore, the correct answer is asexual.

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  • 21. 

    On your trip to the Petrified Forest National Park, you got to dig for fossils.  You mapped out where you found them, described their size and shape, and put all the clues together to make some guesses about the climate and animals whose preserved remains you found.  If you did this for a living, what would your job title be?

    • A.

      Geologist

    • B.

      Paleontologist

    • C.

      Endocrinologist

    • D.

      Archeologist

    • E.

      Embryologist

    Correct Answer
    B. Paleontologist
    Explanation
    If you mapped out where you found fossils, described their size and shape, and made guesses about the climate and animals based on the preserved remains, your job title would be a paleontologist. Paleontologists study fossils to understand the history of life on Earth, including the climate, environment, and the organisms that lived in the past. They use various techniques to analyze and interpret fossils, providing insights into the evolution and biodiversity of ancient life forms.

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  • 22. 

    El Cajon Pass in California is becoming higher than the land around it at a rate of nearly one centimeter each year.  Which statement is true about the area?

    • A.

      Erosion is slower than uplift at El Cajon Pass.

    • B.

      Plates are separating at El Cajon Pass.

    • C.

      Mountain building is slower than erosion at El Cajon Pass.

    • D.

      Erosion and uplift are balanced at El Cajon Pass.

    Correct Answer
    A. Erosion is slower than uplift at El Cajon Pass.
    Explanation
    The given information states that El Cajon Pass in California is becoming higher than the land around it at a rate of nearly one centimeter each year. This indicates that uplift, which refers to the process of the Earth's crust rising, is occurring at a faster rate than erosion, which is the process of wearing away or breaking down of the Earth's surface. Therefore, the statement "Erosion is slower than uplift at El Cajon Pass" is true.

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  • 23. 

    A rock that contains fossil seashells was most likely formed as a result of:

    • A.

      Volcanic activity

    • B.

      Sedimentation

    • C.

      Heat and pressure

    • D.

      Magma cooling

    Correct Answer
    B. Sedimentation
    Explanation
    The presence of fossil seashells in the rock suggests that it was formed through sedimentation. Sedimentation is the process by which sediment, such as shells, sand, and other particles, settle and accumulate over time. This typically occurs in bodies of water, where shells and other organic materials can be deposited and eventually become fossilized. Volcanic activity and magma cooling are more likely to result in igneous rocks, while heat and pressure are associated with the formation of metamorphic rocks.

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  • 24. 

    Where is hereditary (genetic, inherited) information found in a cell?

    • A.

      Cytoplasm

    • B.

      Chromosomes

    • C.

      Chloroplasts

    • D.

      Cell membrane

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Chromosomes
    Explanation
    Hereditary information is found in chromosomes. Chromosomes are structures made up of DNA molecules that carry genetic information. They are located in the nucleus of a cell. The cytoplasm is the fluid-filled region outside the nucleus, chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells responsible for photosynthesis, and the cell membrane is the outer boundary of the cell. While genetic material may be present in some of these locations, chromosomes are specifically responsible for carrying and transmitting hereditary information.

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  • 25. 

    The modern theory of evolution is centered on the role of natural selection in adaptation. Which of the following is an example of natural selection?

    • A.

      A drought in southern California causes stress in a certain species of sparrows, killing nearly one third of the population.

    • B.

      Due to the genetic variety produced by sexual reproduction, a male hummingbird is born that is particularly attractive to females of its species. This bird has great success at mating and producing offspring, thereby passing on his genetic good looks and producing many more of its kind.

    • C.

      An unusually warm and rainy spring in northern Sudan results in a sudden migration of chimpanzees as they seek food and shelter.

    • D.

      A certain gray wolf population in Northern Canada learns how to hunt together as a pack by surrounding and confusing their prey.

    Correct Answer
    B. Due to the genetic variety produced by sexual reproduction, a male hummingbird is born that is particularly attractive to females of its species. This bird has great success at mating and producing offspring, thereby passing on his genetic good looks and producing many more of its kind.
    Explanation
    This answer is an example of natural selection because it involves the process of sexual selection. The male hummingbird with attractive traits has a higher chance of mating and passing on his genes to the next generation. This leads to an increase in the frequency of these attractive traits in the population over time, as they are favored by females. This is a mechanism of natural selection where certain traits increase an individual's reproductive success, leading to their increased prevalence in future generations.

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  • 26. 

    What function(s) do bones serve in a human body?

    • A.

      They produce new blood cells in the marrow

    • B.

      They support other tissues and give shape and form to the body

    • C.

      They give something for muscles to attach to for movement

    • D.

      They protect soft and/or fragile organs

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    Bones serve multiple functions in the human body. Firstly, they produce new blood cells in the marrow. Additionally, they support other tissues and provide shape and form to the body. They also serve as attachment points for muscles, enabling movement. Lastly, bones play a crucial role in protecting soft and fragile organs. Therefore, the correct answer is "All of the above."

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  • 27. 

    The diagram below shows the three sections of the small intestine.  What is the main function at this point in the digestive system?

    • A.

      Food is broken down into smaller pieces via mechanical digestion.

    • B.

      Food is broken down into smaller pieces via chemical digestion.

    • C.

      Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream.

    • D.

      The majority of the water in the food is absorbed into the bloodstream.

    • E.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    C. Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream.
    Explanation
    At this point in the digestive system, the main function is the absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The small intestine is responsible for the majority of nutrient absorption in the digestive system. Mechanical digestion, which involves the physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces, occurs in the mouth and stomach. Chemical digestion, which involves the breakdown of food molecules by enzymes, primarily occurs in the stomach and small intestine. The absorption of water from the food occurs mainly in the large intestine. Therefore, the correct answer is that nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream.

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  • 28. 

    Shown below are 4 species of finches, probably derived from a common ancestor. These species inhabit the same island. Which of the following BEST explains the appearance of these birds’ beaks?

    • A.

      Predation by the larger birds on the smaller birds led to a decreased population of the smaller birds.

    • B.

      Competition for limited food resources led to an increased similarity among species.

    • C.

      Predation by the larger birds on the smaller birds led to an increased fitness of the smaller birds.

    • D.

      Competition for limited food resources led to an increased diversity among species.

    Correct Answer
    D. Competition for limited food resources led to an increased diversity among species.
    Explanation
    Competition for limited food resources led to an increased diversity among species. This explanation suggests that the finches with different beak shapes were able to exploit different food sources on the island, leading to the development of specialized beaks. As the competition for food increased, the finches with more diverse beak shapes had a better chance of surviving and reproducing, resulting in an increased diversity of species.

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  • 29. 

    An example of a predator-prey relationship would be:

    • A.

      Tree - water

    • B.

      Cow - grass

    • C.

      Hawk - mouse

    • D.

      Tick - dog

    Correct Answer
    C. Hawk - mouse
    Explanation
    The correct answer is hawk - mouse. This is an example of a predator-prey relationship because hawks are predators that hunt and feed on mice. Hawks are higher up in the food chain and rely on mice as a source of food. This relationship is a classic example of how predators depend on prey for their survival and helps to control the population of mice in the ecosystem.

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  • 30. 

    Weston was born with a heart defect that allowed blood to flow freely between the left atrium and right atrium of his heart.  How would this affect his circulatory system?

    • A.

      Blood from the right ventricle could not effectively pump the oxygen-rich blood to the lungs.

    • B.

      Oxygen rich blood from the left atrium and oxygen-depleted blood from the right atrium would mix.

    • C.

      As the left ventricle pumped with each heartbeat, some blood would flow back into the right atrium instead of out to the body.

    • D.

      Oxygen rich blood from the right right ventricle and oxygen-depleted blood from the right ventricle would mix.

    Correct Answer
    B. Oxygen rich blood from the left atrium and oxygen-depleted blood from the right atrium would mix.
    Explanation
    This is a really challenging question. Think about blood flow and which chambers of the heart pump oxygen-rich blood.

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  • 31. 

    What three things are required for photosynthesis to take place?

    • A.

      Oxygen

    • B.

      Carbon Dioxide

    • C.

      Glucose

    • D.

      Water

    • E.

      Sunlight

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Carbon Dioxide
    D. Water
    E. Sunlight
    Explanation
    Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert sunlight into energy in the form of glucose. Carbon dioxide is needed as a source of carbon for glucose production, while water is required for the chemical reactions involved in photosynthesis. Sunlight provides the energy necessary to drive the process. Oxygen is actually a product of photosynthesis, not a requirement for it.

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