Chapter 4 Quiz 1 (2nd Secondary Biology)

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Chapter 4 Quiz 1 (2nd Secondary Biology) - Quiz

Excretion in Man


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following skin structures extend through both the dermis and epidermis?

    • A.

      Hair and blood vessels

    • B.

      Hair and sweat gland

    • C.

      Sweat gland and sensory nerve endings

    • D.

      Sebaceous gland and blood vessels

    Correct Answer
    B. Hair and sweat gland
    Explanation
    Hair and sweat glands are the only skin structures that extend through both the dermis and epidermis. Hair follicles are located in the dermis and extend up through the epidermis, while sweat glands are also located in the dermis and have ducts that extend through the epidermis to release sweat onto the skin's surface. The other options, such as blood vessels, sebaceous glands, and sensory nerve endings, are located within the dermis but do not extend through the epidermis.

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  • 2. 

    The main nitrogen-containing waste excreted in urine is ……

    • A.

      Ammonia

    • B.

      Creatine phosphate

    • C.

      Nucleotides

    • D.

      Urea

    Correct Answer
    D. Urea
    Explanation
    Urea is the correct answer because it is the main nitrogen-containing waste excreted in urine. It is produced in the liver from the breakdown of proteins and amino acids, and then transported to the kidneys for excretion. Urea is a relatively non-toxic compound that can be safely eliminated from the body through urine. Ammonia is also a waste product of protein metabolism, but it is converted to urea in the liver before being excreted. Creatine phosphate is not a waste product, but rather an energy storage molecule in muscle cells. Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA and RNA, and are not typically excreted in urine.

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  • 3. 

    If sebaceous glands fail to work, one of the following will not happen …...⃝

    • A.

      Skin becomes dry.

    • B.

      Hair becomes brittle.

    • C.

      Chance of microbial infection.

    • D.

      Capillary and vascular fragility.

    Correct Answer
    D. Capillary and vascular fragility.
    Explanation
    If the sebaceous glands fail to work, it will not lead to capillary and vascular fragility. Sebaceous glands are responsible for producing sebum, which helps to moisturize the skin and hair. Without the production of sebum, the skin may become dry and the hair may become brittle. However, capillary and vascular fragility are not directly affected by the functioning of the sebaceous glands.

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  • 4. 

    The uric acid is produced during the breakdown of ……..

    • A.

      Lipids

    • B.

      Carbohydrates

    • C.

      Nucleotides

    • D.

      All of them

    Correct Answer
    C. Nucleotides
    Explanation
    Uric acid is produced during the breakdown of nucleotides. Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA and RNA, and when they are broken down, one of the byproducts is uric acid. Lipids and carbohydrates do not directly contribute to the production of uric acid.

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  • 5. 

    The poisonous soluble materials are transformed into non-soluble ones by the ….

    • A.

      Skin

    • B.

      Lungs

    • C.

      Liver

    • D.

      Gall bladder

    Correct Answer
    C. Liver
    Explanation
    The liver is responsible for detoxifying harmful substances in the body, including poisonous soluble materials. It does this by converting these substances into non-soluble forms that can be safely eliminated from the body. The liver plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's overall health and protecting it from the harmful effects of toxins.

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  • 6. 

    Both Bowman’s capsule and the distal renal tubule, lie in the cortical region of the kidney where both of them are responsible for the reabsorption process.

    • A.

      The two sentences are true.

    • B.

      The two sentences are not true.

    • C.

      The 1st sentence is true while the 2nd one is not true.

    • D.

      The 1st sentence is not true while the 2nd one is true.

    Correct Answer
    C. The 1st sentence is true while the 2nd one is not true.
    Explanation
    Bowman's capsule and the distal renal tubule do indeed both lie in the cortical region of the kidney. However, while Bowman's capsule is responsible for the initial filtration of blood and the formation of urine, the distal renal tubule is responsible for the reabsorption of water and electrolytes. Therefore, the first sentence is true, but the second sentence is not true as it incorrectly states that both structures are responsible for the reabsorption process.

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  • 7. 

    The functional excretory unit in human’s skin is the …..

    • A.

      Hair follicle

    • B.

      Sweat gland

    • C.

      Sweat pore

    • D.

      Sebaceous gland

    Correct Answer
    B. Sweat gland
    Explanation
    The functional excretory unit in human's skin is the sweat gland. Sweat glands are responsible for producing and excreting sweat, which helps regulate body temperature and remove waste products from the body. Hair follicles are not directly involved in excretion, but they do play a role in hair growth. Sweat pores are the openings through which sweat is released onto the skin surface. Sebaceous glands are responsible for producing sebum, an oily substance that lubricates the skin and hair.

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  • 8. 

    Which blood vessel contains the least amount of urea?

    • A.

      Hepatic vein

    • B.

      Hepatic portal vein

    • C.

      Renal artery

    • D.

      Renal vein

    Correct Answer
    D. Renal vein
    Explanation
    The renal vein contains the least amount of urea because it carries deoxygenated blood from the kidneys back to the heart. Urea is a waste product that is filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, so the renal vein would have a lower concentration of urea compared to the other blood vessels listed. The hepatic vein carries blood from the liver, which is responsible for processing and detoxifying substances, including urea. The hepatic portal vein carries blood from the digestive organs to the liver, where urea is produced. The renal artery carries oxygenated blood to the kidneys.

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  • 9. 

    In which of the following are the largest amounts of nitrogen excreted from a mammalian body?

    • A.

      Breath

    • B.

      Sweat

    • C.

      Urine

    • D.

      Feces

    Correct Answer
    C. Urine
    Explanation
    Urine is the correct answer because it is the primary way in which nitrogenous waste is excreted from the mammalian body. Nitrogen is mainly excreted in the form of urea, which is produced in the liver and transported to the kidneys to be eliminated through urine. While small amounts of nitrogen can also be excreted through sweat and feces, the largest amount is excreted through urine. Breath does not play a significant role in nitrogen excretion.

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  • 10. 

    Place the following events in sequence ….. A) Fluid passes through the ureters B) Reabsorption in renal tubules C) Filtration in Bowman’s capsule D) Urine enters the urethra

    • A.

      C, B, A, D

    • B.

      C, B, D, A

    • C.

      B, C, A, D

    • D.

      A, C, D, B

    Correct Answer
    A. C, B, A, D
    Explanation
    First, filtration occurs in Bowman's capsule, where waste products and excess water are filtered out of the blood. Then, reabsorption takes place in the renal tubules, where useful substances such as glucose and ions are reabsorbed back into the blood. After that, fluid passes through the ureters, which are tubes that transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Finally, urine enters the urethra, which is the tube that carries urine out of the body. Therefore, the correct sequence is C, B, A, D.

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  • 11. 

    The figure below represents a section in an important organ in the human’s body. What are the structure (1), (2), (3) and (4) respectively?

    • A.

      Sweat gland / hair follicle / blood vessels / sebaceous gland

    • B.

      Blood capillary / sebaceous gland / nerve endings / hair shaft

    • C.

      Sweat tube / sebaceous gland / hair muscle / hair follicle

    • D.

      Nerve ending / fat gland / hair muscle / sweat gland

    Correct Answer
    C. Sweat tube / sebaceous gland / hair muscle / hair follicle
  • 12. 

    Which of the following structures transport/s glucose in a healthy person?

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      A and B

    • C.

      B and C

    • D.

      A and C

    Correct Answer
    B. A and B
    Explanation
    A and B are the correct answers because both structure A and structure B are known to transport glucose in a healthy person.

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  • 13. 

    In a healthy person, Bowman's capsule and Henle's loop are common in.....

    • A.

      The same excretory processes.

    • B.

      The same location in the kidney.

    • C.

      The same amount of glucose.

    • D.

      The presence of urea in each of them.

    Correct Answer
    D. The presence of urea in each of them.
    Explanation
    Bowman's capsule and Henle's loop are both structures found in the kidney. They are part of the nephron, which is responsible for the filtration and excretion of waste products from the blood. Urea is a waste product that is filtered out of the blood by the glomerulus in Bowman's capsule and then reabsorbed and concentrated in the Henle's loop. Therefore, the presence of urea is common in both Bowman's capsule and Henle's loop in a healthy person.

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  • 14. 

    Kidneys are thin and long in …..

    • A.

      Rabbit

    • B.

      Elephant

    • C.

      Horse

    • D.

      Frog

    Correct Answer
    D. Frog
    Explanation
    Frogs have thin and long kidneys, which help them in filtering waste products from their blood and producing urine. This is because frogs are amphibians and live both in water and on land, so they need efficient kidneys to maintain their water balance. In contrast, rabbits, elephants, and horses have kidneys that are not specifically adapted for aquatic environments and may have different shapes and sizes.

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  • 15. 

    What is the function of the urethra?

    • A.

      It filters urea out of the bloodstream

    • B.

      It delivers urine from the bladder to outside the body

    • C.

      It transfers urine from the kidneys to the bladder

    • D.

      It prevents urine from leaking out of the bladder

    Correct Answer
    B. It delivers urine from the bladder to outside the body
    Explanation
    The urethra is a tube that connects the bladder to the external opening of the body. Its main function is to transport urine from the bladder to the outside of the body during urination. This allows for the elimination of waste products from the body.

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  • 16. 

    The loop of Henle is present inside the ….. of the kidney

    • A.

      Cortex

    • B.

      Medulla

    • C.

      Ureter

    • D.

      Pelvis 

    Correct Answer
    B. Medulla
    Explanation
    The loop of Henle is present inside the medulla of the kidney. The medulla is the innermost region of the kidney, located between the renal cortex and the renal pelvis. It is responsible for the reabsorption of water and electrolytes from the filtrate, helping to concentrate the urine. The loop of Henle is a crucial part of the nephron, the functional unit of the kidney, and plays a vital role in maintaining the body's water and electrolyte balance.

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  • 17. 

    The best long term solution for kidney failure is.......

    • A.

      A. Kidney dialysis

    • B.

      B. Kidney transplant

    • C.

      C. Both A and B

    • D.

      D. Blood transfusion

    Correct Answer
    B. B. Kidney transplant
    Explanation
    The best long term solution for kidney failure is a kidney transplant. Kidney dialysis can help temporarily filter waste from the blood, but it is not a permanent solution. A kidney transplant, on the other hand, involves replacing the failed kidney with a healthy one from a donor, providing a long-term solution to kidney failure. Blood transfusion, while it may be necessary in some cases, does not address the underlying issue of kidney failure. Therefore, the correct answer is B. Kidney transplant.

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  • 18. 

    The principal nitrogenous excretory compound in humans is synthesized ……

    • A.

      In the liver but eliminated mostly through kidneys

    • B.

      In kidneys but eliminated mostly through liver

    • C.

      In kidneys as well as eliminated by kidneys

    • D.

      In liver and also eliminated by the same through bile

    Correct Answer
    A. In the liver but eliminated mostly through kidneys
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "In the liver but eliminated mostly through kidneys." This is because the liver is responsible for synthesizing urea, the principal nitrogenous excretory compound in humans. However, urea is eliminated from the body mostly through the kidneys, which filter it out of the blood and excrete it in urine. While a small amount of urea may also be eliminated through the liver via bile, the majority is eliminated through the kidneys.

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  • 19. 

    A person who has control of urination can consciously and voluntarily decide whether to release the urine from the bladder or to hold it for a while. When the decision is made to urinate, the ........

    • A.

      Sphincter muscle relaxes.

    • B.

      Bladder expands like an elastic sac.

    • C.

      Bladder wall relaxes.

    • D.

      Muscles in the abdominal wall relax.

    Correct Answer
    A. Sphincter muscle relaxes.
    Explanation
    When a person decides to urinate, the sphincter muscle, which is responsible for controlling the release of urine from the bladder, relaxes. This allows the urine to flow out of the bladder and through the urethra. The relaxation of the sphincter muscle is a voluntary action that occurs when the person consciously decides to empty their bladder.

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  • 20. 

    Blood being pumped to the kidneys and then filtered by nephrons is an example of two systems working together, ........

    • A.

      Circulatory and muscular

    • B.

      Nervous and muscular

    • C.

      Excretory and circulatory

    • D.

      Nervous and excretory

    Correct Answer
    C. Excretory and circulatory
    Explanation
    Blood being pumped to the kidneys and then filtered by nephrons is an example of the excretory and circulatory systems working together. The circulatory system is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body, including to the kidneys. The excretory system, specifically the kidneys, filters waste products from the blood and produces urine. Therefore, the two systems are working in conjunction to remove waste from the body.

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  • 21. 

    The glomerular filtrate differs from blood plasma in that the glomerular filtrate .......

    • A.

      Is free of large proteins and blood cells.

    • B.

      Contains higher amount of glucose.

    • C.

      Contains higher amount of water.

    • D.

      Is free of mineral salts.

    Correct Answer
    A. Is free of large proteins and blood cells.
    Explanation
    The glomerular filtrate is formed in the kidneys through the process of filtration. During this process, substances such as water, glucose, and mineral salts are filtered out of the blood and into the glomerular filtrate. However, large proteins and blood cells are too large to pass through the filtration membrane and therefore are not present in the glomerular filtrate. Therefore, the correct answer is that the glomerular filtrate is free of large proteins and blood cells.

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  • 22. 

    Numerous ……… merge into the renal pelvis.

    • A.

      Proximal convoluted tubules

    • B.

      Distal convoluted tubules

    • C.

      Loops of Henle

    • D.

      Collecting ducts

    Correct Answer
    D. Collecting ducts
    Explanation
    The collecting ducts merge into the renal pelvis. The collecting ducts are responsible for reabsorbing water and electrolytes from the urine, and they play a crucial role in maintaining the body's fluid and electrolyte balance. They receive urine from multiple nephrons and transport it to the renal pelvis, which is the funnel-shaped structure that collects urine before it is passed into the ureter.

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  • 23. 

    On examining a urine sample for a person, it is noticed an increase in the albumin percentage. What does this mean?

    • A.

      Disturbance in the function of Bowman’ capsule

    • B.

      Shortening of nephron’s tubules

    • C.

      Increase in the efficiency of Bowman’s capsule

    • D.

      Disturbance in the function of renal tubules

    Correct Answer
    A. Disturbance in the function of Bowman’ capsule
    Explanation
    An increase in the albumin percentage in a urine sample indicates a disturbance in the function of Bowman's capsule. Bowman's capsule is responsible for filtering waste products, including albumin, from the blood into the urine. If there is a disturbance in its function, it may allow albumin to pass through into the urine, leading to an increase in the albumin percentage. This can be indicative of kidney damage or disease.

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  • 24. 

    Damaging the nerve ending in a finger leads to ...…

    • A.

      We don’t feel cold when we touch an object like ice.

    • B.

      Inability to pick things up.

    • C.

      Finger weakness.

    • D.

      All of them.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of them.
    Explanation
    When the nerve endings in a finger are damaged, it can result in various impairments. The loss of sensation caused by nerve damage can lead to an inability to feel cold when touching objects like ice. Additionally, the weakened nerve signals can affect the finger's ability to grip and pick things up, resulting in an inability to perform fine motor tasks. Therefore, all of the given options, including not feeling cold, inability to pick things up, and finger weakness, are consequences of damaging the nerve endings in a finger.

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  • 25. 

    The average volume of blood passes through the kidney per minute is about …..

    • A.

      1.2L

    • B.

      2.4L

    • C.

      3L

    • D.

      4.6L

    Correct Answer
    A. 1.2L
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 1.2L because the average volume of blood that passes through the kidney per minute is approximately 1.2 liters. This is an important function of the kidney as it helps filter waste products and excess fluid from the blood, maintaining the body's overall fluid balance.

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  • 26. 

    The function of each of the structures (6) and (2) depend on the presence of the structure …….

    • A.

      5

    • B.

      8

    • C.

      1

    • D.

      9

    Correct Answer
    B. 8
    Explanation
    The function of structure (6) and (2) depend on the presence of structure 8.

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  • 27. 

    The urinary excretion increases by the following substance having a diuretic action....

    • A.

      Urea

    • B.

      Cellulose

    • C.

      Ammonium salts

    • D.

      Glycerol

    Correct Answer
    A. Urea
    Explanation
    Urea is a waste product formed in the liver from the breakdown of proteins. It is filtered by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. Urea has a diuretic action, meaning it promotes the production of urine and increases urinary excretion. This is because urea acts as an osmotic diuretic, meaning it increases the osmotic pressure in the renal tubules, leading to increased water reabsorption and urine production. Therefore, the urinary excretion increases when urea is present, making it the correct answer.

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  • 28. 

    The excretory system regulates the blood volume by …….

    • A.

      Making blood cells

    • B.

      Breaking down food

    • C.

      Eliminating excess water

    • D.

      Filtering blood

    Correct Answer
    C. Eliminating excess water
    Explanation
    The excretory system regulates the blood volume by eliminating excess water. This is because the excretory system, specifically the kidneys, filter the blood and remove waste products, including excess water, through the formation of urine. By eliminating excess water, the excretory system helps maintain the proper balance of fluids in the body, which in turn regulates the blood volume.

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  • 29. 

    Since there is no excretion of fat in sweat or urine, therefore fat is excreted with……

    • A.

      Saliva

    • B.

      Tears

    • C.

      Expiration

    • D.

      No correct answer

    Correct Answer
    C. Expiration
    Explanation
    Fat is not excreted in sweat or urine, so it must be excreted through another means. Since fat is a component of the body's energy storage system, it is broken down and released as carbon dioxide during the process of expiration, or breathing out. This is why expiration is the correct answer.

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  • 30. 

    The graph below expresses amount of water lost by the body in different states. Which columns represent the body state during a short running competition?

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    Correct Answer
    D. D
    Explanation
    The column D represents the body state during a short running competition because it shows the highest amount of water lost. This indicates that the body is exerting more energy and sweating more during the running competition, leading to a greater loss of water.

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  • 31. 

    Complete the equation to demonstrate the process of deamination: Amino acid → ---------- + organic acid.

    • A.

      Ammonia

    • B.

      Oxygen

    • C.

      Carboxyl group

    • D.

      ATP

    • E.

      Water

    Correct Answer
    A. Ammonia
    Explanation
    During the process of deamination, an amino acid is converted into ammonia and an organic acid. This process occurs in the liver and is an important step in the metabolism of amino acids. The ammonia produced can then be further metabolized into urea and excreted by the body. Ammonia is a toxic compound and needs to be converted into a less toxic form before it can be safely eliminated.

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  • 32. 

    If circle (A) represents the liver, circle (B) represents the kidney while circle (C) represents the skin, then what are the excretory substances represented by (X) and (Y) respectively?

    • A.

      Water and mineral salts

    • B.

      Mineral salts and water

    • C.

      Toxic substances and nitrogenous wastes

    • D.

      Nitrogenous wastes and toxic substances

    Correct Answer
    C. Toxic substances and nitrogenous wastes
    Explanation
    Circle (A) represents the liver, which is responsible for detoxifying harmful substances in the body. Therefore, (X) is most likely representing toxic substances. Circle (B) represents the kidney, which filters waste products from the blood, including nitrogenous wastes. Therefore, (Y) is most likely representing nitrogenous wastes.

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  • 33. 

    Which of the following is a toxic chemical group has to be removed from food substances and converted into nitrogenous wastes?

    • A.

      Amino group

    • B.

      Sulphate group

    • C.

      Phosphate group

    • D.

      Nitrate group

    Correct Answer
    A. Amino group
    Explanation
    The amino group is a toxic chemical group that needs to be removed from food substances and converted into nitrogenous wastes. This is because the amino group contains nitrogen, which can be toxic to the body if it accumulates. The body converts the amino group into urea, a nitrogenous waste product, which is then excreted through urine.

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  • 34. 

    Suppose that each 10 nephrons drain in one collecting duct. So the number of collecting ducts in the two kidneys is ……

    • A.

      Hundred thousand

    • B.

      One million

    • C.

      Half million

    • D.

      Two hundred thousand

    Correct Answer
    D. Two hundred thousand
    Explanation
    If each 10 nephrons drain into one collecting duct, then the number of collecting ducts in the two kidneys can be calculated by dividing the total number of nephrons by 10. Since the answer choices are given in terms of hundreds of thousands and millions, it can be inferred that the total number of nephrons is in the millions. Dividing a number in the millions by 10 would result in a number in the hundreds of thousands. Therefore, the correct answer is Two hundred thousand.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the following graphs represents the change in concentration of the thyroid hormone in blood of a patient with kidney failure during its passage in the artificial kidney apparatus?

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    Correct Answer
    A. A
    Explanation
    Graph A represents a gradual decrease in concentration of the thyroid hormone in blood over time. This is likely to occur during the passage of blood through an artificial kidney apparatus, as the apparatus is designed to filter waste products and excess substances from the blood. Therefore, the correct answer is A.

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  • 36. 

    After protein digestion, the product is transported from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to the liver. The excess of it is metabolized and detoxified to .

    • A.

      An amino group

    • B.

      Urea

    • C.

      Ammonia

    • D.

      Uric acid

    Correct Answer
    B. Urea
    Explanation
    After protein digestion, the amino acids are transported from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to the liver. In the liver, the excess amino acids are metabolized and detoxified. The amino group is removed from the amino acids and converted into ammonia. However, ammonia is toxic to the body, so it is further converted into urea, which is less toxic and can be safely transported to the kidneys for excretion. Therefore, the correct answer is urea.

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  • 37. 

    Decreased urine volumes are found in…..

    • A.

      Acute nephritis

    • B.

      Vomiting

    • C.

      Diarrhea

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Decreased urine volumes can be found in all of the conditions mentioned: acute nephritis, vomiting, and diarrhea. Acute nephritis is an inflammation of the kidneys that can lead to reduced urine production. Vomiting can cause dehydration and a decrease in urine output. Diarrhea can also result in dehydration and a decrease in urine volume. Therefore, all of these conditions can cause a decrease in urine volumes.

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  • 38. 

    Which of the following pours urea directly to the blood?

    • A.

      Hepatic vein

    • B.

      Liver

    • C.

      Hepatic portal vein

    • D.

      Renal vein

    Correct Answer
    B. Liver
    Explanation
    The liver is responsible for many metabolic functions, including the synthesis and breakdown of urea. Urea is produced in the liver as a waste product of protein metabolism and is then transported to the kidneys for excretion. The liver does not directly pour urea into the blood, but it is involved in its production and subsequent transport to the kidneys.

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  • 39. 

    In hot weather the skin blood vessels …..

    • A.

      Become narrower.

    • B.

      Become wider.

    • C.

      Are not affected.

    • D.

      Allow less heat to be lost.

    Correct Answer
    B. Become wider.
    Explanation
    In hot weather, the body tries to cool down by increasing blood flow to the skin. This is done by widening the skin blood vessels, allowing more blood to flow near the surface of the skin. This increased blood flow helps to dissipate heat from the body to the environment, allowing for better cooling. Therefore, the correct answer is "Become wider."

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  • 40. 

    Where does the body get rid of vitamin C that was absorbed from the small intestine?

    • A.

      The stool

    • B.

      Exhaled air

    • C.

      Bile juice

    • D.

      The urine

    Correct Answer
    D. The urine
    Explanation
    Vitamin C that is absorbed from the small intestine is primarily excreted from the body through the urine. The kidneys filter out excess vitamin C from the bloodstream and eliminate it through urine. This is why consuming excessive amounts of vitamin C can result in the urine appearing more yellow or orange in color. The other options - stool, exhaled air, and bile juice - are not the primary routes for excreting vitamin C from the body.

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  • 41. 

    The renal medulla consists of cone-shaped tissue masses called _______.

    • A.

      Adipose capsule

    • B.

      Renal pyramid

    • C.

      Cortex

    • D.

      Renal pelvis

    Correct Answer
    B. Renal pyramid
    Explanation
    The renal medulla consists of cone-shaped tissue masses called renal pyramids. These pyramids are responsible for the production of urine and play a crucial role in the filtration and concentration of waste products in the kidneys. They are located in the inner region of the kidney, surrounded by the renal cortex. The renal pelvis, on the other hand, is the funnel-shaped structure that collects urine from the pyramids and transports it to the ureter. The adipose capsule is a layer of fatty tissue that surrounds and protects the kidneys.

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  • 42. 

    The figure below represents the functional unit of the kidney. What are structures (1), (2), (3) and 4 respectively?

    • A.

      Bowman’s capsule / nephron / renal vein / loop of Henley

    • B.

      Bowman’s capsule / glomerulus / renal artery / renal tubules

    • C.

      Blood capillaries / Bowman’s capsule / aorta / renal tubules

    • D.

      Blood capillaries / Bowman’s capsule / renal artery / loop of Henley

    Correct Answer
    D. Blood capillaries / Bowman’s capsule / renal artery / loop of Henley
    Explanation
    The figure represents the functional unit of the kidney, which is the nephron. Structure (1) is the Bowman's capsule, structure (2) is the glomerulus (a network of blood capillaries), structure (3) is the renal artery, and structure (4) is the loop of Henle. Therefore, the correct answer is "Blood capillaries / Bowman's capsule / renal artery / loop of Henley."

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  • 43. 

    The following table illustrates a urine analysis for some of the urine contents in August 2019 for four persons having the same age and weight. Which of the four persons had been eating a diet rich in legumes before the urine analysis?

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    Correct Answer
    B. B
  • 44. 

    …….. is considered as the biggest gland in the body that plays an important role in digestion, excretion and metabolism.

    • A.

      Heart

    • B.

      Kidney

    • C.

      Liver

    • D.

      Spleen

    Correct Answer
    C. Liver
    Explanation
    The liver is considered as the biggest gland in the body that plays an important role in digestion, excretion, and metabolism. It produces bile, which helps in the digestion and absorption of fats. The liver also filters toxins and waste products from the blood, detoxifies harmful substances, and metabolizes drugs and alcohol. Additionally, it stores vitamins and minerals, produces blood-clotting proteins, and regulates blood sugar levels. Overall, the liver is a vital organ that performs multiple functions essential for maintaining overall health and well-being.

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  • 45. 

    If the Human body contains five liters of blood and 1.25 liters of them passes through the kidneys per minute, so how many times should the total volume of blood passes through the kidneys in two hours?

    • A.

      15 times

    • B.

      60 times

    • C.

      75 times

    • D.

      30 times

    Correct Answer
    D. 30 times
    Explanation
    In two hours, there are 120 minutes. If 1.25 liters of blood passes through the kidneys per minute, then in 120 minutes, 1.25 x 120 = 150 liters of blood will pass through the kidneys. Since the human body contains five liters of blood, the total volume of blood passing through the kidneys in two hours will be 150/5 = 30 times.

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  • 46. 

    Why is deamination an important process in the human body?

    • A.

      Deamination converts toxic amino acids into nontoxic carbon dioxide and water.

    • B.

      Deamination converts solid ammonia into organic substances that can be used by the body.

    • C.

      Deamination breaks down amino acids that cannot be stored in the human body.

    • D.

      Deamination produces important proteins from the breakdown of amino acids.

    Correct Answer
    C. Deamination breaks down amino acids that cannot be stored in the human body.
    Explanation
    Deamination is an important process in the human body because it breaks down amino acids that cannot be stored. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, and the body constantly receives a supply of amino acids from the diet. However, excess amino acids cannot be stored in the body and must be eliminated. Deamination allows for the removal of the amino group from the amino acid, converting it into ammonia. The ammonia is then further processed and converted into urea, which is excreted in urine. This process helps to maintain a balance of amino acids in the body and prevent the buildup of toxic levels of ammonia.

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  • 47. 

    Loss of large number of nephrons, may lead to ……..

    • A.

      Increase in urine amount

    • B.

      Renal failure

    • C.

      Increase in urine glucose

    • D.

      Increase in urine salts

    Correct Answer
    B. Renal failure
    Explanation
    Loss of a large number of nephrons can lead to renal failure. Nephrons are the functional units of the kidneys responsible for filtering waste products from the blood and producing urine. When a significant number of nephrons are lost, the kidneys are unable to effectively filter waste and maintain fluid and electrolyte balance in the body, resulting in renal failure. This can lead to a decrease in urine production, accumulation of waste products in the blood, and disruption of various bodily functions.

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  • 48. 

    The amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute, is examined by the kidneys every …… minute(s).

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      4

    Correct Answer
    D. 4
    Explanation
    The kidneys examine the amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute every 4 minutes.

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  • 49. 

    In relative to the structure (A), the structure (B) contains ......

    • A.

      Higher concentration of urea.

    • B.

      Higher concentration of protein.

    • C.

      Lower concentration of urea.

    • D.

      Lower concentration of protein.

    Correct Answer
    C. Lower concentration of urea.
    Explanation
    The given answer suggests that structure (B) has a lower concentration of urea compared to structure (A). This implies that structure (A) has a higher concentration of urea. The information provided does not mention anything about the concentration of protein in either structure, so we cannot make any conclusions about it.

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  • 50. 

    The diuretic action (causing increased passing of urine)of tea, coffee and cocoa is due to....

    • A.

      Carbohydrates

    • B.

      Caffeine

    • C.

      Carotenoids

    • D.

      Amino acids

    Correct Answer
    B. Caffeine
    Explanation
    Tea, coffee, and cocoa have a diuretic action due to caffeine. Caffeine is a natural stimulant that affects the kidneys and increases urine production. It works by inhibiting the reabsorption of water by the kidneys, leading to increased urine output. This diuretic effect can cause increased frequency of urination and can also contribute to dehydration if not enough fluids are consumed to compensate for the increased fluid loss.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Apr 09, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jul 23, 2019
    Quiz Created by
    Samy
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