Explanatory Concepts In Psychology- Biological Bases Of Psychology

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Biological Psychology Quizzes & Trivia

Names, terms to learn.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Humans are a part of nature, what are all products of the brain?

    • A.

      Experience,personal identity, biological function

    • B.

      Behavior, experience,personal identity,

    • C.

      Biological function, Behaviour, expereince

    • D.

      Personal identity, Behaviour, biological functions

    Correct Answer
    B. Behavior, experience,personal identity,
    Explanation
    Biological function.

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  • 2. 

    Who came up with four tyoes if biological explanations?

    • A.

      Hebb (1949)

    • B.

      Lashley (1929,50)

    • C.

      Lacono (1983)

    • D.

      Tinbergen (1951)

    Correct Answer
    D. Tinbergen (1951)
    Explanation
    Tinbergen (1951) came up with four types of biological explanations.

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  • 3. 

    Name the four types of biological explanations:

    • A.

      Physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, functional

    Correct Answer
    A. Physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, functional
    Explanation
    Physiological explanations refer to the understanding of biological phenomena at a cellular and molecular level, focusing on the functions of organs, tissues, and systems. Ontogenetic explanations involve studying the development and growth of an organism from conception to maturity, including the influence of genetic and environmental factors. Evolutionary explanations examine the adaptation and changes in species over time, considering natural selection and genetic variation. Functional explanations analyze the purpose and role of biological processes, such as understanding how certain behaviors or traits contribute to survival and reproduction.

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  • 4. 

    Biological functions ____ or ____ a behaviour to occur.

    • A.

      Cause, effect

    • B.

      Cause, force

    • C.

      Force, effect

    • D.

      Force, enable

    • E.

      Enable, cause

    Correct Answer
    D. Force, enable
    Explanation
    Biological functions force a behavior to occur, but they also enable it. This means that while biological functions may exert a certain level of force or pressure on a behavior, they also provide the necessary conditions or capabilities for that behavior to happen. In other words, biological functions both drive and facilitate the occurrence of behaviors.

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  • 5. 

    What bio explanation is concerned with chemicals?

    • A.

      Physiological

    • B.

      Ontogenetic

    • C.

      Functional

    • D.

      Evolutionary

    Correct Answer
    A. Physiological
    Explanation
    Physiological explanation in biology is concerned with the chemicals involved in the functioning of living organisms. It focuses on the biochemical processes and mechanisms that occur within an organism, including the interactions between different chemicals and how they contribute to various physiological functions. This explanation explores the chemical reactions, pathways, and molecules that are responsible for processes such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, and homeostasis in living organisms.

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  • 6. 

    What bio explanation is concerned with natural selection?

    • A.

      Physiological

    • B.

      Ontogenetic

    • C.

      Functional

    • D.

      Evolutionary

    Correct Answer
    D. Evolutionary
    Explanation
    Evolutionary explanation is concerned with natural selection because it focuses on how species change and adapt over time through the process of natural selection. It explores how certain traits and behaviors become more prevalent in a population due to their survival and reproductive advantages, while others may become less common or disappear altogether. This explanation considers the long-term effects of natural selection on the genetic makeup and characteristics of a species, and how it contributes to the overall evolution of life on Earth.

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  • 7. 

    What bio explanation is concerned with development of behavior?

    • A.

      Physiological

    • B.

      Ontogenetic

    • C.

      Functional

    • D.

      Evolutionary

    Correct Answer
    B. Ontogenetic
    Explanation
    Ontogenetic explanation in biology is concerned with the development of behavior. It focuses on how an individual's behavior develops over their lifetime, starting from birth and progressing through different stages of growth and maturation. This explanation considers the influence of both genetic and environmental factors on the development of behavior, highlighting the role of learning, socialization, and experience in shaping an individual's behavior patterns.

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  • 8. 

    What bio explanation is concerned with why we evolved?

    • A.

      Physiological

    • B.

      Ontogenetic

    • C.

      Functional

    • D.

      Evolutionary

    Correct Answer
    C. Functional
    Explanation
    Functional bio explanation is concerned with why we evolved because it focuses on the purpose and benefits of certain biological traits or behaviors. It explores how these traits or behaviors contribute to an organism's survival and reproductive success. This perspective helps us understand how different traits have evolved to serve specific functions and enhance an organism's fitness in its environment. By studying the functional aspects of evolution, we can gain insights into the adaptive significance of various biological features and behaviors.

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  • 9. 

    Which mind brain relationship is concerned with the mind as independent from brain yet exerts some control over it?

    • A.

      Materialist

    • B.

      Dualist

    • C.

      Identity

    • D.

      Emergent property

    Correct Answer
    B. Dualist
    Explanation
    Dualism is the mind-brain relationship that is concerned with the mind as independent from the brain yet exerts some control over it. Dualists believe that the mind and the brain are separate entities, with the mind being non-physical or spiritual in nature, while the brain is a physical organ. According to dualism, the mind can influence the brain and control its actions, but it is not completely dependent on the brain for its existence. This perspective suggests that there is more to human consciousness and cognition than just the physical processes of the brain.

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  • 10. 

    Which mind brain relationship is concerned with the mind and brain being same things just different terms?

    • A.

      Materialist

    • B.

      Dualist

    • C.

      Identity

    • D.

      Emergent property

    Correct Answer
    C. Identity
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Identity." This refers to the mind-brain relationship where the mind and brain are considered to be the same entity, just described using different terms. In this perspective, mental processes and states are seen as identical to physical brain processes and states. This view suggests that there is no separate existence of the mind apart from the physical brain.

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  • 11. 

    Which mind brain relationship is concerned with how the brain is organized, consciousness is not a property of all brain activity?

    • A.

      Materialist

    • B.

      Dualist

    • C.

      Identity

    • D.

      Emergent property

    Correct Answer
    D. Emergent property
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Emergent property." This refers to the concept that consciousness is not a property of all brain activity, but rather emerges from the organization and complexity of the brain. It suggests that consciousness is a result of the interactions and functions of the brain, rather than being an inherent property of individual brain components. This view is in contrast to the materialist perspective, which believes that consciousness can be fully explained by brain activity alone. Dualism and identity theories also do not account for the emergent nature of consciousness.

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  • 12. 

    Who said a modified version of dualist view where brain activity produces conscious mind which acts on brain, mind can effect brain, cant exist independently?

    • A.

      Tinbergen

    • B.

      Hebb

    • C.

      Lacono

    • D.

      Sperry

    Correct Answer
    D. Sperry
    Explanation
    Sperry proposed a modified version of the dualist view where he suggested that brain activity produces the conscious mind, which in turn acts on the brain. He believed that the mind can have an effect on the brain, but it cannot exist independently.

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  • 13. 

    What theory is this: stimulus activates collection of neurons, synaptic changes bind collection together so can be reactivated later.

    • A.

      Hebbian theory

    • B.

      Cellular basis of memory

    • C.

      Reverberating neural activity

    • D.

      Mass action

    Correct Answer
    B. Cellular basis of memory
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "Cellular basis of memory". This theory suggests that when a stimulus activates a collection of neurons, synaptic changes occur, binding the collection together so that it can be reactivated later. This theory emphasizes the role of cellular processes in the formation and storage of memories.

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  • 14. 

    What theory is this: learning at a neural level connection strengthen with presynaptic and postsynaptic activity occur together associative learning with previously unrelated stimuli,

    • A.

      Hebbian theory

    • B.

      Cellular basis of memory

    • C.

      Reverberating neural activity

    • D.

      Mass action

    Correct Answer
    A. Hebbian theory
    Explanation
    Hebbian theory is the correct answer because it explains how learning occurs at a neural level through the strengthening of connections between presynaptic and postsynaptic activity. This theory suggests that when two neurons are activated at the same time, the connection between them is strengthened, leading to associative learning. It also explains how previously unrelated stimuli can become associated with each other through repeated activation.

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  • 15. 

    What theory is this: neural activity allows temporarily separate neurons to become associated. cell assembly fires experience a thought of the environmental object of event the assembly corresponds to.

    • A.

      Hebbian theory

    • B.

      Cellular basis of memory

    • C.

      Reverberating neural activity

    • D.

      Mass action

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Hebbian theory
    C. Reverberating neural activity
    Explanation
    The given statement describes the Hebbian theory, which states that neural activity allows temporarily separate neurons to become associated. This theory suggests that when two neurons are repeatedly activated together, the connection between them strengthens, leading to the formation of a cell assembly. This assembly fires together, resulting in the experience of a thought related to the environmental object or event that the assembly corresponds to. The mention of reverberating neural activity also aligns with the Hebbian theory, as it refers to the continuous firing of a neural circuit, which is a key aspect of Hebbian plasticity.

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  • 16. 

    Who seached for engram, what did it find?

    • A.

      Tinbergen, amount not location of damage

    • B.

      Lashley, amount not location of damage

    • C.

      Tinbergen, location not amount of damage

    • D.

      Lashley, location not amount of damage

    Correct Answer
    B. Lashley, amount not location of damage
    Explanation
    Lashley's research on engrams focused on the amount of damage rather than the specific location of the damage. This means that he was more interested in understanding how the extent of the damage affected memory and learning, rather than pinpointing the exact area in the brain where the damage occurred.

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  • 17. 

    What theory is this: neurons of the cortex work together as a whole during learn, more brain the better

    • A.

      Equipotentiality

    • B.

      Cellular basis of memory

    • C.

      Reverberating neural activity

    • D.

      Mass action

    Correct Answer
    D. Mass action
    Explanation
    Mass action theory suggests that the neurons in the cortex work together as a collective unit during learning. According to this theory, the more brain regions that are involved in a particular learning task, the better the learning outcome will be. This theory emphasizes the idea that multiple areas of the brain contribute to learning and memory formation, rather than the specific function of individual neurons.

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  • 18. 

    What theory is this: various cortex areas contribute almost equally to learning, no part more specialized, any functional part of brain can perform function associated with that area.

    • A.

      Mass action

    • B.

      Cellular basis of memory

    • C.

      Reverberating neural activity

    • D.

      Equipotentiality

    Correct Answer
    D. Equipotentiality
    Explanation
    Equipotentiality is the theory that suggests that various cortex areas contribute almost equally to learning, with no part being more specialized. According to this theory, any functional part of the brain can perform the function associated with a specific area. This means that different regions of the brain have the potential to take on the functions of other regions if necessary, indicating a lack of specialization.

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  • 19. 

    What scanning technique or method is this: electric signal recorded by electrodes, sent to Galvanometer

    • A.

      Computerised axial tomography

    • B.

      Positron Emission Tomography

    • C.

      Electroencephalograph

    • D.

      Magnetic resonance imaging

    • E.

      Magnetoencephalography

    Correct Answer
    C. Electroencephalograph
    Explanation
    The given scanning technique or method is electroencephalograph. This is a process where electric signals recorded by electrodes are sent to a Galvanometer. Electroencephalography is commonly used to measure and record the electrical activity of the brain, allowing for the diagnosis and monitoring of various neurological conditions.

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  • 20. 

    What scanning technique or method is this: doughnut shaped X-ray machine, 2D cross sections to make 3D, changes in cerebral blood flow

    • A.

      Computerised axial tomography

    • B.

      Magnetoencephalography

    • C.

      Magnetic resonance imaging

    • D.

      Electroencephalograph

    • E.

      Positron Emission Tomography

    Correct Answer
    A. Computerised axial tomography
    Explanation
    The given description matches the scanning technique of computerised axial tomography (CT scan). CT scans use a doughnut-shaped X-ray machine to create 2D cross-sectional images of the body, which can then be combined to form a 3D image. CT scans are commonly used to detect changes in cerebral blood flow and can provide detailed images of the brain and other body parts.

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  • 21. 

    What scanning technique or method is this: radioactive glucose injected, glucose as fuel, colour coded map

    • A.

      Computerised axial tomography

    • B.

      Positron Emission Tomography

    • C.

      Magnetic resonance imaging

    • D.

      Magnetoencephalography

    • E.

      Electroencephalograph

    Correct Answer
    B. Positron Emission Tomography
    Explanation
    This scanning technique involves injecting radioactive glucose into the body, which acts as fuel. The color-coded map is then created to show areas of high glucose metabolism. This description matches the process of positron emission tomography (PET), where the radioactive glucose emits positrons that are detected by the scanner to create images of the body's metabolic activity.

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  • 22. 

    What scanning technique or method is this: moveable bed, giant circular magnet, aligns magnetisation of hydrogen atoms in body, radio waves from hydrogen atoms alter alignment, reconstruct image of brain low ecological validity,

    • A.

      Computerised axial tomography

    • B.

      Positron Emission Tomography

    • C.

      Magnetic resonance imaging

    • D.

      Magnetoencephalography

    • E.

      Electroencephalograph

    Correct Answer
    C. Magnetic resonance imaging
    Explanation
    The given description matches the technique of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI uses a moveable bed and a giant circular magnet to align the magnetization of hydrogen atoms in the body. Radio waves from the hydrogen atoms then alter their alignment, allowing for the reconstruction of an image of the brain. The mention of low ecological validity suggests that this technique may not accurately represent real-world conditions.

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  • 23. 

    What scanning technique or method is this: measures very faint magnetic fields from brain activity, detection in coils bathed in liquid helium, brain magnetic field induces current in coild squid chills coils to super conducting temperatures.

    • A.

      Magnetoencephalography

    • B.

      Magnetic resonance imaging

    • C.

      Electroencephalograph

    • D.

      Positron Emission Tomography

    • E.

      Computerised axial tomography

    Correct Answer
    A. Magnetoencephalography
    Explanation
    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is the correct answer because it is a scanning technique that measures very faint magnetic fields generated by brain activity. MEG uses coils that are bathed in liquid helium to detect these magnetic fields. The brain's magnetic field induces a current in the coils, and the coils are chilled to superconducting temperatures using a squid. This allows for the accurate measurement of brain activity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalography (EEG), positron emission tomography (PET), and computerized axial tomography (CAT) are other scanning techniques, but they do not specifically involve the measurement of magnetic fields from brain activity.

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  • 24. 

    Why might social adversity be a risk factor for depression?

    • A.

      Stress- decrease coritsol secretion- impairs serotonin neurotransmission

    • B.

      Stress- decrease coritsol secretion- allows serotonin neurotransmission

    • C.

      Stress- increase coritsol secretion- allows serotonin neurotransmission

    • D.

      Stress- increase coritsol secretion- impairs serotonin neurotransmission

    Correct Answer
    D. Stress- increase coritsol secretion- impairs serotonin neurotransmission
    Explanation
    Social adversity, such as experiencing discrimination or poverty, can lead to chronic stress. This chronic stress can increase cortisol secretion, which in turn impairs serotonin neurotransmission. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in regulating mood, and when its transmission is impaired, it can contribute to the development of depression. Therefore, the increase in cortisol secretion caused by social adversity can be a risk factor for depression due to the negative impact on serotonin neurotransmission.

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  • 25. 

    Who found sodial adversity may be a risk factor for depression?

    • A.

      Dixon (2002)

    • B.

      Sperry

    • C.

      Lacono (1983)

    • D.

      Goldberg (2002)

    • E.

      Lieberman (2007)

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Dixon (2002)
    D. Goldberg (2002)
    Explanation
    Dixon (2002) and Goldberg (2002) found that social adversity can be a risk factor for depression. Their studies suggest that individuals who experience difficult social circumstances, such as poverty, discrimination, or isolation, are more likely to develop depression. These findings highlight the importance of addressing social factors in understanding and treating depression.

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  • 26. 

    Who label differentiation between internal/external focused processes of ones or anthers mental interior/visible features is a new distiction. mention the mirror neuron.

    • A.

      Dixon (2002)

    • B.

      Lieberman (2007)

    • C.

      Goldberg(2002)

    • D.

      Sperry

    • E.

      Lacono(1983)

    Correct Answer
    B. Lieberman (2007)
    Explanation
    Lieberman (2007) is the correct answer because the question is asking for a reference that discusses the differentiation between internal/external focused processes of one's or another's mental interior/visible features, and mentions mirror neurons. Lieberman's work is known for exploring the role of mirror neurons in social cognition and understanding others' mental states. Therefore, Lieberman's research is relevant to the topic and provides the required distinction.

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  • 27. 

    Who found that schizophrenics have problems smoothly tracking a pendulum

    • A.

      Lieberman (2007)

    • B.

      Lacono(1983)

    • C.

      Dixon (2002)

    • D.

      Goldberg(2002)

    • E.

      Sperry

    Correct Answer
    B. Lacono(1983)
    Explanation
    In 1983, Lacono found that schizophrenics have difficulties in smoothly tracking a pendulum.

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  • 28. 

    ___ what study of twins was critised due to how the findings where portrayed.

    • A.

      Austin

    • B.

      Boston

    • C.

      Washington

    • D.

      Minnesota

    Correct Answer
    D. Minnesota
    Explanation
    The question is asking for the name of the study of twins that was criticized for the way its findings were presented. The correct answer is "Minnesota." However, without further context, it is not possible to provide a specific explanation for why this study was criticized or how its findings were portrayed.

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  • 29. 

    Which nervous system is for internal environment

    • A.

      Somatic, Sympathetic/parsympathetic nerves

    • B.

      Autonomic, Sympathetic/parsympathetic nerves

    • C.

      Somatic

    • D.

      Autonomic

    Correct Answer
    B. Autonomic, Sympathetic/parsympathetic nerves
    Explanation
    The autonomic nervous system is responsible for regulating the internal environment of the body. It controls involuntary functions such as heart rate, digestion, and respiration. Within the autonomic nervous system, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves work together to maintain homeostasis by either stimulating or inhibiting various bodily functions. Therefore, the correct answer is Autonomic, Sympathetic/parsympathetic nerves.

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  • 30. 

    Golgi staining was

    • A.

      Staining of the meninges

    • B.

      Chemical reaction stained neurons black

    • C.

      Better than Nissl Stain

    • D.

      Worse than Nissl Stain

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Chemical reaction stained neurons black
    D. Worse than Nissl Stain
    Explanation
    Golgi staining is a technique used to visualize individual neurons in the brain. It involves a chemical reaction that selectively stains a small percentage of neurons black, allowing for detailed examination of their structure and connectivity. Compared to Nissl stain, Golgi staining is considered worse because it only stains a limited number of neurons, making it difficult to obtain a comprehensive view of the neural network. Nissl stain, on the other hand, stains all neurons, providing a more complete picture of the brain tissue.

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  • 31. 

    Which system is responsible for the 4 F's

    • A.

      Autonomic

    • B.

      Peripheral nervous

    • C.

      Blood brain barrier

    • D.

      Limbic

    Correct Answer
    D. Limbic
    Explanation
    The limbic system is responsible for the 4 F's, which refer to the basic instincts and behaviors of feeding, fighting, fleeing, and mating. This system plays a crucial role in regulating emotions, memory, and motivation. It includes structures such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus, which are involved in processing emotions, forming memories, and controlling basic bodily functions. Therefore, the limbic system is the correct answer as it is directly associated with the 4 F's.

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