Hematology Chapter 16 Feb 2011

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Hematology Chapter 16 Feb 2011 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    One of the ways you can differ Acute Leukemia from Chronic Leukemia is Leukemic cells are typically _____ in Acute Leukemia.

    • A.

      Immature

    • B.

      Mature

    Correct Answer
    A. Immature
    Explanation
    In Acute Leukemia, leukemic cells are typically immature. This means that the cells have not fully developed or differentiated into their mature form. In contrast, in Chronic Leukemia, leukemic cells are more likely to be mature, indicating that they have undergone some level of development. This difference in cell maturity is one of the distinguishing factors between Acute and Chronic Leukemia.

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  • 2. 

    This type of Leukemia either acute or chronic affects all age. Which one is it?

    • A.

      Acute

    • B.

      Chronic

    Correct Answer
    A. Acute
    Explanation
    Acute leukemia is the correct answer because the question states that this type of leukemia affects all ages. Acute leukemia is a type of cancer that progresses quickly and aggressively, affecting both children and adults. In contrast, chronic leukemia tends to progress slowly and is more commonly seen in older adults. Therefore, the fact that the leukemia in question affects all age groups suggests that it is acute leukemia.

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  • 3. 

    Chronic Leukemia typically affects what kind of people?

    • A.

      Adults

    • B.

      Children

    Correct Answer
    A. Adults
    Explanation
    Chronic Leukemia typically affects adults because it is a slow-progressing form of leukemia that usually occurs in older individuals. This type of leukemia is more common in people over the age of 60, although it can also affect younger adults. Children are more likely to develop acute forms of leukemia, which progress rapidly and require immediate treatment.

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  • 4. 

    80% of Acute Myeloid Leukemia is in ________.

    • A.

      Children

    • B.

      Adults

    Correct Answer
    B. Adults
    Explanation
    Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. It is more commonly found in adults compared to children. This is because AML is typically associated with certain risk factors such as age, exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, and certain genetic disorders, which are more prevalent in adults. Therefore, the majority, 80%, of AML cases occur in adults rather than children.

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  • 5. 

    ______ regulates cell proliferation and regulation

    Correct Answer
    oncogenes
    oncogene
    Explanation
    Oncogenes play a crucial role in regulating cell proliferation and regulation. These are genes that, when mutated or activated, can cause normal cells to become cancerous. They promote cell growth and division, inhibit cell death, and can disrupt the normal balance of cell signaling pathways. By interfering with the regulation of cell proliferation, oncogenes contribute to the development and progression of cancer. Therefore, the presence and activity of oncogenes are essential factors in determining the growth and behavior of cancer cells.

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  • 6. 

    Which of these would you not typically see in the Peripheral blood of AML?

    • A.

      Myeloblast

    • B.

      Promyelocyte

    • C.

      Lymphoblasts

    Correct Answer
    C. Lymphoblasts
    Explanation
    In Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), the bone marrow produces abnormal myeloblasts that crowd out healthy blood cells. These myeloblasts are immature cells that would typically be seen in the peripheral blood of AML patients. Promyelocytes are also commonly found in AML, as they are the stage of development that follows myeloblasts. However, lymphoblasts, which are immature lymphocytes, are not typically seen in the peripheral blood of AML patients. Lymphoblasts are more commonly associated with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), a different type of leukemia.

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  • 7. 

    This description is more associated with which type of Leukemia? Medium to large blasts, more cytoplasm than lymphoblasts, cytoplasmic granules and Auer Rods

    • A.

      AML

    • B.

      ALL

    Correct Answer
    A. AML
    Explanation
    The given description is more associated with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). AML is characterized by medium to large blasts, which have more cytoplasm compared to lymphoblasts. Additionally, AML blasts may contain cytoplasmic granules and Auer rods, which are rod-shaped structures found in the cytoplasm of leukemic cells.

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  • 8. 

    This description is more associated with which type of Leukemia? The cytochemistry is this, negative peroxidase and sudan black, positive TdT.

    • A.

      AML

    • B.

      ALL

    Correct Answer
    B. ALL
    Explanation
    The given description is more associated with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). The negative peroxidase and sudan black cytochemistry, along with the positive TdT, are characteristic features of ALL. These findings indicate that the leukemia cells are of lymphoid origin and are immature, as TdT is an enzyme expressed during early stages of lymphocyte development. AML, on the other hand, typically shows positive peroxidase and sudan black cytochemistry.

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  • 9. 

    This description is more associated with which type of Leukemia? The cytochemistry is this, positive peroxidase and sudan black, negative TdT

    • A.

      AML

    • B.

      ALL

    Correct Answer
    A. AML
    Explanation
    The given description is more associated with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). AML is characterized by positive cytochemistry for peroxidase and sudan black, while being negative for TdT (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase). This combination of cytochemical markers is commonly seen in AML, distinguishing it from Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL).

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  • 10. 

    This description is more associated with which type of Leukemia? Small  or medium blasts, scarce cytoplasm, no granules

    • A.

      AML

    • B.

      ALL

    Correct Answer
    B. ALL
    Explanation
    The description provided of small or medium blasts, scarce cytoplasm, and no granules is more commonly associated with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). ALL is a type of leukemia that primarily affects lymphoid cells, which are responsible for producing white blood cells. In ALL, there is an overproduction of immature lymphoblasts, which are the small or medium blasts described in the question. The scarcity of cytoplasm and absence of granules further support the diagnosis of ALL.

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  • 11. 

    Peroxidase is present in the  primary granules of ___ cells.

    Correct Answer
    myeloid
    Explanation
    Peroxidase is an enzyme that is commonly found in myeloid cells. Myeloid cells are a type of white blood cell that play a crucial role in the immune system, specifically in the defense against bacterial and fungal infections. They are responsible for producing and releasing peroxidase into the primary granules, which are specialized structures within the cells. Therefore, it can be concluded that peroxidase is present in the primary granules of myeloid cells.

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  • 12. 

    Is peroxidase present in lymphocytes or their precursors?

    • A.

      Yes

    • B.

      No

    Correct Answer
    B. No
    Explanation
    Peroxidase is not present in lymphocytes or their precursors. Peroxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of various substances by hydrogen peroxide. It is commonly found in neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, which are types of white blood cells, but not in lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response, but they do not produce peroxidase. Therefore, the correct answer is "No".

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  • 13. 

    Which is more of a specific stain for granulocyte differentiation?

    • A.

      Sudan Black B

    • B.

      Peroxidase

    Correct Answer
    B. Peroxidase
    Explanation
    Peroxidase is more specific for granulocyte differentiation compared to Sudan Black B. Peroxidase is an enzyme that is present in high levels in granulocytes, particularly neutrophils, and is involved in their immune functions. Sudan Black B, on the other hand, is a nonspecific stain that can be used to detect lipids but does not specifically target granulocytes. Therefore, peroxidase is a more reliable marker for identifying granulocytes.

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  • 14. 

    Positive staining relating to Myeloperoxidase shows what color granules?

    • A.

      Orange-red

    • B.

      Blue-black

    • C.

      Yellow-brown

    • D.

      Purple-black

    Correct Answer
    B. Blue-black
    Explanation
    Myeloperoxidase is an enzyme found in the granules of certain immune cells, such as neutrophils. These granules contain substances that help the immune system fight off infections. When positive staining is observed for Myeloperoxidase, it indicates the presence of this enzyme in the granules. The color associated with this positive staining is blue-black, suggesting that the granules containing Myeloperoxidase appear blue-black under the staining procedure.

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  • 15. 

    Peroxidase is present in the primary granules of the myeloid cells. Granules first appear in the early promyeloblast and persist through maturation

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because peroxidase is indeed present in the primary granules of myeloid cells. These granules start to appear in the early promyeloblast stage and remain present as the cells mature. Therefore, the statement accurately describes the presence and persistence of peroxidase in myeloid cells' primary granules.

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  • 16. 

    ____ is the most sensitive stain for granulocyte precursors, and is less specific than ____ in differentiating AML from ALL, but positively  seldom occurs in lymphoid cells.

    • A.

      Sudan Black B, Myeloperoxidase

    • B.

      Myeloperoxidase, Sudan Black B

    Correct Answer
    A. Sudan Black B, Myeloperoxidase
    Explanation
    Sudan Black B is the most sensitive stain for granulocyte precursors, meaning it is able to detect these cells more easily compared to other stains. Myeloperoxidase, on the other hand, is less specific in differentiating Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) from Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), but it rarely occurs in lymphoid cells. Therefore, Sudan Black B is a more reliable indicator for granulocyte precursors, while myeloperoxidase is less specific but still useful in differentiating between AML and ALL.

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  • 17. 

    Phospholipids occur in the _______ granules of  granulocytic cells.

    • A.

      Primary

    • B.

      Secondary

    • C.

      Primary and secondary

    • D.

      Tertiary

    Correct Answer
    C. Primary and secondary
    Explanation
    Phospholipids occur in both primary and secondary granules of granulocytic cells. Granulocytic cells, such as neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils, contain different types of granules that store various substances. Primary granules are formed during the early stages of granulocyte development and contain enzymes and antimicrobial proteins. Secondary granules are formed later and contain proteins involved in inflammation and immune response. Phospholipids, which are essential components of cell membranes, are found in both types of granules, contributing to their structural integrity and function.

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  • 18. 

    ____ is less specific than _______ in differentiating AML from ALL

    • A.

      Sudan Black B, Myeloperoxidase

    • B.

      Myeloperoxidase, Sudan Black B

    Correct Answer
    A. Sudan Black B, Myeloperoxidase
    Explanation
    Sudan Black B is less specific than Myeloperoxidase in differentiating Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) from Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). This means that Sudan Black B is not as reliable or accurate as Myeloperoxidase in distinguishing between these two types of leukemia.

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  • 19. 

    Positive staining using Sudan Black B show what color cytoplasmic granules?

    • A.

      Blue-Black

    • B.

      Orange-Red

    • C.

      Brown-Black

    • D.

      Yellow-Brown

    • E.

      Purple-Red

    Correct Answer
    C. Brown-Black
    Explanation
    Sudan Black B is a dye commonly used in histology to stain lipids, particularly fat. When positive staining occurs using Sudan Black B, it indicates the presence of cytoplasmic granules that contain lipids. These granules appear brown-black in color under a microscope.

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  • 20. 

    Chloroacetate esterase is negative for which of these?

    • A.

      Eosinophils

    • B.

      Neutrophils

    • C.

      Mast cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Eosinophils
    Explanation
    Chloroacetate esterase is negative for eosinophils. This means that eosinophils do not produce or contain this enzyme. Chloroacetate esterase is an enzyme that is commonly used as a marker for certain types of cells, such as neutrophils and mast cells. However, it is not present in eosinophils.

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  • 21. 

    Chloroacetate esterase is negative for which of these?

    • A.

      Basophils

    • B.

      Neutrophils

    • C.

      Monocytes

    Correct Answer
    C. Monocytes
    Explanation
    Chloroacetate esterase is a stain used to detect the presence of enzymes called esterases. In this case, the question is asking for which cell type the chloroacetate esterase stain would be negative. The correct answer is monocytes. This means that monocytes do not contain or produce the esterase enzyme that can be detected by the chloroacetate esterase stain. Basophils and neutrophils, on the other hand, would be positive for chloroacetate esterase since they do contain or produce the esterase enzyme.

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  • 22. 

    Chloroacetate esterase positive show what color  cytoplasmic granules?

    • A.

      Blue-Black

    • B.

      Bright Red

    • C.

      Pale Yellow

    • D.

      Brown-Black

    Correct Answer
    B. Bright Red
    Explanation
    Chloroacetate esterase positive cytoplasmic granules show a bright red color.

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  • 23. 

    Chloroacetate esterase most important use is in demonstrating myeloid differentiation in _____ -embedded tissue section.

    Correct Answer
    paraffin
    Explanation
    Chloroacetate esterase is an enzyme that is commonly used to demonstrate myeloid differentiation in tissue sections embedded in paraffin. Paraffin embedding is a common technique used in histology to preserve tissue structure and allow for thin sectioning. By using chloroacetate esterase staining on paraffin-embedded tissue sections, myeloid cells can be specifically identified and differentiated from other cell types. This staining method is particularly useful in studying various diseases and conditions related to myeloid cell differentiation and function.

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  • 24. 

    Nonspecific esterase is primarily used to identify ________ cells.

    Correct Answer
    monocytic
    Explanation
    Nonspecific esterase is an enzyme that is primarily used to identify monocytic cells. Monocytic cells are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. By using nonspecific esterase staining, monocytic cells can be easily distinguished from other types of cells, such as lymphocytes or granulocytes. This staining technique helps in the identification and classification of different cell types, aiding in the diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases and disorders.

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  • 25. 

    Nonspecific esterase is negative in ______ cells.

    • A.

      Monocytic

    • B.

      Granulocytic

    Correct Answer
    B. Granulocytic
    Explanation
    Nonspecific esterase is negative in granulocytic cells.

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  • 26. 

    Alpha Napthyl butyrate is ________ for monocyte differentiation and is not positive for megakarocytes and platelets.

    • A.

      More sensitive than Alpha Napthyl acetate

    • B.

      More specific than Alpha Naphtyl acetate

    Correct Answer
    B. More specific than Alpha Naphtyl acetate
    Explanation
    Alpha Napthyl butyrate is more specific than Alpha Napthyl acetate for monocyte differentiation and is not positive for megakarocytes and platelets. This means that Alpha Napthyl butyrate is better at identifying and differentiating monocytes specifically, while Alpha Napthyl acetate may not be as accurate or specific in this regard.

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  • 27. 

    Between Alpha Napthyl butyrate and Alpha Napthyl acetate, which is more sensitive and is also positive for megakarocytes and platelets?

    • A.

      Alpha Napthyl acetate

    • B.

      Alpha Napthyl butyrate

    Correct Answer
    A. Alpha Napthyl acetate
    Explanation
    Alpha Napthyl acetate is more sensitive and positive for megakarocytes and platelets compared to Alpha Napthyl butyrate.

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  • 28. 

    What color staining does Nonspecific Esterase produce?

    • A.

      Blue-Black

    • B.

      Brown-Black

    • C.

      Brick Red

    • D.

      Bright Red

    • E.

      Yellow-Brown

    Correct Answer
    C. Brick Red
    Explanation
    Nonspecific Esterase produces a staining color that is Brick Red.

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  • 29. 

    Periodic acid shiff stains glycogen and other relating compounds what color?

    • A.

      Brick Red

    • B.

      Blue-Black

    • C.

      Bright Magneta

    • D.

      Bright Red

    • E.

      Brown-Black

    Correct Answer
    C. Bright Magneta
    Explanation
    Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) stain is commonly used to detect the presence of glycogen and other related compounds in tissues. The stain reacts with these compounds, resulting in a bright magenta color. This color is easily distinguishable under a microscope, allowing for the identification of glycogen-rich structures within the tissue sample. Therefore, the correct answer is Bright Magneta.

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  • 30. 

    Granulocytes show a ______ pattern with the Periodic Acid Schiff stains.

    • A.

      Diffused

    • B.

      Clumped

    • C.

      Granular

    • D.

      Erratic

    Correct Answer
    A. Diffused
    Explanation
    Granulocytes show a diffused pattern with the Periodic Acid Schiff stains. This means that the staining is evenly distributed throughout the granulocytes, resulting in a uniform appearance. This is in contrast to a clumped pattern, where the staining would be concentrated in certain areas, or an erratic pattern, where the staining would be irregular and unpredictable. The term "granular" refers to the presence of granules in the cytoplasm of granulocytes, but it does not specifically describe the staining pattern.

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  • 31. 

    Lymphocytes show a _______ pattern with the Periodic acid shiff stains.

    • A.

      Diffused

    • B.

      Clumped

    • C.

      Granular

    • D.

      Erratic

    Correct Answer
    C. Granular
    Explanation
    Lymphocytes show a granular pattern with the Periodic acid shiff stains. This means that when stained with Periodic acid, lymphocytes exhibit a pattern characterized by the presence of granules. These granules may appear as small, discrete particles within the lymphocytes. This staining pattern can provide valuable information about the cellular composition and activity of lymphocytes, helping to identify and differentiate different types of lymphocytes.

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  • 32. 

    This stains glycogen and other related compounds including mucoproteins, glycoproteins, glycolipids, and polysaccharides.

    • A.

      Sudan Black B

    • B.

      Nonspecific Esterase

    • C.

      Period Acid Schiff

    • D.

      Myeloperoxidase

    Correct Answer
    C. Period Acid Schiff
    Explanation
    Period Acid Schiff (PAS) stain is used to detect the presence of glycogen and other related compounds such as mucoproteins, glycoproteins, glycolipids, and polysaccharides. PAS stain is commonly used in histopathology to identify these substances in tissues and cells. It works by reacting with the hydroxyl groups present in these compounds, resulting in a pink to magenta color. Therefore, the given correct answer, Period Acid Schiff, is the appropriate choice for the explanation provided.

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  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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