Grade 6 Science Unit 3 Test Ecs

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6th Grade Science Quizzes & Trivia

There is a lot of movement of objects on the earth surface and each has a cause. In our environmental class we covered erosion and landmasses. The quiz below is designed to test how much you understand about rivers and soil. Give it a shot and see how high you score.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The process by which natural forces move weathered rock and soil from one place to another is called

    • A.

      Soil conservation

    • B.

      Deposition

    • C.

      Abrasion

    • D.

      Erosion

    Correct Answer
    D. Erosion
    Explanation
    Erosion is the correct answer because it refers to the process in which natural forces such as wind, water, or ice transport weathered rock and soil from one place to another. This movement of sediment can occur through various means such as water runoff, wind carrying particles, or glaciers pushing debris. Soil conservation, deposition, and abrasion are not accurate descriptions of this process. Soil conservation refers to efforts to prevent soil erosion, deposition refers to the settling of sediment in a new location, and abrasion is the wearing away of rock surfaces by friction.

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  • 2. 

    Landslides, mudflows, slump, and creep are all examples of 

    • A.

      Mechanical weathering

    • B.

      Runoff

    • C.

      Mass movement

    • D.

      Soil formation

    Correct Answer
    C. Mass movement
    Explanation
    Landslides, mudflows, slump, and creep are all examples of mass movement. Mass movement refers to the downhill movement of rock, soil, or debris under the influence of gravity. These processes occur when the force of gravity exceeds the strength of the material, causing it to move downslope. Landslides involve the rapid movement of large masses of rock and soil, while mudflows are fast-moving mixtures of water and soil. Slump refers to the sliding of a mass of rock or soil along a curved surface, and creep is the slow, gradual movement of soil and rock downhill.

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  • 3. 

    Mass movement is caused by

    • A.

      Plucking and abrasion

    • B.

      Gravity

    • C.

      Chemical weathering

    • D.

      Erosion and deposition

    Correct Answer
    B. Gravity
    Explanation
    Mass movement refers to the downhill movement of soil, rocks, and other materials under the influence of gravity. Gravity is the force that pulls objects towards the center of the Earth, causing them to move downhill. It acts as the driving force behind mass movement, causing materials to slide, slump, or flow downhill. While other factors like plucking, abrasion, chemical weathering, erosion, and deposition can contribute to mass movement, gravity is the primary cause that initiates and controls the movement of materials downslope.

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  • 4. 

    Water erosion begins when runoff from rainfall flows in a thin layer over the land in a kind of erosion called

    • A.

      Mass erosion

    • B.

      Sheet erosion

    • C.

      Creep

    • D.

      Gullying

    Correct Answer
    B. Sheet erosion
    Explanation
    Sheet erosion is the correct answer because it refers to the process where water runoff from rainfall flows in a thin, uniform layer over the land, causing the top layer of soil to be gradually removed. This type of erosion is characterized by the removal of a thin sheet of soil from large areas, rather than the formation of distinct channels or gullies. Sheet erosion is commonly observed on sloping land and can lead to the loss of valuable topsoil, which can have detrimental effects on agriculture and the environment.

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  • 5. 

    A stream or river that runs into another stream or river is called a

    • A.

      Meander

    • B.

      Turbulent stream

    • C.

      Gully

    • D.

      Tributary

    Correct Answer
    D. Tributary
    Explanation
    A stream or river that runs into another stream or river is called a tributary. Tributaries are smaller bodies of water that flow into larger bodies of water, such as rivers or lakes. They contribute to the overall flow and volume of the main river or stream. Tributaries can come from various sources, such as springs, smaller streams, or even rainfall runoff. They play a crucial role in the water cycle and are important for the overall health and sustainability of the larger water system.

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  • 6. 

    A river flowing across a wide flood plain begins to form looplike bends called

    • A.

      Rills

    • B.

      Meanders

    • C.

      Outside curves

    • D.

      Deltas

    Correct Answer
    B. Meanders
    Explanation
    Meanders are looplike bends that form in a river flowing across a wide floodplain. As the river flows, it erodes the outer banks and deposits sediment on the inner banks, causing the river to curve and form loops. These loops, known as meanders, are a common feature of rivers in floodplains. Therefore, the correct answer is meanders.

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  • 7. 

    Where a river flows from an area of harder rock to an area of softer rock, the softer rock may wear away, eventually forming a drop called a(n)

    • A.

      Oxbow lake

    • B.

      Gully

    • C.

      Waterfall

    • D.

      Delta

    Correct Answer
    C. Waterfall
    Explanation
    When a river flows from an area of harder rock to an area of softer rock, the softer rock is more easily eroded by the force of the water. Over time, this continuous erosion causes the softer rock to wear away, creating a sudden drop in the river's course. This drop is known as a waterfall. The force of the water falling over the edge of the harder rock creates a dramatic and picturesque feature in the landscape.

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  • 8. 

    Deltas are built up by

    • A.

      Deposition

    • B.

      Leaching

    • C.

      Abrasion

    • D.

      Erosion

    Correct Answer
    A. Deposition
    Explanation
    Deltas are built up by deposition, which is the process of sediment being dropped or laid down in a new location. This occurs when a river or stream carrying sediment reaches a body of water, such as a lake or ocean, and slows down. The decrease in velocity causes the sediment to settle out and accumulate, gradually building up the delta. Deposition is the key process that contributes to the growth and formation of deltas over time.

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  • 9. 

    What type of energy is involved when a river moves sediment and erodes its banks?

    • A.

      Chemical energy

    • B.

      Gravitational energy

    • C.

      Potential energy

    • D.

      Kinetic energy

    Correct Answer
    D. Kinetic energy
    Explanation
    When a river moves sediment and erodes its banks, the type of energy involved is kinetic energy. Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by a moving object or substance. In this case, the river's movement causes the sediment to be carried along and the banks to be eroded. This movement of the river and the sediment is a clear indication of kinetic energy being involved in the process.

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  • 10. 

    What happens as gravity pulls water down a slope?

    • A.

      Kinetic energy changes to potential

    • B.

      Both kinetic and potential energy vanish

    • C.

      Energy is stored for future use

    • D.

      Potential energy changes to kinetic energy

    Correct Answer
    D. Potential energy changes to kinetic energy
    Explanation
    As gravity pulls water down a slope, its potential energy decreases while its kinetic energy increases. This is because potential energy is the energy an object possesses due to its position or height, and as the water moves down the slope, it loses height and therefore potential energy. At the same time, its kinetic energy, which is the energy of motion, increases as the water gains speed while moving down the slope. Therefore, the potential energy of the water changes to kinetic energy.

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  • 11. 

    How would a fast-flowing river be most likely to move sand-sized particles of sediment?

    • A.

      It would lift them and carry them downstream

    • B.

      It would dissolve them completely in solution

    • C.

      It would roll or slide them along a streambed

    • D.

      It would deposit them on the streambed

    Correct Answer
    A. It would lift them and carry them downstream
    Explanation
    A fast-flowing river has enough energy to lift and carry sand-sized particles of sediment downstream. The force of the moving water can overcome the weight of the particles, causing them to be lifted off the streambed and transported downstream. This process is known as suspension, where the particles are suspended in the water column and transported by the current.

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  • 12. 

    As more water flows through a river, its speed will

    • A.

      Stay the same

    • B.

      Increase

    • C.

      Decrease

    • D.

      Reduce friction between water and the streambed

    Correct Answer
    B. Increase
    Explanation
    As more water flows through a river, its speed will increase. This is because the increased volume of water creates more force, causing the water to flow faster. Additionally, the increased flow of water can also lead to a decrease in friction between the water and the streambed, further contributing to the increase in speed.

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  • 13. 

    What is one main difference between continental glaciers and valley glaciers?

    • A.

      Continental glaciers are much larger and thicker

    • B.

      Each type of glacier is made of different materials

    • C.

      Valley glaciers cause more erosion

    • D.

      Continental glaciers never melt

    Correct Answer
    A. Continental glaciers are much larger and thicker
    Explanation
    Continental glaciers are much larger and thicker compared to valley glaciers. Continental glaciers cover large areas of land, sometimes entire continents, while valley glaciers are confined to valleys or mountainous regions. The sheer size and thickness of continental glaciers make them more powerful in terms of their ability to shape the landscape and cause significant erosion. Valley glaciers, on the other hand, are smaller and more localized, resulting in less overall erosion.

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  • 14. 

    Glaciers can only form when

    • A.

      There is and ice age

    • B.

      There is a U-shaped valley in the mountains

    • C.

      The amount of snow exceeds the amount of rain

    • D.

      More snow falls than melts

    Correct Answer
    D. More snow falls than melts
    Explanation
    Glaciers can only form when more snow falls than melts. This is because glaciers are formed by the accumulation of snow over a long period of time, which then compresses and turns into ice. If the amount of snowfall is greater than the amount of melting, the excess snow can accumulate and eventually form a glacier. Conversely, if more snow melts than falls, the ice will not accumulate and a glacier will not form. The other options mentioned in the question, such as the presence of an ice age or a U-shaped valley, are not necessary conditions for glacier formation.

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  • 15. 

    The process in which rock fragments freeze to the bottom of a glacier and then are carried away when the glacier moves is called

    • A.

      Plucking

    • B.

      Surging

    • C.

      Valley widening

    • D.

      Abrasion

    Correct Answer
    A. Plucking
    Explanation
    Plucking is the correct answer because it refers to the process in which rock fragments freeze to the bottom of a glacier and are then carried away when the glacier moves. This process occurs as the glacier moves over bedrock, causing the rocks to become embedded in the ice and be plucked or torn away from the surface. Plucking is an important mechanism of glacial erosion and helps to shape the landscape by transporting and depositing the rock fragments as the glacier advances and retreats.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is evidence that an area was once covered by a glacier?

    • A.

      Loess deposits

    • B.

      V-shaped valley

    • C.

      U-shaped valley

    • D.

      Alluvial fan

    Correct Answer
    C. U-shaped valley
    Explanation
    The presence of a U-shaped valley is evidence that an area was once covered by a glacier. U-shaped valleys are formed by the erosion of a glacier as it moves down a slope, carving out a wide, flat-bottomed valley with steep sides. This distinct shape is different from the V-shaped valleys formed by rivers, which have a narrow, V-shaped bottom and less steep sides. Therefore, the presence of a U-shaped valley indicates that glaciers were present in the area in the past.

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  • 17. 

    After the last ice age, stranded ice blocks left behind by the continental glacier melted and formed

    • A.

      Cirques

    • B.

      Moraines

    • C.

      Kettles

    • D.

      Drumlins

    Correct Answer
    C. Kettles
    Explanation
    After the last ice age, stranded ice blocks left behind by the continental glacier melted and formed kettles. Kettles are depressions or hollows in the ground that are formed when large blocks of ice are left behind by the melting glacier. These blocks of ice become buried by sediment and when they eventually melt, they leave behind a depression or hole in the ground. These depressions can fill with water, forming lakes or ponds, or they can remain dry. Kettles are commonly found in areas that were once covered by glaciers, such as in parts of North America and Scandinavia.

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  • 18. 

    A ridge of till located at the farthest point reached by a glacier is called a

    • A.

      Horn

    • B.

      A JoJo

    • C.

      Terminal moraine

    • D.

      Drumlin

    Correct Answer
    C. Terminal moraine
    Explanation
    A ridge of till located at the farthest point reached by a glacier is called a terminal moraine. This is formed when the glacier melts and deposits the sediment it was carrying at its furthest extent. Terminal moraines are often found at the end of a glacier and mark the maximum advance of the ice. They can vary in size and shape depending on the characteristics of the glacier and the terrain it moves over.

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  • 19. 

    The energy that produces ocean waves comes from

    • A.

      The rise and fall of the tides

    • B.

      Rivers flowing into the ocean

    • C.

      Wind blowing across the water's surface

    • D.

      Rock falling into the ocean along the shore

    Correct Answer
    C. Wind blowing across the water's surface
    Explanation
    Ocean waves are primarily generated by the wind blowing across the water's surface. As the wind interacts with the surface of the ocean, it transfers some of its energy to the water, causing it to move in a circular motion and creating waves. The strength and duration of the wind determine the size and power of the waves. While tides, rivers flowing into the ocean, and rocks falling into the ocean can also have some influence on wave formation, the primary source of energy for ocean waves is the wind.

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  • 20. 

    If waves erode the soft rock along the base of a steep coast, the result may eventually be a landform called a

    • A.

      Spit

    • B.

      Fiord

    • C.

      Headland

    • D.

      Wave cut terrace

    Correct Answer
    D. Wave cut terrace
    Explanation
    When waves erode the soft rock along the base of a steep coast, it gradually removes the material, creating a wave cut terrace. This landform is formed when the waves undercut the base of the coast, causing the overlying rock to collapse. Over time, this process repeats, resulting in a step-like formation along the coast. The wave cut terrace is typically flat and can extend for long distances parallel to the shoreline.

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  • 21. 

    Where a coastline turns and interrupts longshore drift, sand may be deposited in a fingerlike landform called a

    • A.

      Spit

    • B.

      Barrier beach

    • C.

      Sandbar

    • D.

      Headland

    Correct Answer
    A. Spit
    Explanation
    A spit is a fingerlike landform that forms when a coastline turns and interrupts longshore drift. Longshore drift is the movement of sediment along the coast caused by waves and currents. When the coastline turns, the direction of the waves and currents change, causing sediment to be deposited in a long, narrow strip of land that extends out into the water. This landform is called a spit.

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  • 22. 

    The process by which wind removes surface materials is called

    • A.

      Abrasion

    • B.

      Plucking

    • C.

      Inflation

    • D.

      Deflation

    Correct Answer
    D. Deflation
    Explanation
    Deflation refers to the process by which wind removes surface materials. It occurs when wind erodes and carries away loose particles such as sand and dust, leaving behind a bare surface. This process is commonly observed in arid and desert regions where there is limited vegetation to hold the soil in place. The wind picks up and transports the loose materials, causing erosion and shaping the landscape over time.

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  • 23. 

    Wind carrying sand grains deposits the sand when the wind

    • A.

      Speeds up

    • B.

      Crosses a depression in the ground

    • C.

      Sees JoJo

    • D.

      Slows down or hits an obstacle

    Correct Answer
    D. Slows down or hits an obstacle
    Explanation
    When the wind slows down or hits an obstacle, it loses its ability to carry the sand grains and deposits them. This is because the reduced wind speed or the presence of an obstacle disrupts the flow of the wind, causing it to drop the sand particles it was carrying. This process is known as sedimentation and is responsible for the formation of sand dunes and other landforms in deserts and coastal areas.

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  • 24. 

    Particles of clay and silt eroded and deposited by the wind are called

    • A.

      Till

    • B.

      Loess

    • C.

      Dust

    • D.

      Sod

    Correct Answer
    B. Loess
    Explanation
    Loess is the correct answer because it refers to particles of clay and silt that are eroded and deposited by the wind. Loess deposits are typically found in areas with strong winds, and they are known for their fine-grained texture and ability to retain moisture. These deposits are often used for agricultural purposes due to their fertility and ability to support plant growth.

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  • 25. 

    A landscape in which a layer of limestone close to the surface erodes into deep valleys, caverns, and sinkholes is called

    • A.

      Loess

    • B.

      Till

    • C.

      Headland

    • D.

      Karst topography

    Correct Answer
    D. Karst topography
    Explanation
    Karst topography refers to a landscape where a layer of limestone close to the surface erodes into deep valleys, caverns, and sinkholes. The dissolution of limestone by water over time creates these distinctive features. The process involves the gradual dissolution of the rock, leading to the formation of underground drainage systems, caves, and sinkholes. This type of topography is commonly found in regions with abundant limestone deposits and is characterized by its unique geological formations.

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  • 26. 

    The process that lays down sediment in a new location is

    • A.

      Erosion

    • B.

      Deposition

    • C.

      JoJoing

    • D.

      Plucking

    Correct Answer
    B. Deposition
    Explanation
    Deposition is the correct answer because it refers to the process by which sediment is deposited or laid down in a new location. This can occur when wind, water, or ice lose energy and are no longer able to transport the sediment, causing it to settle and accumulate in a new area. Deposition is an important geological process that contributes to the formation of various landforms such as deltas, beaches, and dunes.

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  • 27. 

    A_____________________________ is a cone shaped deposit of calcite that builds up on the floor of a cave.

    • A.

      Stalagtite

    • B.

      Stalagmite

    • C.

      Moraine

    • D.

      Till

    Correct Answer
    B. Stalagmite
    Explanation
    A stalagmite is a cone-shaped deposit of calcite that builds up on the floor of a cave. Unlike stalactites, which hang from the ceiling, stalagmites form from the ground as mineral-rich water drips down and deposits calcite over time. This process can take thousands of years, resulting in the formation of unique and fascinating geological structures within caves.

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  • 28. 

    Water at the top of a slope has

    • A.

      Potential energy

    • B.

      Kinetic energy

    • C.

      Decreased energy

    • D.

      No energy

    Correct Answer
    A. Potential energy
    Explanation
    Water at the top of a slope has potential energy. Potential energy is the energy possessed by an object due to its position or state. In this case, the water at the top of the slope has the potential to do work or gain kinetic energy as it flows down the slope. The higher the water is positioned, the greater its potential energy, which can be converted into other forms of energy, such as kinetic energy, as it moves downhill. Therefore, potential energy is the correct answer for this question.

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  • 29. 

    Once the depth of snow and ice reaches more than 30 to 40 meters, the force of _______________ begins to pull a glacier downhill.

    • A.

      Scientific method

    • B.

      Friction

    • C.

      Gravity

    • D.

      Mr. Rogowski

    Correct Answer
    C. Gravity
    Explanation
    As the depth of snow and ice on a glacier increases beyond 30 to 40 meters, the force of gravity starts to pull the glacier downhill. Gravity is the natural force that attracts objects towards each other, and in this case, it causes the glacier to move under its own weight. This gravitational force is responsible for the slow but continuous movement of glaciers, as they flow downhill due to the pull of gravity.

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  • 30. 

    As a river’s slope increases, the power of the river to cause erosion usually

    • A.

      Goes down

    • B.

      Stays the same

    • C.

      Decreases

    • D.

      Increases

    Correct Answer
    D. Increases
    Explanation
    As the slope of a river increases, the speed and force of the water flow also increase. This increased velocity and force allow the river to carry larger sediment particles and erode the surrounding land more effectively. Therefore, the power of the river to cause erosion usually increases when the slope increases.

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