Endocrine And Reproductive SySTEMs

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Endocrine And Reproductive Systems - Quiz

Test your knowledge of the endocrine and reproductive systems


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of these statements is correct?

    • A.

      The adrenal cortex secretes adrenaline

    • B.

      The adrenal cortex secretes glucagon

    • C.

      The adrenal cortex secretes mineralcorticoids eg aldosterone

    • D.

      The adrenal cortex secretes insulin

    Correct Answer
    C. The adrenal cortex secretes mineralcorticoids eg aldosterone
    Explanation
    The adrenal cortex secretes mineralcorticoids, such as aldosterone. Adrenaline is secreted by the adrenal medulla, not the adrenal cortex. Glucagon is produced by the pancreas, specifically by alpha cells in the islets of Langerhans. Insulin is also produced by the pancreas, but by beta cells in the islets of Langerhans.

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  • 2. 

    Goitre is a pathology of the

    • A.

      Ovaries

    • B.

      Thyroid

    • C.

      Parathyroids

    • D.

      Adrenals

    Correct Answer
    B. Thyroid
    Explanation
    Goitre is a pathology of the thyroid. Goitre refers to the enlargement of the thyroid gland, which can be caused by various factors such as iodine deficiency, autoimmune diseases, or thyroid nodules. The thyroid gland is responsible for producing hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and development in the body. When the thyroid gland becomes enlarged, it can lead to symptoms such as swelling in the neck, difficulty swallowing, or changes in voice. Therefore, it is clear that goitre is specifically related to the thyroid gland.

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  • 3. 

    Where is the pituitary gland located?

    • A.

      Head

    • B.

      Neck

    • C.

      Pelvis

    • D.

      Abdomen

    Correct Answer
    A. Head
    Explanation
    The pituitary gland is located in the head. It is a small, pea-sized gland that is situated at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus. The pituitary gland plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions and producing hormones that control growth, metabolism, reproduction, and other essential processes. Its location in the head allows it to receive signals from the hypothalamus and release hormones into the bloodstream to communicate with other glands and organs throughout the body.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following statements is correct?

    • A.

      Endocrine glands secrete substances into ducts

    • B.

      Endocrine glands secrete substances directly into target cells

    • C.

      Endocrine glands secrete substances into the lymphatic system

    • D.

      Endocrine glands secrete substances into to blood system

    Correct Answer
    D. Endocrine glands secrete substances into to blood system
    Explanation
    Endocrine glands secrete substances directly into the bloodstream. Unlike exocrine glands, which release their secretions into ducts that carry them to specific locations, endocrine glands release hormones directly into the blood. These hormones then travel through the bloodstream to reach their target cells or organs, where they regulate various physiological processes. This allows for a rapid and widespread distribution of hormones throughout the body, ensuring efficient communication between different organs and systems.

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  • 5. 

    Functions of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) include

    • A.

      Decreasing urine production

    • B.

      Increasing urine production

    • C.

      Decreasing stress response

    • D.

      Increasing stress response

    Correct Answer
    A. Decreasing urine production
    Explanation
    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is responsible for decreasing urine production. It does this by acting on the kidneys, specifically the collecting ducts, to increase water reabsorption. This results in less water being excreted in the urine, leading to a decrease in urine production. ADH helps to maintain water balance in the body by conserving water and preventing excessive water loss through urine.

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  • 6. 

    The hormone melatonin is secreted by which gland?

    • A.

      Pituitary

    • B.

      Pineal

    • C.

      Thyroid

    • D.

      Thymus

    Correct Answer
    B. Pineal
    Explanation
    The hormone melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland. The pineal gland is a small endocrine gland located in the brain. It plays a crucial role in regulating the sleep-wake cycle and is responsible for the production and release of melatonin. Melatonin helps to regulate the body's internal clock and is involved in the control of sleep patterns and circadian rhythms.

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  • 7. 

    Luteinising hormone is secreted by which gland?

    • A.

      Ovaries

    • B.

      Adrenal

    • C.

      Pineal

    • D.

      Pituitary

    Correct Answer
    D. Pituitary
    Explanation
    Luteinising hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is a small gland located at the base of the brain and is often referred to as the "master gland" because it controls the release of hormones from other glands in the body. Luteinising hormone plays a crucial role in the reproductive system, specifically in the regulation of the menstrual cycle and the production of sex hormones in both males and females.

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  • 8. 

    The release of which hormone is stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system?

    • A.

      Somatotropin

    • B.

      Melatonin

    • C.

      Adrenaline

    • D.

      Insulin

    Correct Answer
    C. Adrenaline
    Explanation
    The release of adrenaline is stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. Adrenaline, also known as epinephrine, is a hormone that is released in response to stress or danger. It prepares the body for the "fight or flight" response by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and energy production. This hormone helps to mobilize the body's resources in order to respond to a perceived threat or stressful situation.

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  • 9. 

    Which two hormones function in the control of blood calcium levels?

    • A.

      Oxytocin and calcitonin

    • B.

      Oxytocin and human growth hormone

    • C.

      Calcitonin and parathormone

    • D.

      Thyroxin and parathormone

    Correct Answer
    C. Calcitonin and parathormone
    Explanation
    Calcitonin and parathormone are the two hormones that function in the control of blood calcium levels. Calcitonin decreases blood calcium levels by inhibiting the release of calcium from bones and promoting its excretion by the kidneys. Parathormone, on the other hand, increases blood calcium levels by stimulating the release of calcium from bones and enhancing its absorption in the intestines and kidneys. These two hormones work together to maintain the balance of calcium in the body.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a hormone?

    • A.

      Chemical messenger

    • B.

      Secreted by exocrine glands

    • C.

      Transported in the blood

    • D.

      Regulates activity of target cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Secreted by exocrine glands
    Explanation
    Hormones are chemical messengers that are secreted by endocrine glands, not exocrine glands. Exocrine glands secrete substances such as sweat, saliva, and digestive enzymes, while endocrine glands release hormones directly into the bloodstream. Hormones are transported in the blood and regulate the activity of target cells, but they are not secreted by exocrine glands.

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  • 11. 

    Steroid hormones include

    • A.

      Sex hormones

    • B.

      Insulin

    • C.

      Oxytocin

    • D.

      Thyroxin

    Correct Answer
    A. Sex hormones
    Explanation
    Steroid hormones are a specific type of hormone that are derived from cholesterol and have a similar structure. They are lipid-soluble and can easily cross cell membranes. Sex hormones, such as estrogen and testosterone, are examples of steroid hormones. Insulin and oxytocin are not steroid hormones, as they are peptide hormones. Thyroxin, on the other hand, is a thyroid hormone and also not a steroid hormone. Therefore, the correct answer is sex hormones.

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  • 12. 

    Which gland does the hypothalamus have a direct influence on?

    • A.

      Pituitary

    • B.

      Pineal

    • C.

      Thyroid

    • D.

      Thymus

    Correct Answer
    A. Pituitary
    Explanation
    The hypothalamus has a direct influence on the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus releases hormones that control the function of the pituitary gland. These hormones travel through a network of blood vessels called the hypothalamic-pituitary portal system, which connects the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland then releases its own hormones that regulate various bodily functions, such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction.

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  • 13. 

    Which hormone is responsible for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics?

    • A.

      Testosterone

    • B.

      Oestrogen

    • C.

      Progesterone

    • D.

      Thyroxine

    Correct Answer
    A. Testosterone
    Explanation
    Testosterone is the hormone responsible for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics. It is produced primarily in the testes and is responsible for the growth of facial and body hair, deepening of the voice, increased muscle mass, and the development of male reproductive organs. Oestrogen and progesterone are female sex hormones, while thyroxine is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland that regulates metabolism.

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  • 14. 

    What is the main action of oxytocin?

    • A.

      Stimulates the development of oocytes

    • B.

      Stimulates ovulation

    • C.

      Stimulates uterine contractions during labour

    • D.

      Reducs volume of urine produced

    Correct Answer
    C. Stimulates uterine contractions during labour
    Explanation
    Oxytocin is a hormone that is primarily responsible for stimulating uterine contractions during labor. It is released by the pituitary gland and helps to initiate and regulate the process of childbirth. This hormone plays a crucial role in facilitating the contractions necessary for the progression of labor and the eventual delivery of the baby. Additionally, oxytocin also promotes bonding and attachment between the mother and the newborn baby through its role in lactation and breastfeeding.

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  • 15. 

    Which one of the following is NOT  stimulated by insulin?

    • A.

      The conversion of glucose to glycogen

    • B.

      The conversion of glycogen to glucose

    • C.

      The entry of glucose into cells

    • D.

      The reduction of blood glucose levels

    Correct Answer
    B. The conversion of glycogen to glucose
    Explanation
    Insulin stimulates the conversion of glucose to glycogen, the entry of glucose into cells, and the reduction of blood glucose levels. However, it does not stimulate the conversion of glycogen to glucose. This conversion is instead stimulated by glucagon, which is released when blood glucose levels are low. Glycogen is broken down into glucose by a process called glycogenolysis, which increases blood glucose levels.

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  • 16. 

    What characterises the menopause?

    • A.

      The appearance of secondary sexual characteristics

    • B.

      The start of menstruation

    • C.

      The cessation of ovulation and menstruation

    • D.

      The start of ovulation

    Correct Answer
    C. The cessation of ovulation and menstruation
    Explanation
    The menopause is characterized by the cessation of ovulation and menstruation. During menopause, a woman's ovaries stop releasing eggs and her menstrual periods stop. This is a natural process that typically occurs in women in their late 40s or early 50s. The hormonal changes associated with menopause can cause various symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, mood swings, and vaginal dryness. Menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive years and the transition into the post-reproductive stage of life.

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  • 17. 

    The epididymis is the site of

    • A.

      Spermatogenesis

    • B.

      Sperm maturation

    • C.

      Oogenesis

    • D.

      Ova maturation

    Correct Answer
    B. Sperm maturation
    Explanation
    The epididymis is a coiled tube located at the back of the testes where sperm cells are stored and mature. Sperm maturation refers to the process by which sperm cells gain the ability to swim and fertilize an egg. During their time in the epididymis, sperm cells undergo various changes that enable them to acquire motility and the ability to penetrate the egg. Therefore, the correct answer is sperm maturation.

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  • 18. 

    How many chromosomes are found in a haploid human cell?

    • A.

      13

    • B.

      23

    • C.

      43

    • D.

      46

    Correct Answer
    B. 23
    Explanation
    A haploid human cell contains 23 chromosomes. Haploid cells have half the number of chromosomes compared to diploid cells, which are the normal body cells. In humans, diploid cells have 46 chromosomes, with 23 pairs. During sexual reproduction, haploid cells combine to form a diploid zygote with the full complement of 46 chromosomes. Therefore, the correct answer is 23.

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  • 19. 

    What is the correct definition of the term gamete?

    • A.

      An organ where sex cells are produced

    • B.

      A fertilised ovum

    • C.

      A cell produced by mitosis

    • D.

      A mature sex cell

    Correct Answer
    D. A mature sex cell
    Explanation
    A gamete is a mature sex cell, which is capable of fusing with another gamete during sexual reproduction to form a zygote. Gametes are produced through a process called gametogenesis, and they contain half the number of chromosomes compared to other cells in the body. This reduction in chromosome number is essential for maintaining the genetic diversity of offspring. Gametes can be either sperm cells or egg cells, depending on the sex of the organism.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following structures is found in both male and female bodies?

    • A.

      Vas deferens

    • B.

      Uterus

    • C.

      Urethra

    • D.

      Oviduct

    Correct Answer
    C. Urethra
    Explanation
    The urethra is a structure that is found in both male and female bodies. It is a tube that connects the bladder to the external opening of the genitals. In males, the urethra also serves as a passage for semen during ejaculation, while in females, it is solely responsible for the elimination of urine from the bladder. Therefore, the urethra is present in both male and female bodies, making it the correct answer.

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  • 21. 

    What is the function of the testes?

    • A.

      Mitosis

    • B.

      Osmoregulation

    • C.

      Oogenesis

    • D.

      Spermatogenesis

    Correct Answer
    D. Spermatogenesis
    Explanation
    The function of the testes is spermatogenesis, which is the process of producing sperm cells. Spermatogenesis occurs within the seminiferous tubules of the testes, where diploid cells called spermatogonia undergo a series of mitotic divisions and then meiotic divisions to produce haploid sperm cells. These sperm cells are essential for sexual reproduction and fertilization. Osmoregulation refers to the regulation of water and salt balance in the body, while oogenesis is the process of producing egg cells in the ovaries. Therefore, the correct answer is spermatogenesis.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following structures does NOT secrete fluids that form semen?

    • A.

      Seminal vesicles

    • B.

      Prostate gland

    • C.

      Corpus luteum

    • D.

      Bulbourethral gland

    Correct Answer
    C. Corpus luteum
    Explanation
    The corpus luteum is a temporary structure that forms in the ovary after ovulation. It is responsible for producing progesterone, which is important for preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg. However, the corpus luteum does not secrete fluids that form semen. Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral gland are the structures that secrete fluids that contribute to the formation of semen.

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  • 23. 

    Where in the female reproductive system does fertilisation normally occur?

    • A.

      Urethra

    • B.

      Fallopian tube

    • C.

      Uterus

    • D.

      Ovary

    Correct Answer
    B. Fallopian tube
    Explanation
    Fertilization normally occurs in the fallopian tube. The fallopian tube is responsible for transporting the egg from the ovary to the uterus. During ovulation, the egg is released from the ovary into the fallopian tube. If sperm is present in the fallopian tube at this time, it can fertilize the egg, resulting in pregnancy. The fertilized egg then travels down the fallopian tube to the uterus, where it implants and develops into a fetus.

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  • 24. 

    How long is a typical human pregnancy?

    • A.

      One trimester

    • B.

      Two trimesters

    • C.

      Three trimesters

    • D.

      Four trimesters

    Correct Answer
    C. Three trimesters
    Explanation
    A typical human pregnancy lasts for three trimesters. Each trimester is approximately three months long, making a total of nine months. During the first trimester, the fertilized egg implants in the uterus and starts developing into an embryo. In the second trimester, the baby's organs and body systems continue to develop, and the mother starts to feel the baby's movements. The third trimester is characterized by rapid growth and development, with the baby gaining weight and preparing for birth.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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