Excretory System (Practice Mode)- Www.Rnpedia.Com

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The renal medulla is composed of tissue called ______. 

    • A.

      Renal pyramids

    • B.

      Nephrons

    • C.

      Renal sinus

    • D.

      Renal pelvis

    Correct Answer
    A. Renal pyramids
    Explanation
    The renal medulla is composed of tissue called renal pyramids. The renal pyramids are cone-shaped structures that contain the loops of Henle and the collecting ducts of the nephrons. They are responsible for the production of concentrated urine and play a crucial role in maintaining the osmotic balance of the body. The renal pyramids are located in the inner region of the kidney, surrounding the renal sinus and renal pelvis.

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  • 2. 

    Juxtaglomerular cells combine with _______ cells to form the juxtagomerular apparatus in the kidney.

    • A.

      Macula densa

    • B.

      Renal pelvis

    • C.

      Nephron

    • D.

      Renal sinus

    Correct Answer
    A. Macula densa
    Explanation
    Juxtaglomerular cells combine with macula densa cells to form the juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidney. The juxtaglomerular apparatus is an important structure involved in regulating blood pressure and kidney function. Macula densa cells are specialized cells located in the wall of the distal convoluted tubule, while juxtaglomerular cells are located in the walls of the afferent arterioles. Together, these cells play a crucial role in sensing changes in sodium concentration and blood pressure, and they help to regulate the release of renin, a hormone involved in blood pressure control.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is not in the sequence of proper kidney blood flow? The starting point is the renal artery and the finishing point is the renal vein.

    • A.

      Arciform artery

    • B.

      Afferent arteriole

    • C.

      Interlobar vein

    • D.

      Arciform vein

    Correct Answer
    C. Interlobar vein
    Explanation
    The sequence of proper kidney blood flow starts with the renal artery, which branches into the arciform artery. From there, blood flows into the afferent arteriole, which leads to the glomerulus for filtration. After filtration, blood exits through the efferent arteriole and then into the arciform vein. Finally, blood flows into the interlobar vein before exiting the kidney through the renal vein. Therefore, the interlobar vein is not in the sequence of proper kidney blood flow.

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  • 4. 

    Which is found in the highest concentration in the urine?

    • A.

      Uric acid

    • B.

      Urea

    • C.

      Glucose

    • D.

      Creatinine

    Correct Answer
    B. Urea
    Explanation
    Urea is found in the highest concentration in the urine. Urea is a waste product produced by the liver when it metabolizes proteins. It is filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. Uric acid is another waste product that is produced when the body breaks down purines, but it is found in lower concentrations in the urine compared to urea. Glucose is not normally found in the urine, as it is reabsorbed by the kidneys. Creatinine is a waste product of muscle metabolism and is also found in the urine, but in lower concentrations compared to urea.

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  • 5. 

    The primary function of the ascending loop of Henle in the kidney is?

    • A.

      The active re-absorption of sodium

    • B.

      The active re-absorption of chloride ions

    • C.

      The passive re-absorption of potassium

    • D.

      The passive re-absorption of urea

    Correct Answer
    B. The active re-absorption of chloride ions
    Explanation
    The ascending loop of Henle in the kidney is responsible for the active re-absorption of chloride ions. This process helps in maintaining the osmotic gradient in the kidney, which is essential for water re-absorption in the collecting ducts. The re-absorption of chloride ions also plays a crucial role in maintaining electrolyte balance in the body.

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  • 6. 

     The middle layer of the urinary bladder is identified as ___________. 

    • A.

      Mucous coat

    • B.

      Submucous coat

    • C.

      Muscular Coat

    • D.

      Sphincter Coat

    Correct Answer
    B. Submucous coat
    Explanation
    The middle layer of the urinary bladder is called the submucous coat. This layer is located between the inner mucous coat and the outer muscular coat of the bladder. It consists of connective tissue and blood vessels, and its main function is to support and protect the mucous membrane lining the bladder.

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  • 7. 

    The micturition reflex center is located in the _____. 

    • A.

      Pons

    • B.

      Midbrain

    • C.

      Lumbar plexus

    • D.

      Sacral plexus

    Correct Answer
    D. Sacral plexus
    Explanation
    The micturition reflex center is located in the sacral plexus. The sacral plexus is a network of nerves in the lower back that controls the bladder and the muscles involved in urination. When the bladder is full, signals from stretch receptors in the bladder are sent to the sacral plexus, triggering the micturition reflex. This reflex causes the bladder to contract and the sphincter muscles to relax, allowing urine to be expelled from the body.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following match with the definition: a poor output of urine? 

    • A.

      Oliguria

    • B.

      Pyruia

    • C.

      Enuresis

    • D.

      Diuresis

    Correct Answer
    A. Oliguria
    Explanation
    Oliguria matches with the definition of a poor output of urine. Oliguria is a medical term used to describe a decreased production of urine, typically less than 400 milliliters per day in adults. It can be caused by various factors such as dehydration, kidney failure, or certain medications.

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  • 9. 

    Capillary loops located in the medulla are also known as _________. 

    • A.

      Vasa recta

    • B.

      Urea collectors

    • C.

      Trigone

    • D.

      Macula densa

    Correct Answer
    A. Vasa recta
    Explanation
    Capillary loops located in the medulla are known as vasa recta. The vasa recta is a network of blood vessels that run parallel to the loop of Henle in the kidney. They play a crucial role in maintaining the concentration gradient in the medulla, which is necessary for the reabsorption of water and the production of concentrated urine. The vasa recta also helps in the exchange of solutes and water between the medullary interstitium and the blood, ensuring proper kidney function.

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  • 10. 

    The primary function of the descending loop of Henle in the kidney is?

    • A.

      Reabsorption of sodium ions

    • B.

      Reabsoption of water by osmosis

    • C.

      Secretion of hydrogen ions

    • D.

      Secretion of potassium ions

    Correct Answer
    B. Reabsoption of water by osmosis
    Explanation
    The descending loop of Henle in the kidney is responsible for reabsorption of water by osmosis. As the filtrate moves down the descending limb, the surrounding interstitial fluid becomes increasingly concentrated, creating a concentration gradient. This gradient allows water to passively diffuse out of the filtrate and into the interstitial fluid, resulting in water reabsorption. This process helps in concentrating the urine and conserving water in the body.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following is not considered a part of the male urethra?

    • A.

      Prostatic

    • B.

      Membranous

    • C.

      Vasapore

    • D.

      Penile

    Correct Answer
    C. Vasapore
    Explanation
    The male urethra is divided into three parts: prostatic, membranous, and penile. The prostatic urethra passes through the prostate gland, the membranous urethra is a short segment that passes through the urogenital diaphragm, and the penile urethra runs through the length of the penis. Vasapore is not considered a part of the male urethra.

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  • 12. 

    When glucose if found in urine it is called _____. 

    • A.

      Glucosuria

    • B.

      Uremia

    • C.

      Ureteritis

    • D.

      Glucose intolerance

    Correct Answer
    A. Glucosuria
    Explanation
    Glucosuria is the correct answer because it refers to the presence of glucose in the urine. This condition occurs when the blood glucose levels are too high and the kidneys are unable to reabsorb all of the glucose, leading to its excretion in the urine. Uremia, ureteritis, and glucose intolerance are unrelated to the presence of glucose in the urine.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is not considered a component of kidney stones? 

    • A.

      Calcium phosphate

    • B.

      Uric Acid

    • C.

      Calcium oxalate

    • D.

      HCO3

    Correct Answer
    D. HCO3
    Explanation
    HCO3, also known as bicarbonate, is not considered a component of kidney stones. Kidney stones are typically formed from substances that crystallize and accumulate in the kidneys. Calcium phosphate, uric acid, and calcium oxalate are common components of kidney stones. However, HCO3 is not typically found in kidney stones and is not associated with their formation.

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  • 14. 

    The one of the functions occurring at the distal convoluted tubule in the kidney is? 

    • A.

      Passive secretion of hydrogen ions

    • B.

      Passive secretion of potassium ions

    • C.

      Limited re-absorption of water

    • D.

      No re-absorption of sodium

    Correct Answer
    B. Passive secretion of potassium ions
    Explanation
    The distal convoluted tubule in the kidney is responsible for passive secretion of potassium ions. This process involves the movement of potassium ions from the blood into the tubule, which helps regulate the levels of potassium in the body. Unlike active secretion, passive secretion does not require energy expenditure by the cells. This function is important for maintaining proper electrolyte balance and overall kidney function.

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  • 15. 

    ADH has which of the following effects on the distal convoluted tubule?

    • A.

      Decrease water re-absorption

    • B.

      Increase water re-absorption

    • C.

      Decrease the concentration of urine

    • D.

      Increase the urine volume

    Correct Answer
    B. Increase water re-absorption
    Explanation
    ADH, or antidiuretic hormone, increases water re-absorption in the distal convoluted tubule. This means that it allows more water to be reabsorbed from the urine back into the bloodstream, reducing the amount of water lost in urine. This helps to concentrate the urine and decrease its volume.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is not associated with the role of the kidneys?

    • A.

      Release of erythropoietin (hormone)

    • B.

      Release of renin (enzyme)

    • C.

      Release of Vitamin E

    • D.

      Activate Vitamin D

    Correct Answer
    C. Release of Vitamin E
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Release of Vitamin E." The kidneys are responsible for many important functions, such as filtering waste products from the blood, regulating fluid balance, and producing hormones like erythropoietin and renin. However, the release of Vitamin E is not a function of the kidneys. Vitamin E is primarily obtained through dietary sources and is involved in various physiological processes, such as acting as an antioxidant and supporting immune function.

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  • 17. 

    Each kidney contains approximately ______ nephrons

    • A.

      10 million

    • B.

      1 million

    • C.

      100,000

    • D.

      10,000

    Correct Answer
    B. 1 million
    Explanation
    Each kidney contains approximately 1 million nephrons. Nephrons are the functional units of the kidney responsible for filtering blood and producing urine. They consist of a glomerulus, which filters waste products and excess fluid from the blood, and a tubule, which reabsorbs necessary substances back into the bloodstream and excretes waste as urine. The high number of nephrons in the kidneys allows for efficient filtration and waste removal from the body.

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  • 18. 

    The release of Angiotension II causes which of the following to occur?

    • A.

      Increased filtration rate

    • B.

      Decreased glomerular hydrostatic pressure

    • C.

      Increase synthesis of Vitamin E

    • D.

      Increased release of erythropoietin

    Correct Answer
    A. Increased filtration rate
    Explanation
    The release of Angiotensin II causes vasoconstriction of the efferent arterioles in the kidneys, leading to increased glomerular hydrostatic pressure. This increased pressure promotes increased filtration rate, as more fluid is forced out of the glomerulus and into the renal tubules. Therefore, the correct answer is increased filtration rate.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is an effect of a diuretic?

    • A.

      Decreased Cardiac Output

    • B.

      Increased fluid volume

    • C.

      Increased sodium re-absorption

    • D.

      Increased chloride ion re-absorption

    Correct Answer
    A. Decreased Cardiac Output
    Explanation
    A diuretic is a medication that increases urine production and helps remove excess fluid from the body. By increasing urine output, a diuretic can reduce the volume of blood circulating in the body, which in turn decreases the amount of blood pumped by the heart with each beat. This leads to a decrease in cardiac output, which is the amount of blood the heart pumps per minute. Therefore, the effect of a diuretic is a decreased cardiac output.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is not considered a loop diuretic?

    • A.

      Bumetadine (BUMEX)

    • B.

      Furosemide (LASIX)

    • C.

      Chlorthiazide (DIURIL)

    • D.

      Ethacrynic Acid (EDECRIN)

    Correct Answer
    D. Ethacrynic Acid (EDECRIN)
    Explanation
    Ethacrynic Acid (EDECRIN) is not considered a loop diuretic because it belongs to a different class of diuretics known as the "thiazide-like" diuretics. Loop diuretics, such as Bumetadine (BUMEX), Furosemide (LASIX), and Chlorthiazide (DIURIL), work by inhibiting the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter in the ascending loop of Henle in the kidneys. This leads to increased excretion of sodium, chloride, and water. Ethacrynic Acid (EDECRIN), on the other hand, works by inhibiting the reabsorption of sodium and chloride in the proximal tubules of the kidneys.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 17, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    RNpedia.com
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