Human Body And Disorders Exams Prep Test

113 Questions | Total Attempts: 83

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Disorder Quizzes & Trivia

Are you familiar with the human body and disorders? Here is a quiz to enhance your knowledge. This quiz entails recognizing what protein catabolism is, what is not a function of the kidneys, the renal cortex, what fluid immediately precedes urine, the state of a healthy kidney, and what stimulates the constriction of the glomerular inlet and outlet. The human body is a mystery; let this quiz clear your mind.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    This byproduct of protein catabolism constitutes approximately one-half of all nitrogenous waste.
    • A. 

      Urea

    • B. 

      Creatinine

    • C. 

      Ammonia

    • D. 

      Uric acid

    • E. 

      Azotemia

  • 2. 
    Which is not a function of the kidneys?
    • A. 

      They regulate osmolarity of the body fluids

    • B. 

      They fight osteoporosis by synthesizing vitamin D.

    • C. 

      They help control blood pressure.

    • D. 

      They release waste into the bloodstream.

    • E. 

      They indirectly increase oxyhemoglobin.

  • 3. 
    A patient enters a hospital after a motorcycle accident. He complains of mid-back pain. X-rays reveal both rib and pelvic fractures. His emergency room examination includes urinalysis. Which of the following findings from the urinalysis would most likely suggest trauma to the kidneys from the accident, but not to the urinary bladder?
    • A. 

      Pyuria

    • B. 

      Hematuria

    • C. 

      Albuminuria

    • D. 

      Uremia

    • E. 

      Phenylketonuria

  • 4. 
    Which of these correctly traces blood flow from the renal artery into the renal cortex?
    • A. 

      Arcuate a. → interlobar a. → afferent arteriole → interlobular a.

    • B. 

      Interlobar a. → interlobular a. → segmental a. → arcuate a.

    • C. 

      Segmental a. → interlobar a. → arcuate a. → interlobular a.

    • D. 

      Afferent arteriole → interlobular a. → arcuate a. → interlobar a.

    • E. 

      Segmental a. → arcuate a. → interlobar a. → interlobular a

  • 5. 
    Which of these correctly traces blood flow from the renal cortex to the renal vein?
    • A. 

      Interlobular v. → interlobar v. → segmental v. → renal v.

    • B. 

      Arcuate v. → interlobar v. → segmental v. → renal v.

    • C. 

      Interlobar v. → interlobular v. → arcuate v. → renal v.

    • D. 

      Segmental v. → arcuate v. → interlobar v. → renal v.

    • E. 

      Interlobular v. → arcuate v. → interlobar v. → renal v.

  • 6. 
    All of the following are composed of cuboidal epithelium with the exception of
    • A. 

      The thin segment of the nephron loop.

    • B. 

      The thick segment of the nephron loop.

    • C. 

      The collecting duct.

    • D. 

      The distal convoluted tubule.

    • E. 

      The distal convoluted tubule.

  • 7. 
    In the nephron, the fluid that immediately precedes urine is known as
    • A. 

      Plasma.

    • B. 

      Glomerular filtrate.

    • C. 

      Tubular fluid.

    • D. 

      Renal filtrate.

    • E. 

      Medullary filtrate.

  • 8. 
    Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by
    • A. 

      The renal corpuscle.

    • B. 

      The proximal convoluted tubule.

    • C. 

      The distal convoluted tubule.

    • D. 

      The collecting duct.

    • E. 

      The glomerular capillaries.

  • 9. 
    In a healthy kidney, very little ___ is filtered by the glomerulus.
    • A. 

      Amino acids

    • B. 

      Electrolytes

    • C. 

      Glucose

    • D. 

      Vitamins

    • E. 

      Protein

  • 10. 
    Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate?
    • A. 

      Vasoconstriction of the efferent arteriole

    • B. 

      A drop in oncotic pressure

    • C. 

      Vasodilation of the afferent arteriole

    • D. 

      Vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole

    • E. 

      An increase in osmotic pressure in the glomerular capsule

  • 11. 
    In response to a drop in overall blood pressure, ___ stimulates constriction of the glomerular inlet and even greater constriction of the outlet.
    • A. 

      Azotemia

    • B. 

      Sodium chloride

    • C. 

      Parathyroid hormone

    • D. 

      Aldosterone

    • E. 

      Angiotensin II

  • 12. 
    Assuming all other values are normal, calculate the net filtration pressure in a patient with a drop in capsular hydrostatic pressure to 8 mmHg.
    • A. 

      10 mm Hg out

    • B. 

      20 mm Hg out

    • C. 

      30 mm Hg out

    • D. 

      40 mm Hg out

    • E. 

      50 mm Hg out

  • 13. 
    Because of the great deal of active transport that occurs here, the _________ of all the nephrons collectively account for about 6% of one's daily resting ATP and caloric consumption.
    • A. 

      Proximal convoluted tubules

    • B. 

      Distal convoluted tubules

    • C. 

      Loops of Henle

    • D. 

      Glomerul

    • E. 

      Collecting ducts

  • 14. 
    Proximal convoluted tubules are responsible for reabsorbing all of the following except
    • A. 

      Potassium.

    • B. 

      Sodium chloride.

    • C. 

      Hydrogen ions.

    • D. 

      Urea.

    • E. 

      Water.

  • 15. 
    Total saturation of protein transporters for a given solute in the renal tubules would result in
    • A. 

      Reabsorption of all the solute.

    • B. 

      A renal clearance of zero.

    • C. 

      Appearance of that solute in the urine.

    • D. 

      Absence of that solute from the urine.

    • E. 

      A net filtration pressure of 1.0.

  • 16. 
    Which of the following is a direct result of antidiuretic hormone?
    • A. 

      Decreased urine volume

    • B. 

      Decreased urine molarity

    • C. 

      Increased urine volume

    • D. 

      Increased urine salinity

    • E. 

      Increased urine acidity

  • 17. 
    Aldosterone acts on
    • A. 

      The proximal convoluted tubule.

    • B. 

      The medullary portion of the collecting duct.

    • C. 

      The descending limb of the nephron loop.

    • D. 

      The distal convoluted tubule.

    • E. 

      The glomerulus.

  • 18. 
    Atrial natriuretic peptide reduces blood volume and pressure by all of the following means except
    • A. 

      Increasing glomerular filtration rate.

    • B. 

      Inhibiting renin and aldosterone secretion.

    • C. 

      Inhibiting the action of ADH on the kidney.

    • D. 

      Inhibiting NaCl reabsorption by the collecting duct.

    • E. 

      Preventing sodium loss in the urine.

  • 19. 
    Hypocalcemia stimulates
    • A. 

      A decrease in aldosterone production.

    • B. 

      Secretion of parathyroid hormone.

    • C. 

      Secretion of renin.

    • D. 

      An increase in blood urea nitrogen.

    • E. 

      Vasoconstriction of the afferent arterioles.

  • 20. 
    Which renal structure is responsible for producing hypertonic urine by reabsorbing water while allowing metabolic wastes and NaCl to pass through?
    • A. 

      Glomerulus

    • B. 

      Proximal convoluted tubule

    • C. 

      Distal convoluted tubule

    • D. 

      Collecting duct

    • E. 

      Nephron loop

  • 21. 
    The urine is most likely to be hypotonic when
    • A. 

      The body's water volume is high.

    • B. 

      The body's pH is low.

    • C. 

      The output of antidiuretic hormone is high.

    • D. 

      The output of natriuretic peptides is high.

    • E. 

      A person is lost and deprived of drinking water.

  • 22. 
    The overall purpose of the countercurrent exchange system is
    • A. 

      To supply salt and urea to the renal medulla.

    • B. 

      To supply nutrients and oxygen to the renal cortex.

    • C. 

      To supply nutrients and oxygen to the renal medulla.

    • D. 

      To remove metabolic wastes from the renal cortex.

    • E. 

      To remove metabolic wastes from the renal medulla.

  • 23. 
    Which of these induces renin secretion, constricts afferent arterioles, and reduces GFR, and urine volume?
    • A. 

      Aldosterone

    • B. 

      Antidiuretic hormone

    • C. 

      Parathyroid hormone

    • D. 

      Norepinephrine

    • E. 

      Angiotensin II

  • 24. 
    Normal urine from a healthy person can be expected to contain all of the following except
    • A. 

      Creatinine

    • B. 

      Urobilin

    • C. 

      Glucose

    • D. 

      Ammonia

    • E. 

      Magnesium

  • 25. 
    Prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checked for sweetness of the urine as a sign of
    • A. 

      Diabetes insipidus.

    • B. 

      Acute glomerulonephritis.

    • C. 

      Diabetes mellitus.

    • D. 

      Renal calculus.

    • E. 

      Pyelitis

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