Glands Of The Endocrine System Quiz Questions

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Alysse1207
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Quizzes Created: 4 | Total Attempts: 14,172
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Endocrine System Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Where are the beta and alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans?

    • A. 

      Pancreas

    • B. 

      Testes

    • C. 

      Ovaries

    Correct Answer
    A. Pancreas
    Explanation
    The beta and alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans are located in the pancreas. These cells are responsible for producing and releasing important hormones such as insulin and glucagon, which play a crucial role in regulating blood sugar levels in the body. The pancreas is an organ located in the abdomen, specifically behind the stomach, and it has both exocrine and endocrine functions. The exocrine function involves the production of digestive enzymes, while the endocrine function involves the production of hormones, including those produced by the beta and alpha cells in the islets of Langerhans.

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  • 2. 

    Name the gonads that secrete estrogen and progesterone?

    • A. 

      Testes

    • B. 

      Ovaries

    • C. 

      Thyroid Gland

    Correct Answer
    B. Ovaries
    Explanation
    The correct answer is ovaries. Ovaries are the female gonads that produce and secrete estrogen and progesterone. These hormones are responsible for regulating the menstrual cycle, promoting the development of secondary sexual characteristics, and maintaining pregnancy. The testes, on the other hand, are the male gonads that produce testosterone. The thyroid gland is not directly involved in the secretion of estrogen and progesterone.

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  • 3. 

    What secretes T3, T4, and calcitonin?

    • A. 

      Hypothalamus

    • B. 

      Adrenal Cortex

    • C. 

      Thyroid Gland

    Correct Answer
    C. Thyroid Gland
    Explanation
    The thyroid gland secretes T3, T4, and calcitonin. T3 and T4 are hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and development in the body. Calcitonin, on the other hand, helps to regulate calcium levels in the blood and promotes bone health. The hypothalamus is responsible for regulating the release of hormones from the pituitary gland, while the adrenal cortex produces hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone. However, neither of these glands secretes T3, T4, or calcitonin. Therefore, the correct answer is the thyroid gland.

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  • 4. 

    What secretes releasing hormones?

    • A. 

      Hypothalamus

    • B. 

      Thymus Gland

    • C. 

      Adrenal Medulla

    Correct Answer
    A. Hypothalamus
    Explanation
    The hypothalamus secretes releasing hormones. It is a small area located at the base of the brain and plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions. One of its main functions is to produce and release hormones that control the release of other hormones from the pituitary gland. These releasing hormones stimulate or inhibit the production and release of hormones such as growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and gonadotropins. Therefore, the hypothalamus is responsible for maintaining hormonal balance and regulating the body's overall endocrine system.

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  • 5. 

    What secretes antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin?

    • A. 

      Anterior Pituitary Gland

    • B. 

      Pineal Gland

    • C. 

      Posterior Pituitary Gland

    Correct Answer
    C. Posterior Pituitary Gland
    Explanation
    The posterior pituitary gland secretes antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin. ADH helps regulate water balance in the body by increasing water reabsorption in the kidneys. Oxytocin plays a role in childbirth and breastfeeding, as it stimulates contractions of the uterus during labor and promotes the release of milk from the mammary glands. The anterior pituitary gland and pineal gland do not secrete these hormones.

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  • 6. 

    What is called the neurohypophysis?

    • A. 

      Anterior Pituitary Gland

    • B. 

      Posterior Pituitary Gland

    • C. 

      Pineal Gland

    Correct Answer
    B. Posterior Pituitary Gland
    Explanation
    The neurohypophysis refers to the posterior pituitary gland. This gland is responsible for secreting hormones such as oxytocin and vasopressin, which are important for regulating various bodily functions. Unlike the anterior pituitary gland, which produces and releases its own hormones, the posterior pituitary gland stores and releases hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus. The pineal gland, on the other hand, is responsible for producing melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep patterns.

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  • 7. 

    The hypothalamus and what gland are parts of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system?

    • A. 

      Anterior Pituitary Gland

    • B. 

      Posterior Pituitary Gland

    • C. 

      Thymus Gland

    Correct Answer
    A. Anterior Pituitary Gland
    Explanation
    The hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system is a network of blood vessels that connects the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland. This system allows for the direct communication and transport of hormones between these two structures. The hypothalamus releases hormones into the portal system, which then travel to the anterior pituitary gland and stimulate the release of specific hormones from the gland. Therefore, the correct answer is the Anterior Pituitary Gland.

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  • 8. 

    What is called the adenohypophysis?

    • A. 

      Parathyroid Glands

    • B. 

      Anterior Pituitary Gland

    • C. 

      Posterior Pituitary Gland

    Correct Answer
    B. Anterior Pituitary Gland
    Explanation
    The adenohypophysis is another name for the anterior pituitary gland. This gland is responsible for producing and releasing several important hormones that regulate various bodily functions. It plays a crucial role in controlling growth, metabolism, reproduction, and the function of other endocrine glands. The parathyroid glands, on the other hand, are separate glands located near the thyroid gland and are responsible for regulating calcium levels in the body. The posterior pituitary gland is responsible for releasing hormones produced by the hypothalamus, such as oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone.

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  • 9. 

    What secretes tropic hormones such as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), ACTH, growth hormone (somatotropic hormone), and the gonadotropins?

    • A. 

      Pancreas

    • B. 

      Adrenal Cortex

    • C. 

      Anterior Pituitary Gland

    Correct Answer
    C. Anterior Pituitary Gland
    Explanation
    The anterior pituitary gland secretes tropic hormones such as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), ACTH, growth hormone (somatotropic hormone), and the gonadotropins. These hormones play a crucial role in regulating the function of various endocrine glands in the body. TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to produce and release thyroid hormones, ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce and release cortisol, growth hormone promotes growth and development, and the gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone) regulate the function of the ovaries and testes.

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  • 10. 

    What secretes the catecholamines, epinephrine, and norepinephrine?

    • A. 

      Adrenal Medulla

    • B. 

      Ovaries

    • C. 

      Thyroid Gland

    Correct Answer
    A. Adrenal Medulla
    Explanation
    The adrenal medulla is responsible for secreting the catecholamines, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. These hormones are released in response to stress or danger and play a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response. They increase heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels, preparing the body for immediate action. The adrenal medulla is part of the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys.

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  • 11. 

    What secretes the steroids: glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens?

    • A. 

      Adrenal Cortex

    • B. 

      Adrenal Medulla

    • C. 

      Parathyroid Glands

    Correct Answer
    A. Adrenal Cortex
    Explanation
    The adrenal cortex secretes glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens. These hormones are essential for various physiological processes in the body. Glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, regulate metabolism and immune response. Mineralocorticoids, like aldosterone, control electrolyte and fluid balance. Androgens are responsible for the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics. The adrenal cortex plays a crucial role in hormone production and regulation, making it the correct answer in this case.

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  • 12. 

    What is the target gland for ACTH?

    • A. 

      Pineal Gland

    • B. 

      Adrenal Cortex

    • C. 

      Anterior Pituitary Gland

    Correct Answer
    B. Adrenal Cortex
    Explanation
    The target gland for ACTH is the adrenal cortex. ACTH, or adrenocorticotropic hormone, is produced by the anterior pituitary gland and stimulates the adrenal cortex to release cortisol and other steroid hormones. The adrenal cortex is responsible for regulating stress response, metabolism, and immune function. Therefore, the correct answer is adrenal cortex.

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  • 13. 

    Low plasma levels of calcium stimulate what glands to secrete PTH?

    • A. 

      Parathyroid Glands

    • B. 

      Thymus Glands

    • C. 

      Thyroid Glands

    Correct Answer
    A. Parathyroid Glands
    Explanation
    Low plasma levels of calcium stimulate the parathyroid glands to secrete PTH (parathyroid hormone). PTH plays a crucial role in regulating calcium levels in the body. When calcium levels in the blood are low, the parathyroid glands release PTH, which acts on the bones, kidneys, and intestines to increase calcium absorption, decrease calcium excretion, and stimulate bone resorption. This helps to restore normal calcium levels in the blood. The thymus glands and thyroid glands are not directly involved in regulating calcium levels and do not secrete PTH.

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  • 14. 

    What secretes insulin and glucagon?

    • A. 

      Pancreas

    • B. 

      Testes

    • C. 

      Ovaries

    Correct Answer
    A. Pancreas
    Explanation
    The pancreas secretes insulin and glucagon. Insulin is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas and helps regulate blood sugar levels by allowing cells to take in glucose from the bloodstream. Glucagon, on the other hand, is produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas and helps raise blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to release stored glucose. Both hormones work together to maintain the balance of glucose in the body.

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  • 15. 

    What uses iodine to synthesize its hormones?

    • A. 

      Pancreas

    • B. 

      Thyroid Gland

    • C. 

      Thymus Gland

    Correct Answer
    B. Thyroid Gland
    Explanation
    The thyroid gland uses iodine to synthesize its hormones. The thyroid gland is responsible for producing and releasing hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and development in the body. These hormones, called thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), contain iodine atoms that are essential for their synthesis. Iodine is obtained from the diet and is actively transported into the thyroid gland where it is incorporated into the structure of these hormones. Therefore, the correct answer is the thyroid gland.

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  • 16. 

    What is the target gland of TSH?

    • A. 

      Thyroid Gland

    • B. 

      Ovaries

    • C. 

      Testes

    Correct Answer
    A. Thyroid Gland
    Explanation
    TSH stands for thyroid-stimulating hormone, which is produced by the pituitary gland. Its primary function is to stimulate the thyroid gland to produce and release thyroid hormones. Therefore, the target gland of TSH is the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism, growth, and development in the body.

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  • 17. 

    Secretions of what gland contribute to the fight-or-flight response?

    • A. 

      Adrenal Medulla

    • B. 

      Anterior Pituitary Gland

    • C. 

      Posterior Pituitary Gland

    Correct Answer
    A. Adrenal Medulla
    Explanation
    The adrenal medulla is responsible for secreting hormones such as adrenaline and noradrenaline, which are involved in the fight-or-flight response. When faced with a stressful or threatening situation, the adrenal medulla releases these hormones into the bloodstream, preparing the body for action. This response includes increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, and heightened mental alertness, all of which help the body respond effectively to the perceived threat. The anterior and posterior pituitary glands are not directly involved in the fight-or-flight response.

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  • 18. 

    What gonads secrete testosterone?

    • A. 

      Testes

    • B. 

      Ovaries

    • C. 

      Pancreas

    Correct Answer
    A. Testes
    Explanation
    The testes are responsible for secreting testosterone. Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and is essential for the development and maintenance of male reproductive tissues and secondary sexual characteristics. It is produced by the Leydig cells in the testes and plays a crucial role in sperm production, sexual function, muscle mass, bone density, and overall male physical and sexual development. The ovaries, on the other hand, secrete estrogen and progesterone, which are the primary female sex hormones. The pancreas is not involved in the secretion of testosterone.

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  • 19. 

    What gland is associated with these words: isthmus, follicular cells, colloid, and iodine?

    • A. 

      Thyroid Gland

    • B. 

      Thymus Gland

    • C. 

      Hypothalamus

    Correct Answer
    A. Thyroid Gland
    Explanation
    The words "isthmus," "follicular cells," "colloid," and "iodine" are all associated with the thyroid gland. The isthmus is a narrow strip of tissue that connects the two lobes of the thyroid gland. Follicular cells are the cells within the thyroid gland that produce and secrete thyroid hormones. Colloid is a substance found within the thyroid follicles that contains the precursor for thyroid hormone synthesis. Iodine is an essential element needed for the production of thyroid hormones. Therefore, the correct answer is the thyroid gland.

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  • 20. 

    What gland plays an important role in immunity and involutes, or shrinks, after puberty?

    • A. 

      Thyroid Gland

    • B. 

      Thymus Gland

    • C. 

      Pineal Gland

    Correct Answer
    B. Thymus Gland
    Explanation
    The thymus gland is responsible for producing and maturing T-cells, which are crucial for the immune system. It plays a vital role in immunity by training and educating T-cells to recognize and attack pathogens. After puberty, the thymus gland starts to shrink and undergo involution, which means it decreases in size and becomes less active. This is a normal part of aging and is believed to be due to the decrease in the production and maturation of T-cells.

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  • 21. 

    What secretes hormones that are concerned with sugar, salt, and sex?

    • A. 

      Adrenal Medulla

    • B. 

      Adrenal Gland

    • C. 

      Adrenal Cortex

    Correct Answer
    C. Adrenal Cortex
    Explanation
    The adrenal cortex secretes hormones that are concerned with sugar, salt, and sex. It produces hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones. Cortisol helps regulate blood sugar levels, aldosterone helps regulate salt and water balance in the body, and the sex hormones play a role in sexual development and reproductive function. The adrenal medulla, on the other hand, secretes adrenaline and noradrenaline, which are involved in the body's response to stress.

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  • 22. 

    Name the coned-shaped gland located in the brain; it secretes melatonin and is called the biologic clock?

    • A. 

      Pineal Gland

    • B. 

      Thyroid Gland

    • C. 

      Hypothalamus

    Correct Answer
    A. Pineal Gland
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Pineal Gland. The pineal gland is a cone-shaped gland located in the brain. It is responsible for secreting melatonin, a hormone that regulates the sleep-wake cycle and is often referred to as the "biological clock" of the body. The pineal gland plays a crucial role in regulating various physiological functions and is influenced by light and darkness.

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  • 23. 

    What is the gland that enlarges as a goiter?

    • A. 

      Pituitary Glands

    • B. 

      Parathyroid Glands

    • C. 

      Thyroid Gland

    Correct Answer
    C. Thyroid Gland
    Explanation
    The thyroid gland is the gland that enlarges as a goiter. A goiter is a condition characterized by the abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland. This enlargement can be caused by various factors, such as iodine deficiency, inflammation, or certain medical conditions. The pituitary gland is responsible for regulating the function of the thyroid gland, but it does not enlarge as a goiter. The parathyroid glands are responsible for regulating calcium levels in the body and are not associated with goiter formation.

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  • 24. 

    What are the glands that are sometimes embedded within the thyroid gland; removal causes hypocalcemic tetany?

    • A. 

      Parathyroid Glands

    • B. 

      Thyroid Glands

    • C. 

      Pineal Gland

    Correct Answer
    A. Parathyroid Glands
    Explanation
    The parathyroid glands are sometimes embedded within the thyroid gland. Removal of these glands can cause hypocalcemic tetany, a condition characterized by low levels of calcium in the blood, leading to muscle spasms and twitching. The parathyroid glands are responsible for regulating calcium levels in the body, and their removal can disrupt this balance, resulting in the symptoms of hypocalcemic tetany.

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