Apii Final - Q. 96-190

95 Questions | Total Attempts: 396

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Apii Final - Q. 96-190

Bob Beregowitz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The process of filtration occurs at
    • A. 

      The proximal convoluted tubule.

    • B. 

      The distal convoluted tubule.

    • C. 

      The collecting duct.

    • D. 

      The nephron loop (loop of Henle).

    • E. 

      The glomerular (Bowman's) capsule.

  • 2. 
    Approximately ________ liters of glomerular filtrate enter glomerular capsules each day.
    • A. 

      480

    • B. 

      180

    • C. 

      125

    • D. 

      18

    • E. 

      1.8

  • 3. 
    What physiological process occurs at the structure labeled "2"?
    • A. 

      Reabsorption

    • B. 

      Excretion

    • C. 

      Secretion

    • D. 

      Filtration

    • E. 

      Micturition

  • 4. 
    Where does countercurrent multiplication occur?
    • A. 

      6

    • B. 

      5

    • C. 

      4

    • D. 

      3

    • E. 

      2

  • 5. 
    Where does most nutrient reabsorption occur?
    • A. 

      2

    • B. 

      1

    • C. 

      4

    • D. 

      5

    • E. 

      6

  • 6. 
    Which area is sensitive to the hormone ADH?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      3

    • C. 

      4

    • D. 

      5 and 6

    • E. 

      4, 5, and 6

  • 7. 
    The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle consists of three layers:
    • A. 

      Filtration slits, foot processes, and slit pores.

    • B. 

      Fenestrations, matrix, and foot processes.

    • C. 

      Endothelium of glomerulus, dense layer of glomerulus, and podocyte filtration slits.

    • D. 

      Dense layer of glomerulus, foot processes, and fenestrations in the capsule.

    • E. 

      Podocyte filtration slits, matrix cells in the glomerulus, and endothelium of glomerulus.

  • 8. 
    The structure known as the juxtaglomerular apparatus is located near the
    • A. 

      The proximal convoluted tubule.

    • B. 

      Glomerulus.

    • C. 

      The collecting duct.

    • D. 

      The nephron loop (loop of Henle).

    • E. 

      Renal papilla.

  • 9. 
    Substances larger than ________ do not pass through the filtration membrane.
    • A. 

      Sodium ions.

    • B. 

      Glucose

    • C. 

      Albumin

    • D. 

      Amino acids

    • E. 

      Urea

  • 10. 
    The process of filtration is driven by
    • A. 

      Active transport.

    • B. 

      Blood osmotic pressure.

    • C. 

      Blood hydrostatic pressure.

    • D. 

      Renal pumping.

    • E. 

      Solvent drag.

  • 11. 
    Under normal conditions, glomerular filtration depends on three main pressures. Which of those pressures is a pressure that favors the filtration pressure?
    • A. 

      Glomerular hydrostatic pressure

    • B. 

      Capsular hydrostatic pressure

    • C. 

      Capsular colloid osmotic pressure

    • D. 

      Blood colloid osmotic pressure

    • E. 

      Urinary bladder hydrostatic pressure

  • 12. 
    Which of the following formulas will allow you to calculate the net filtration pressure (FP)? (Hint: GHP = glomerular hydrostatic pressure, BCOP = blood colloidal osmotic pressure, CsHP = capsular hydrostatic pressure.)
    • A. 

      A) FP = GHP + CsHP - BCOP

    • B. 

      FP = GHP - (CsHP + BCOP)

    • C. 

      FP = CsHP + GHP - BCOP

    • D. 

      FP = BCOP - GHP + CsHP

    • E. 

      FP = BCOP + (GHP - CsHP)

  • 13. 
    Autoregulation of the rate of glomerular filtration has which of the following properties?
    • A. 

      Depends on changes in the afferent arteriole

    • B. 

      Depends on changes in the mesangial cells

    • C. 

      Depends on changes in the efferent arteriole

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 14. 
    One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to
    • A. 

      Increase secretion of renin by the juxtaglomerular complex.

    • B. 

      Decrease secretion of aldosterone.

    • C. 

      Increase release of angiotensin II by the suprarenal glands.

    • D. 

      Increase filtration into glomerular (Bowman's) capsule.

    • E. 

      Decrease urinary albumin concentration.

  • 15. 
    Increased sympathetic tone can do all of the following, except
    • A. 

      Produce venoconstriction of blood reservoirs.

    • B. 

      Increase the glomerular filtration rate.

    • C. 

      Increase cardiac output.

    • D. 

      Stimulate peripheral vasoconstriction.

    • E. 

      Increase systemic blood pressure.

  • 16. 
    As the filtrate passes through the renal tubules, approximately what percentage is reabsorbed and returned to the circulation?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      38

    • C. 

      63

    • D. 

      74

    • E. 

      99

  • 17. 
    Tubular reabsorption involves all of the following, except
    • A. 

      Active transport.

    • B. 

      Facilitated diffusion.

    • C. 

      Secondary active transport.

    • D. 

      Osmosis.

    • E. 

      Stem cell movements.

  • 18. 
    What percentage of nutrients (glucose, amino acids, etc) are reabsorbed in the PCT?
    • A. 

      50

    • B. 

      90

    • C. 

      25

    • D. 

      75

  • 19. 
    Secretion of hydrogen ion by the DCT is by the process of
    • A. 

      Diffusion.

    • B. 

      Facilitated diffusion.

    • C. 

      Active transport.

    • D. 

      Cotransport.

    • E. 

      Countertransport.

  • 20. 
    In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce
    • A. 

      A larger volume of urine.

    • B. 

      Urine with a higher concentration of sodium ions.

    • C. 

      Urine with a lower concentration of potassium ions.

    • D. 

      Urine with a lower concentration of sodium ions.

    • E. 

      Urine with less glucose.

  • 21. 
    Chloride ion is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb by
    • A. 

      Simple diffusion.

    • B. 

      Facilitated diffusion.

    • C. 

      Active transport.

    • D. 

      Cotransport with Na ions.

    • E. 

      Countertransport for bicarbonate ion.

  • 22. 
    Which of the following descriptions best matches the term nephron loop (loop of Henle)?
    • A. 

      Relies on countercurrent multiplication

    • B. 

      Creates high interstitial NaCl concentration in the renal medulla

    • C. 

      Enables production of hypertonic urine

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 23. 
    Which of the following is greater?
    • A. 

      The concentration of solute in the filtrate at the beginning of the nephron loop (loop of Henle)

    • B. 

      The concentration of solute in the filtrate at the bottom of the nephron loop (loop of Henle)

    • C. 

      The concentrations at the top and bottom are identical.

  • 24. 
    When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) decreases,
    • A. 

      More urine is produced.

    • B. 

      Less urine is produced.

    • C. 

      The osmolarity of the urine decreases.

    • D. 

      More urine is produced and the osmolarity of the urine decreases.

    • E. 

      None of the above occurs.

  • 25. 
    The ability to form concentrated urine depends on the functions of
    • A. 

      The proximal convoluted tubule.

    • B. 

      The distal convoluted tubule.

    • C. 

      The collecting duct.

    • D. 

      The nephron loop (loop of Henle).

    • E. 

      Both the collecting duct and the nephron loop (loop of Henle).

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