Are You Ready To Take On This Geology Test?

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| By Omnilearnscience
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Are You Ready To Take On This Geology Test? - Quiz

The earth surface is made up of very many materials and minerals, and it has undergone a lot of changes throughout time. One of the things that geologists get to study is how different landforms are formed. Below is a review quiz on geology. Think you can pass it? Do give it a shot and see just how knowledgeable you are when it comes to this field of study.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The thin layer of water that covers most of Earth’s surface is called the:

    • A.

      Atmosphere

    • B.

      Biosphere

    • C.

      Lithosphere

    • D.

      Hydrosphere

    Correct Answer
    D. Hydrosphere
    Explanation
    The correct answer is hydrosphere. The hydrosphere refers to the thin layer of water that covers most of Earth's surface, including oceans, lakes, rivers, and even underground water sources. It plays a crucial role in various Earth processes, such as weather patterns, climate regulation, and supporting diverse ecosystems. The hydrosphere is an essential component for the existence of life on Earth, as it provides water for drinking, irrigation, and other human activities.

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  • 2. 

    In which type of rock are fossils generally found?

    • A.

      Metamorphic

    • B.

      Sedimentary

    • C.

      Igneous

    • D.

      Volcanic

    Correct Answer
    B. Sedimentary
    Explanation
    Fossils are generally found in sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation and compaction of sediments, which often contain the remains or imprints of plants and animals. Over time, these sediments can become cemented together to form solid rock, preserving the fossils within. This is why sedimentary rocks are the most common type of rock where fossils are found.

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  • 3. 

    Which statement is true of all rocks?

    • A.

      Rocks are composed of minerals.

    • B.

      Rocks are formed in layers.

    • C.

      Rocks contain fossils.

    • D.

      Rocks contain organic material.

    Correct Answer
    A. Rocks are composed of minerals.
    Explanation
    Rocks are composed of minerals because minerals are the building blocks of rocks. Minerals are naturally occurring inorganic substances with a specific chemical composition and crystal structure. When these minerals combine and solidify, they form rocks. Therefore, all rocks are made up of minerals, making the statement "Rocks are composed of minerals" true.

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  • 4. 

    The diagram below shows three stages in the formation of a beach. Which process is mostly responsible for the breaking down of the rock cliff into sand-sized sediment?

    • A.

      Precipitation

    • B.

      Folding

    • C.

      Faulting

    • D.

      Weathering

    Correct Answer
    D. Weathering
    Explanation
    Weathering is the process of breaking down rocks and minerals into smaller pieces through physical, chemical, and biological means. In the context of the diagram showing the formation of a beach, weathering is responsible for the breaking down of the rock cliff into sand-sized sediment. This can occur through processes such as freeze-thaw weathering, where water seeps into cracks in the rock, freezes, and expands, causing the rock to break apart. Other forms of weathering, such as chemical weathering or the action of plants and animals, can also contribute to the breakdown of the rock cliff into smaller particles that eventually form the beach.

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  • 5. 

    Base your answers to the following question on the diagram below, which shows a model of Earth’s interior. What information did scientists study in order to develop this model?

    • A.

      Recordings of earthquake waves

    • B.

      Fossils found in rocks

    • C.

      Core samples from seafloor drillings

    • D.

      Locations of recent volcanic activity

    Correct Answer
    A. Recordings of earthquake waves
    Explanation
    Scientists developed the model of Earth's interior by studying recordings of earthquake waves. Earthquake waves travel through different layers of the Earth and their behavior can provide valuable information about the composition and structure of these layers. By analyzing the speed, direction, and intensity of earthquake waves as they pass through the Earth, scientists can infer the properties of the various layers, such as the crust, mantle, and core. This allows them to create a model that represents the internal structure of the Earth.

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  • 6. 

    The map below shows some geologic features located near the west coast of the United States. The arrows on either side of the fault represent:

    • A.

      The relative movement of air masses

    • B.

      Rock formations

    • C.

      The relative movement of tectonic plates

    • D.

      Volcanic eruptions

    Correct Answer
    C. The relative movement of tectonic plates
    Explanation
    The map shows geologic features, indicating that the arrows on either side of the fault represent the relative movement of tectonic plates. This is because tectonic plates are large pieces of the Earth's lithosphere that move and interact with each other, causing earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the formation of mountains and other geological features. The arrows indicate the direction in which the plates are moving, which is important for understanding the dynamics of the Earth's crust.

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  • 7. 

    Which information would probably be most helpful to someone trying to identify a mineral sample?

    • A.

      Hardness and streak of the sample

    • B.

      Color and size of the sample

    • C.

      Location and mass of the sample

    • D.

      Shape and texture of the sample

    Correct Answer
    A. Hardness and streak of the sample
    Explanation
    To identify a mineral sample, the most helpful information would be the hardness and streak of the sample. Hardness refers to the resistance of a mineral to scratching, which can help determine its identity. Streak refers to the color of the powdered form of the mineral, which can differ from its external color and provide valuable clues for identification. Therefore, knowing the hardness and streak of the sample would provide crucial information for determining its mineral composition.

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  • 8. 

    The diagram below shows a rock suspended above an overflow container filled with water up to the overflow spout. A graduated cylinder is positioned next to the container to collect water that comes out of the overflow spout. What physical property of the rock can be directly determined when the rock is placed in the overflow container?

    • A.

      Density

    • B.

      Mass

    • C.

      Hardness

    • D.

      Volume

    Correct Answer
    D. Volume
    Explanation
    When the rock is placed in the overflow container, the water that comes out of the overflow spout is collected in the graduated cylinder. By measuring the volume of water collected, the volume of the rock can be directly determined. The other options, such as density, mass, and hardness, cannot be directly determined by placing the rock in the overflow container.

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  • 9. 

    Limestone is a sedimentary rock and marble is a metamorphic rock. Even though limestone and marble have the same chemical makeup, they are classified as different rocks because they:

    • A.

      Formed at different times

    • B.

      Formed by different methods

    • C.

      Took different amounts of time to form

    • D.

      Were formed from different fossils

    Correct Answer
    B. Formed by different methods
    Explanation
    Limestone and marble are classified as different rocks because they formed by different methods. Limestone is formed through the accumulation of sediment and the compaction of organic materials over time, while marble is formed through the metamorphosis of limestone under high pressure and temperature. Despite having the same chemical composition, the different formation processes result in distinct characteristics and properties, leading to their classification as separate rock types.

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  • 10. 

    Most of Earth’s major earthquakes are caused by:

    • A.

      Weathering of rock at Earth’s surface

    • B.

      Seasonal heating and cooling of Earth’s surface

    • C.

      Earth’s gravitational attraction to the Moon

    • D.

      Faulting of rock in Earth’s crust

    Correct Answer
    D. Faulting of rock in Earth’s crust
    Explanation
    Earthquakes are caused by the faulting of rock in Earth's crust. Faulting occurs when stress builds up along a fault line, causing the rocks on either side to break and slip past each other. This sudden release of energy creates seismic waves that result in an earthquake. Weathering of rock at Earth's surface and seasonal heating and cooling of Earth's surface do not directly cause earthquakes. While Earth's gravitational attraction to the Moon does cause tides, it does not play a significant role in causing earthquakes.

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  • 11. 

    The diagram below shows a method for determining a physical property of a mineral. The results are shown for two minerals, galena and calcite. Which property of the galena and calcite is indicated by the color of the powder each leaves on the ceramic tile?

    • A.

      Hardness

    • B.

      Reaction to an acid

    • C.

      Streak

    • D.

      Reaction to a solvent

    Correct Answer
    C. Streak
    Explanation
    The color of the powder left by a mineral on a ceramic tile is an indication of its streak. Streak refers to the color of the powdered form of a mineral when it is scraped across a surface. This property can be used to distinguish between different minerals, as they may have different colors in their powdered form even if their external appearance is similar. In this case, the diagram shows that galena leaves a dark gray streak, while calcite leaves a white streak, indicating that their powdered forms have different colors.

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  • 12. 

    The diagram below shows two locations where fossils of Mesosaurus have been found. Mesosaurus was a freshwater reptile that existed on Earth about 250 million years ago. Which statement best explains why these freshwater Mesosaurus fossils are found today in some rock layers in both South America and Africa?

    • A.

      The continents were once connected as a single landmass.

    • B.

      Mesosaurus swam across the ocean between the continents.

    • C.

      The remains of Mesosaurus were carried across the ocean by predators.

    • D.

      Global warming has been raising the sea level in the Atlantic Ocean.

    Correct Answer
    A. The continents were once connected as a single landmass.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the continents were once connected as a single landmass. This explanation is supported by the fact that Mesosaurus fossils are found in both South America and Africa, which are currently separated by the Atlantic Ocean. The presence of the same species in both locations suggests that the continents were once connected, allowing for the migration of Mesosaurus between the two regions.

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  • 13. 

    Convection currents, which may be the driving force for the movement of lithospheric plates, are mostly found in Earth's:

    • A.

      Crust

    • B.

      Outer core

    • C.

      Inner core

    • D.

      Plastic mantle

    Correct Answer
    D. Plastic mantle
    Explanation
    Convection currents are the circular movements of material caused by differences in temperature and density. In the Earth's plastic mantle, the rocks are hot and semi-fluid, allowing for convection currents to occur. These currents are believed to be the driving force behind the movement of the lithospheric plates, as they cause the plastic mantle to flow and carry the plates along with them. The crust, outer core, and inner core do not possess the same semi-fluid properties as the plastic mantle, making it unlikely for convection currents to occur in these regions.

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  • 14. 

    Which fossil is considered the oldest in the cross section shown?

    • A.

      Dinosaurs

    • B.

      Armored fish

    • C.

      Early horses

    • D.

      Trilobites

    Correct Answer
    D. Trilobites
    Explanation
    The correct answer is trilobites. Trilobites are considered the oldest fossils in the cross section shown. Trilobites were marine arthropods that lived during the Paleozoic Era, from about 540 to 250 million years ago. They were one of the most diverse and abundant groups of organisms during that time period. Their fossils are often found in sedimentary rocks and provide important information about the early history of life on Earth.

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  • 15. 

    The drawing below shows the original size and shape of a rock sample before it is thrown into a rapidly moving stream. Which drawing best shows the actual size and shape the rock will have after being carried several hundred miles downstream and deposited?

    Correct Answer
    B.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 12, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Omnilearnscience
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