Health And Aging 1bb3

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Health And Aging 1bb3 - Quiz

Health and Aging 1BB3 - McMaster (FINAL EXAM QUIZ)


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Ageism is defined as:

    • A.

      Asking older people if they need help

    • B.

      Prejudice against older people

    • C.

      Taking advantage of older people

    • D.

      The dislike of elderly people

    Correct Answer
    B. Prejudice against older people
    Explanation
    The correct answer is prejudice against older people. Ageism refers to the discrimination or prejudice against individuals based on their age, particularly against older adults. This can manifest in various forms, such as stereotypes, negative attitudes, and unequal treatment, solely based on a person's age. Ageism can lead to exclusion, marginalization, and limited opportunities for older individuals, impacting their overall well-being and quality of life.

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  • 2. 

    Discrimination is defined as:

    • A.

      Unfair treatment of a person or group based on prejudice

    • B.

      A synonym for decriminalization

    • C.

      Making uneducated judgments

    • D.

      Exclusion and defamation

    Correct Answer
    A. Unfair treatment of a person or group based on prejudice
    Explanation
    Discrimination is the act of treating someone or a group unfairly based on preconceived notions or biases. This can involve denying certain rights, opportunities, or privileges to individuals or groups solely because of their race, gender, age, religion, or other characteristics. It goes beyond making uneducated judgments or exclusion and defamation, as it specifically refers to the unfair treatment resulting from prejudice.

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  • 3. 

    Elderspeak is defined as:

    • A.

      Slang unique to elders, often used in nursing homes and long-term care centres

    • B.

      Simplified speech, similar to baby-talk, that some people use when speaking to older people

    • C.

      The discussion of choices made concerning elderly people

    • D.

      Speaking to elders with distaste and/or disinterest

    Correct Answer
    B. Simplified speech, similar to baby-talk, that some people use when speaking to older people
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "simplified speech, similar to baby-talk, that some people use when speaking to older people." Elderspeak refers to the practice of using a simplified and patronizing form of speech when communicating with older individuals. This speech pattern often includes exaggerated intonation, slower speech, and the use of diminutives or baby-like language. It is believed to be a well-intentioned but misguided attempt to communicate with older adults, but it can be demeaning and disrespectful.

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  • 4. 

    Gerontology is defined as:

    • A.

      The discipline that is responsible for the care of aging and elderly people

    • B.

      The discipline central to the study of old people

    • C.

      The discipline that systematically studies aging

    • D.

      The discipline central to the study of ageism

    Correct Answer
    C. The discipline that systematically studies aging
    Explanation
    Gerontology is the study of aging, specifically focusing on the physical, mental, and social aspects of the aging process. It involves the systematic examination of the changes that occur as individuals grow older, including the effects on their health, well-being, and quality of life. Gerontology encompasses a wide range of disciplines, such as biology, psychology, sociology, and healthcare, with the goal of understanding and improving the lives of older adults.

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  • 5. 

    Intergenerational equity is defined as:

    • A.

      The sociological pattern in which prior generations pass on information to the current generation

    • B.

      The obligation for current generations to care for and respect prior generations

    • C.

      Government policies made to distinguish younger and older people

    • D.

      The call for balanced support of older and younger people through public policy and expenditures

    Correct Answer
    D. The call for balanced support of older and younger people through public policy and expenditures
    Explanation
    Intergenerational equity refers to the concept of ensuring fairness and balance in the support provided to both older and younger generations through public policy and expenditures. It emphasizes the need to consider the needs and interests of both generations, rather than favoring one over the other. This approach recognizes the importance of providing equal opportunities and resources to both older and younger individuals, promoting a more equitable society.

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  • 6. 

    Prejudice is defined as:

    • A.

      Being biased against someone or something; a negative judgement formed beforehand without knowledge of the facts

    • B.

      Making judgements based on a lack of knowledge and acting upon these judgement in a negative manner

    • C.

      Discrimination of specific groups of people and/or a specific person

    • D.

      Acting impartially towards all people regardless of learned or assumed information

    Correct Answer
    A. Being biased against someone or something; a negative judgement formed beforehand without knowledge of the facts
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "being biased against someone or something; a negative judgement formed beforehand without knowledge of the facts." This explanation aligns with the definition of prejudice provided, which emphasizes the negative judgment and bias that is formed without having proper knowledge or understanding of the situation or individual. Prejudice involves making assumptions and forming opinions based on limited or no information, leading to unfair treatment or discrimination.

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  • 7. 

    Social structure is defined as:

    • A.

      Groups that congregate together due to similarities

    • B.

      A fluctuating system of social queues and norms that adhere to the times

    • C.

      A relatively stable pattern of social interactions

    • D.

      Unchanging social interaction as defined by the cohort

    Correct Answer
    C. A relatively stable pattern of social interactions
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "a relatively stable pattern of social interactions". This definition suggests that social structure refers to a consistent and predictable framework of interactions between individuals or groups in a society. It implies that there are established roles, norms, and relationships that guide social behavior and provide stability within a community. This definition emphasizes the enduring nature of social interactions rather than their fluctuating or unchanging aspects.

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  • 8. 

    A society for all ages is defined as:

    • A.

      A society in which all people of all ages coexist peacefully

    • B.

      A society that promotes the well being and contributions of older people in all aspects of life; follows the main principles of being

    • C.

      A society that runs independently of age limitations and prejudice

    • D.

      A society that optimizes successful aging for all older people regardless of circumstance; central to the three core beliefs of self actualization

    Correct Answer
    B. A society that promotes the well being and contributions of older people in all aspects of life; follows the main principles of being
    Explanation
    A society for all ages is defined as a society that promotes the well-being and contributions of older people in all aspects of life and follows the main principles of being. This means that in such a society, older people are valued, respected, and included in all areas of society, and their well-being and contributions are actively supported and encouraged. The society recognizes the importance of older people and ensures that they have equal opportunities and access to resources, regardless of their age.

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  • 9. 

    A stereotype is defined as:

    • A.

      Beliefs that are racist, ageist, sexist, ableist, etc. in nature

    • B.

      Comments or judgements that are in defamatory in nature and consistent with specific personal characteristics

    • C.

      An exaggerated and often prejudiced view of a type of person or group of people

    • D.

      A common accepted belief that varies across cultures; may be negative

    Correct Answer
    C. An exaggerated and often prejudiced view of a type of person or group of people
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "an exaggerated and often prejudiced view of a type of person or group of people." This definition accurately describes a stereotype as it highlights the key characteristics of stereotypes, which are the exaggerated and prejudiced nature of the views held towards a particular person or group. Stereotypes often involve making generalizations and attributing certain traits or behaviors to individuals based on their membership in a particular group, without considering individual differences. This definition also acknowledges that stereotypes can be negative in nature.

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  • 10. 

    The growth of the older population of Canada has made aging _________________ that will effect us all.

    • A.

      A major social issue

    • B.

      A difficult and trying process

    • C.

      An inevitable part of life

    • D.

      An eventful and adaptive process

    Correct Answer
    A. A major social issue
    Explanation
    The growth of the older population in Canada has resulted in aging becoming a major social issue. This means that the increasing number of elderly individuals in the country has raised concerns and challenges for society as a whole. It implies that aging is not just a personal experience, but a matter that affects the entire community and requires attention and action.

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  • 11. 

    The two main goals of gerontology are to:

    • A.

      Increase our knowledge of old age

    • B.

      Study changes in the body and mind in later life

    • C.

      Improve the quality of later life

    • D.

      Focus new policies and expenditures on the elderly

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Increase our knowledge of old age
    C. Improve the quality of later life
    Explanation
    Gerontology is the study of aging and its effects on individuals. The two main goals of gerontology are to increase our knowledge of old age and improve the quality of later life. By studying changes in the body and mind in later life, researchers can gain a better understanding of the aging process and develop interventions to enhance the well-being of older adults. Additionally, focusing on improving the quality of later life allows for the development of policies and expenditures that address the specific needs and challenges faced by the elderly population.

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  • 12. 

    A growing population of healthy and active older people will lead Canadians to rethink their view on aging. What is this representative of?

    • A.

      Gerontology's aim to replace stereotypes with facts

    • B.

      The motivation of today's elderly to be more active and satisfied

    • C.

      The changing views in Canada today

    • D.

      The trend relating to the increase in life expectancy in developed countries

    Correct Answer
    A. Gerontology's aim to replace stereotypes with facts
    Explanation
    This answer suggests that the growing population of healthy and active older people will challenge the stereotypes and misconceptions about aging. Gerontology, the study of aging, aims to replace these stereotypes with factual information and promote a more accurate understanding of older adults. By highlighting the changing views on aging in Canada, this answer aligns with gerontology's objective of dispelling stereotypes and promoting a positive perspective on aging.

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  • 13. 

    The ever-youthful person, the active and engaged senior, and the senior accepting of aging and the physical changed it brings. What do these descriptors represent? 

    • A.

      Common misconceptions about aging.

    • B.

      Motivators for self-positivity in seniors.

    • C.

      Newly emerging images of aging.

    • D.

      Goals for seniors in later life.

    Correct Answer
    C. Newly emerging images of aging.
    Explanation
    The descriptors "ever-youthful person," "active and engaged senior," and "senior accepting of aging and the physical changes it brings" suggest that there are new and evolving perceptions of aging. These descriptions indicate that there is a shift in societal views towards aging, highlighting the emergence of more positive and diverse images of older adults. This aligns with the idea of newly emerging images of aging.

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  • 14. 

    Population ageing has led to new forms of ageism, in which elderly people are blamed for societies problems; most commonly known as ______________.

    • A.

      Disruptive accusation

    • B.

      Scapegoating

    • C.

      Specified ageism

    • D.

      Prejudice

    Correct Answer
    B. Scapegoating
    Explanation
    Population ageing has resulted in the emergence of a new type of ageism, where older individuals are unfairly held responsible for the issues faced by society. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as "scapegoating". Scapegoating involves blaming a particular group, in this case, the elderly, for problems that are not necessarily their fault. This form of ageism perpetuates negative stereotypes and unfairly targets older individuals, further marginalizing them in society.

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  • 15. 

    Social gerontology is defined as:

    • A.

      Using social methodology, such as interviews and personal communications, to study aging

    • B.

      The study of aging focusing on social interactions

    • C.

      A subfield within gerontology that focuses on the socials side of aging

    • D.

      The a subfield of gerontology that focuses on older people as a social group

    Correct Answer
    D. The a subfield of gerontology that focuses on older people as a social group
    Explanation
    Social gerontology is a subfield within gerontology that specifically examines older people as a social group. It emphasizes the study of aging from a social perspective, exploring various aspects of social interactions and relationships among older individuals. This field employs social research methodologies, such as interviews and personal communications, to gain insights into the social experiences and challenges faced by older adults. By focusing on the social aspects of aging, social gerontology contributes to a better understanding of the impact of social factors on the well-being and quality of life of older individuals.

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  • 16. 

    Micro-level theories:

    • A.

      Focus on short term changes and trends

    • B.

      Focus on a lens in which observation is close/critical

    • C.

      Focus on smaller groups and societies

    • D.

      Focus on individuals and their interactions

    Correct Answer
    D. Focus on individuals and their interactions
    Explanation
    Micro-level theories focus on individuals and their interactions. These theories examine the behavior and interactions of individuals within smaller groups or societies. They emphasize the importance of understanding individual actions and how they contribute to larger social patterns. By focusing on individuals, micro-level theories provide insights into the dynamics of social relationships and the impact of individual choices on society as a whole.

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  • 17. 

    Macro-level theories:

    • A.

      Focus on long term changes and trends

    • B.

      Focus on examining social structures or structural elements as they influence experiences and behaviours

    • C.

      Focus on societies and large groups and their interactions and behaviours

    • D.

      Focus on vague or broad-lens theories that are more widely applicable than micro-level theories

    Correct Answer
    B. Focus on examining social structures or structural elements as they influence experiences and behaviours
    Explanation
    Macro-level theories focus on examining social structures or structural elements as they influence experiences and behaviors. This means that these theories analyze the larger societal context and how it shapes individuals' actions and interactions. Unlike micro-level theories, which focus on specific individuals or small groups, macro-level theories take a broader perspective and look at the overall patterns and trends in society. They aim to understand the social systems and institutions that impact people's lives and behaviors on a larger scale.

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  • 18. 

    Interpretive perspective is:

    • A.

      How individuals define and create their social world

    • B.

      How cultures interpret social information based on worldview

    • C.

      How people respond based on the input received by others

    • D.

      How individuals define themselves as a part of a group

    Correct Answer
    A. How individuals define and create their social world
    Explanation
    The interpretive perspective refers to how individuals define and create their social world. This means that individuals have the ability to interpret and give meaning to the social information they receive, and through their interpretations, they actively shape and create their social reality. It emphasizes the subjective nature of social interactions and highlights the importance of individual perspectives in understanding social phenomena.

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  • 19. 

    Functionalist perspective focuses on

    • A.

      Structural changes related how society functions

    • B.

      Social order based on cooperation and consensus (interconnection)

    • C.

      Order in an established society based on working rules

    • D.

      Change as related to interactions and behaviour (relationships)

    Correct Answer
    B. Social order based on cooperation and consensus (interconnection)
    Explanation
    The functionalist perspective focuses on the social order based on cooperation and consensus. This means that it emphasizes the interconnection between different parts of society and how they work together to maintain social stability. Functionalists believe that society functions like a well-oiled machine, with each part serving a specific function to contribute to the overall functioning of society. They argue that social order is achieved through cooperation and consensus, where individuals and groups agree on common values, norms, and goals. This perspective also highlights the importance of social institutions and how they contribute to maintaining social order.

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  • 20. 

    Conflict perspective is central to the idea that:

    • A.

      Opposing notions and conflict maintain a system of change in society

    • B.

      Society will always tend towards chaos and disorder

    • C.

      Society is based on conflict between dominant and subordinate social groups

    • D.

      Conflict urges societies to adapt and form rules to structure themselves

    Correct Answer
    C. Society is based on conflict between dominant and subordinate social groups
    Explanation
    The conflict perspective suggests that society is based on conflict between dominant and subordinate social groups. This perspective emphasizes the power struggles and inequalities that exist within society, highlighting how those in power maintain their dominance over others. It argues that social change occurs as a result of these conflicts and that societies adapt and form rules to structure themselves in response to these conflicts. This perspective challenges the idea of social harmony and stability, instead emphasizing the role of conflict in shaping society.

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  • 21. 

    Positivist perspective is central to the belief that:

    • A.

      Negativity and discrimination prevent societies from evolving positively

    • B.

      Knowledge is built by studying observable facts and their relationship to one another

    • C.

      Societies often change in a predictable and observable manner

    • D.

      People form groups based on positive relationships throughout their life course

    Correct Answer
    B. Knowledge is built by studying observable facts and their relationship to one another
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "knowledge is built by studying observable facts and their relationship to one another." This aligns with the positivist perspective, which emphasizes the importance of empirical evidence and scientific methods in understanding the world. Positivists believe that knowledge should be based on observable facts and their relationships, rather than subjective opinions or interpretations. By studying and analyzing these observable facts, individuals can gain a deeper understanding of the world and contribute to the advancement of society.

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  • 22. 

    Age stratification theory focuses on:

    • A.

      The progressives changes a person undergoes as they experience aging

    • B.

      The movement of age cohorts over the life course and the similarities and differences between them

    • C.

      How negative factors affect the process of aging

    • D.

      How individual factors compare to collective factors over the life course

    Correct Answer
    B. The movement of age cohorts over the life course and the similarities and differences between them
    Explanation
    Age stratification theory focuses on the movement of age cohorts over the life course and the similarities and differences between them. This theory examines how different age groups experience similar or different social, economic, and political conditions. It explores how individuals within these age cohorts are affected by factors such as education, employment, and healthcare, and how these factors can create inequalities and stratification within society based on age. By studying the movement and experiences of different age cohorts, age stratification theory helps to understand the dynamics of social change and inequality across the life course.

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  • 23. 

    An age cohort is defined as:

    • A.

      A group of people born in the same geographical area

    • B.

      A group of people who have had similar life experiences

    • C.

      A group of people with similar tendencies/characteristics

    • D.

      A group of people born in the same period of time

    Correct Answer
    D. A group of people born in the same period of time
    Explanation
    An age cohort is a group of people born in the same period of time. This means that individuals within an age cohort share the same birth year or range of birth years. This grouping allows for the analysis and comparison of individuals who have experienced similar historical events, cultural influences, and societal changes during their formative years. Age cohorts are often used in demographic studies and market research to understand how different generations may have distinct characteristics, values, and behaviors due to their shared experiences during their respective time periods.

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  • 24. 

    An age grade is a concept used in age stratification theory to:

    • A.

      Describe a period or stage of life defined by society

    • B.

      Describe how an individual ages

    • C.

      Define a cohort

    • D.

      Represent a large group of people close in chronological age

    Correct Answer
    A. Describe a period or stage of life defined by society
    Explanation
    An age grade is a concept used in age stratification theory to describe a period or stage of life defined by society. This means that society has certain expectations, roles, and responsibilities associated with different age groups. Age grades help to categorize individuals based on their age and assign them specific roles, rights, and obligations. It is a way for society to organize and structure the different stages of life and determine the appropriate behaviors and expectations for individuals within each age group.

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  • 25. 

    Life course perspective is a functionalist approach that:

    • A.

      Analyzes a persons life through social, structural, and cultural contexts

    • B.

      Observes how a person changes throughout their life

    • C.

      Compares and contrasts results of the life course

    • D.

      Attributes aging to the accumulation of life experiences and exposure

    Correct Answer
    A. Analyzes a persons life through social, structural, and cultural contexts
    Explanation
    The life course perspective is a functionalist approach that examines an individual's life by considering the social, structural, and cultural contexts in which they live. This approach recognizes that a person's experiences and opportunities are shaped by their social environment, the structures and institutions they interact with, and the cultural norms and values they are exposed to. By analyzing these contexts, the life course perspective seeks to understand how individuals develop and change over time, and how their lives are influenced by broader societal factors.

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  • 26. 

    In the life course perspective, transitions are:

    • A.

      Long term plans and changes

    • B.

      Personal accumulated changes

    • C.

      The change from stage to stage of life

    • D.

      The change from childhood to adulthood

    Correct Answer
    C. The change from stage to stage of life
    Explanation
    In the life course perspective, transitions refer to the change from one stage to another in life. This can include transitions from childhood to adulthood, as well as other significant life changes such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement. Transitions are not just short-term plans or personal accumulated changes, but rather the shifts that occur as individuals move through different life stages.

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  • 27. 

    In the life course perspective, trajectories are:

    • A.

      Long-term paths of transitions

    • B.

      Goals for adult life (career, marriage, children, etc.)

    • C.

      The timing at which transitions occur

    • D.

      The progression of aging in context of the life course

    Correct Answer
    A. Long-term paths of transitions
    Explanation
    Trajectories in the life course perspective refer to the long-term paths of transitions that individuals go through over their lifetime. These transitions can include various aspects such as education, career, marriage, having children, and other significant life events. Trajectories provide a framework to understand how individuals navigate through different stages and experiences in their lives, and how these transitions may shape their overall life course.

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  • 28. 

    Political economy theory focuses on:

    • A.

      The conflict and struggles that the economic structure of capitalist society causes for older people

    • B.

      How political and economic trends follow the trends of the aging generation

    • C.

      The economic inequality between older people of varying jeopardies

    • D.

      The struggle to budget expenses for old age in the modern economy

    Correct Answer
    A. The conflict and struggles that the economic structure of capitalist society causes for older people
    Explanation
    Political economy theory focuses on the conflict and struggles that the economic structure of capitalist society causes for older people. This means that it examines how the economic system and its inherent inequalities impact the lives of older individuals. It looks at issues such as income inequality, access to healthcare and social services, retirement savings, and the overall economic well-being of older people. The theory seeks to understand and address the challenges that older individuals face within the capitalist economic system.

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  • 29. 

    Moral economy theory focuses on:

    • A.

      The moral implications of our economy

    • B.

      The dangers of a capitalist society

    • C.

      How compassion and moral lead us to support the economically unstable

    • D.

      Critiquing the negligence of moral consideration in economic theory

    Correct Answer
    A. The moral implications of our economy
    Explanation
    The moral economy theory focuses on examining the moral implications of our economy. It explores how economic systems and practices can have ethical consequences and impact individuals and society as a whole. This theory seeks to understand and evaluate the ethical dimensions of economic decisions, policies, and structures, and how they affect the well-being and fairness of individuals and communities. It emphasizes the importance of considering moral considerations in economic theory and decision-making processes.

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  • 30. 

    The term interlocking systems of oppression refers to the idea that:

    • A.

      Oppression is amplified when it becomes an interconnected system

    • B.

      Oppression is systemic and cannot be changed

    • C.

      All systems of oppression are connected and may influence each other

    • D.

      When sources of oppression are similar to one another

    Correct Answer
    C. All systems of oppression are connected and may influence each other
    Explanation
    The term "interlocking systems of oppression" suggests that different forms of oppression, such as racism, sexism, and classism, are interconnected and can reinforce each other. This means that addressing one form of oppression alone is not enough to create meaningful change, as they are all interconnected and can influence each other. This understanding emphasizes the need to take an intersectional approach when addressing social justice issues, recognizing that individuals may experience multiple forms of oppression simultaneously. By recognizing the interconnectedness of systems of oppression, we can work towards dismantling them more effectively.

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  • 31. 

    Cumulative disadvantage theory states that:

    • A.

      Disadvantages in later life tend to be more detrimental than disadvantages earlier in life

    • B.

      Many disadvantages are more detrimental than a single disadvantage

    • C.

      Disadvantages earlier in life accumulate and are magnified over the life course

    • D.

      Disadvantages earlier in life tend to be more detrimental than disadvantages in later life

    Correct Answer
    C. Disadvantages earlier in life accumulate and are magnified over the life course
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that disadvantages earlier in life accumulate and are magnified over the life course. This means that the negative effects of early disadvantages, such as poverty or lack of education, can compound and become more severe as a person ages. This theory suggests that the longer someone experiences disadvantage, the greater its impact on their overall well-being and opportunities. It highlights the importance of addressing early disadvantages to prevent long-term negative consequences.

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  • 32. 

    Feminist approach focuses on the idea that:

    • A.

      Gender is a defining characteristic in social interaction and life experiences

    • B.

      Women tend to have far more cumulative disadvantages in life than men

    • C.

      A patriarchal society has intrinsic historical factors that fail to consider women

    • D.

      Gender determines the relative transitions and trajectories of a life course

    Correct Answer
    A. Gender is a defining characteristic in social interaction and life experiences
    Explanation
    The feminist approach focuses on the idea that gender is a defining characteristic in social interaction and life experiences. This means that gender plays a significant role in shaping how individuals interact with one another and the experiences they have throughout their lives. It recognizes that gender is not just a biological difference, but a social construct that influences power dynamics, societal expectations, and opportunities available to individuals. This perspective highlights the importance of understanding and addressing gender inequalities and discrimination in society.

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  • 33. 

    Narrative gerontology focuses on:

    • A.

      How people describe their lives

    • B.

      The life stories of people

    • C.

      The relationship between perspective and personal life satisfaction

    • D.

      "roles" played or assumed in life

    Correct Answer
    B. The life stories of people
    Explanation
    Narrative gerontology focuses on the life stories of people. This field of study seeks to understand and analyze the narratives that individuals construct about their lives. By examining these stories, researchers can gain insight into how people make meaning of their experiences, the impact of these narratives on their well-being and personal development, and the relationship between perspective and personal life satisfaction. This approach recognizes the importance of individual experiences and subjective interpretations in understanding the aging process.

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  • 34. 

    Age effects are effects on a person’s life related to physical or maturation changes due to the aging process.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Age effects refer to the impact that the aging process has on a person's life, specifically in relation to physical or maturation changes. As individuals grow older, they experience various physiological changes that can affect their overall well-being and quality of life. These changes may include alterations in physical appearance, decline in cognitive abilities, changes in mobility and strength, and increased susceptibility to certain health conditions. Therefore, the statement that age effects are related to physical or maturation changes due to the aging process is true.

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  • 35. 

    Period or environmental effects are effect on a person’s life due to the time it is examines; facets of the environment at the time.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This statement is true because period or environmental effects refer to the impact on a person's life that is influenced by the specific time period in which they are examined, as well as the various aspects of the environment during that time. These effects can include societal norms, cultural influences, economic conditions, technological advancements, and other factors that shape an individual's experiences and opportunities. Therefore, it is accurate to say that period or environmental effects play a significant role in shaping a person's life.

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  • 36. 

    Cohort effects are an effect on a person’s life related to the time of their birth or the cohort they belong to.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cohort effects refer to the impact that the time of a person's birth or the specific group they belong to has on their life. This means that individuals who are born during the same time period or belong to the same cohort may experience similar events, influences, or societal changes that can shape their experiences and behaviors. Therefore, the statement "Cohort effects are an effect on a person's life related to the time of their birth or the cohort they belong to" is true.

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  • 37. 

    A study examines the technological proficiency of people born on each decade marker from 1970 onwards (1970, 1980, 1990, etc.) at one point in time. What kind of study is being conducted?

    • A.

      Cross-sectional

    • B.

      Time-lag comparison

    • C.

      Longitudinal

    • D.

      Sequential

    Correct Answer
    A. Cross-sectional
    Explanation
    The study is examining the technological proficiency of people born on each decade marker from 1970 onwards at one point in time. This suggests that the researchers are comparing different age groups at a specific moment, rather than following the same individuals over a period of time. Therefore, the study is a cross-sectional study.

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  • 38. 

    A study examines a group of teenagers from the time they enter university until the time they turn forty years old. What kind of study is being conducted?

    • A.

      Time-lag

    • B.

      Longitudinal

    • C.

      Cross-sectional

    • D.

      Sequential design

    Correct Answer
    B. Longitudinal
    Explanation
    The study that is being conducted is a longitudinal study. This type of study follows a group of individuals over an extended period of time, in this case from the time they enter university until they turn forty years old. It allows researchers to observe changes and developments that occur over time and can provide valuable insights into the long-term effects of various factors on individuals' lives.

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  • 39. 

    A study examines Westbrook Elementary's  kindergarten class in 2001, 2002, 2003.... 2015. What kind of study is being conducted.

    • A.

      Longitudinal

    • B.

      Cross-sectional

    • C.

      Sequential design

    • D.

      Time-lag

    Correct Answer
    D. Time-lag
    Explanation
    The study examines the same kindergarten class over a period of time, specifically from 2001 to 2015. This indicates that the researchers are interested in understanding the changes and developments that occur in the class over time. The term "time-lag" refers to a study design where data is collected at different points in time, allowing researchers to analyze the effects of time on the variables being studied. Therefore, the correct answer is time-lag.

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  • 40. 

    A study follows people born in 1910, 1920, 1930, 1940, and 1950 over a span of 50 years. What kind of study is being conducted?

    • A.

      Time-lag

    • B.

      Sequential design

    • C.

      Longitudinal

    • D.

      Cross-sectional

    Correct Answer
    B. Sequential design
    Explanation
    A sequential design study is being conducted in this scenario. This is because the study is following different groups of people born in different years over a span of 50 years. The study is not focusing on a single group of individuals at one point in time (cross-sectional), nor is it comparing different age groups at the same time (time-lag). Instead, it is observing different cohorts over time, making it a sequential design study.

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  • 41. 

    Population aging is described as:

    • A.

      The natural facet of life in which a portion of the population ages progressively

    • B.

      A phenomenon that occurs when the median age of a country or region rises due to rising life expectancy and/or declining fertility rates

    • C.

      The proportion of older people fluctuating with varying death rates

    • D.

      Populations age increasing due to an influx of older immigrants

    Correct Answer
    B. A phenomenon that occurs when the median age of a country or region rises due to rising life expectancy and/or declining fertility rates
    Explanation
    Population aging is a phenomenon that occurs when the median age of a country or region rises due to rising life expectancy and/or declining fertility rates. This means that the population is getting older on average because people are living longer and having fewer children. As a result, there is a higher proportion of older individuals in the population compared to younger ones. This can have significant social and economic implications, such as increased healthcare costs and changes in workforce dynamics.

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  • 42. 

    Social death refers to:

    • A.

      The perception or treatment of a person as if physically dead when in fact the person has not yet died

    • B.

      The self-isolation of an older person in later life

    • C.

      The phenomena that occurs (primarily with males) when a spouse dies

    • D.

      The social transition from a large number of distant friends, to a smaller number of close friends

    Correct Answer
    A. The perception or treatment of a person as if physically dead when in fact the person has not yet died
    Explanation
    Social death refers to the perception or treatment of a person as if physically dead when in fact the person has not yet died. This means that society treats the person as if they are no longer alive, disregarding their existence and excluding them from social interactions and relationships. It is a form of social exclusion that can have profound psychological and emotional effects on the individual.

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  • 43. 

    Trajectory of dying refers to:

    • A.

      Preparations made in expectance of death

    • B.

      The life course that ends with death

    • C.

      The pattern or course of dying over time

    • D.

      The course of events following death

    Correct Answer
    C. The pattern or course of dying over time
    Explanation
    The trajectory of dying refers to the pattern or course of dying over time. It describes the progression of the dying process, including physical, emotional, and social changes that occur as a person nears the end of their life. This concept helps healthcare professionals and caregivers understand and anticipate the needs of dying individuals, enabling them to provide appropriate care and support throughout the dying process.

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  • 44. 

    Ego integrity is defined as:

    • A.

      The acceptance of the notion that one’s life cycle is something complete and unique

    • B.

      A deeper reflection of the inner workings of one's ego

    • C.

      The acceptance shortcomings later in life

    • D.

      The rejection of egotistical pursuits in later life

    Correct Answer
    A. The acceptance of the notion that one’s life cycle is something complete and unique
    Explanation
    Ego integrity refers to the acceptance of the idea that one's life cycle is something that is complete and unique. This means that individuals with ego integrity are able to reflect on their life and accept it as a whole, including both the successes and failures. They have a sense of satisfaction and fulfillment, and do not feel the need to constantly pursue egotistical goals. Instead, they are able to appreciate the uniqueness of their own life journey and find a sense of wholeness in it.

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