End Of Course Biology Test Prep

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End Of Course Biology Test Prep - Quiz

You’ve put in a lot of work to get to this point, ladies and gentlemen, but it’s time for your end of course examinations! We’re going to find out what you’ve learned about the scientific study of life known as biology, and if you know enough about all of it to proceed to the next year of your studies! Let’s take a practice quiz first though, shall we? Let’s see what you’ve learned!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Lemurs’ bodies are adapted to efficiently store energy for times when food is scarce. This adaptation may help to explain how lemur ancestors survived the trip across the Mozambique Channel from mainland Africa to Madagascar. Which of the following types of molecules are primarily used for long-term energy storage in the lemur?

    • A.

      Lipids

    • B.

      Carbohydrates

    • C.

      Nucleic Acids

    • D.

      Proteins

    Correct Answer
    A. Lipids
    Explanation
    Carbohydrates are used by organisms as an immediate source of energy, nucleic acids serve as hereditary material for organisms, proteins are primarily used to build and repair tissue and lipids are used by organisms to store energy. Therefore the correct answer is A.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following best explains why enzymes are necessary for many cellular reactions?

    • A.

      Enzymes supply the oxygen necessary for the reactions.

    • B.

      Enzymes change reactants from solid to liquid during the reactions.

    • C.

      The reactions take up too much space in the cell if enzymes are missing

    • D.

      The reactions are too slow to meet the needs of the cell if enzymes are missing.

    Correct Answer
    D. The reactions are too slow to meet the needs of the cell if enzymes are missing.
    Explanation
    Enzymes are a group of proteins responsible for speeding up chemical reactions. Therefore, the correct answer is D.

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  • 3. 

    If an animal cell is placed in distilled water, it will swell and burst. The bursting of the cell is a result of which biological process?

    • A.

      Active transport

    • B.

      Enzyme activity

    • C.

      Osmosis

    • D.

      Respiration

    Correct Answer
    C. Osmosis
    Explanation
    Osmosis is the process by which water passively diffuses across a cell membrane from an area of higher water concentration to a lower one. Therefore, the correct answer is A.

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  • 4. 

    Which of these will complete the mRNA strand matched to DNA?

    • A.

      CAG

    • B.

      AUG

    • C.

      GUC

    • D.

      UAC

    Correct Answer
    C. GUC
    Explanation
    When mRNA gets transcribed from DNA during gene expression, complementary bases are brought in to complete the mRNA strand. Since RNA doesn't have the base Thymine like DNA, Adenine gets paired with the nitrogen base Uracil found in RNA. Cytosine and Guanine always pair up. Therefore, the correct answer would be letter C.

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  • 5. 

    A carrot cell contains 18 chromosomes. Which of the following is the correct number of chromosomes in new cells produced by mitosis?

    • A.

      9

    • B.

      18

    • C.

      36

    • D.

      54

    Correct Answer
    B. 18
    Explanation
    Mitosis ends with 2 daughter cells that have the same genetic composition as the parent cell. This is why B is the correct answer choice.

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  • 6. 

    A young patient is diagnosed with the genetic disorder lactose intolerance, which results in the inability to digest milk products due to a missing enzyme called lactase. What is most likely the cause of lactose intolerance in this patient?

    • A.

      The patient is allergic to milk

    • B.

      The patient stopped consuming milk products

    • C.

      A disease destroyed the lining of the patient’s small intestine

    • D.

      A mutation occurred in the gene that is responsible for producing lactase

    Correct Answer
    D. A mutation occurred in the gene that is responsible for producing lactase
    Explanation
    Since genes code for proteins and enzymes are proteins, a mutation in a gene may result in a failure by the body to produce a needed enzyme. Therefore, the correct answer is D.

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  • 7. 

    In an experiment, chickens were fed grain that contained a chemical marker in its proteins. The presence of the marker can be detected in organisms. Which of the following is the most reasonable prediction from this experiment?

    • A.

      The marker will only be found in the grain.

    • B.

      Both chickens and wolves will have the marker.

    • C.

      Wolves will have the marker, but chickens will not.

    • D.

      The marker will only be found in the animals' wastes.

    Correct Answer
    B. Both chickens and wolves will have the marker.
    Explanation
    You are what you eat and what you eat eats. Therefore, B is the correct answer.

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  • 8. 

              Which of the following diagrams correctly represents an energy pyramid from this web?                     

    • A.

      Energy Pyramid A

    • B.

      Energy Pyramid B

    • C.

      Energy Pyramid C

    • D.

      Energy Pyramid D

    Correct Answer
    C. Energy Pyramid C
    Explanation
    If you follow the arrows in the food web, green algae get eaten by limpets, which get eaten by crabs who get eaten by gulls. Since algea are at the bottom of the food web, they must have the greatest amount of energy to support everything above it in the pyramid.

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  • 9. 

             Which hypothesis would most likely be tested using this setup?

    • A.

      Green water plants release a gas in the presence of light.

    • B.

      Roots of water plants absorb minerals in the absence of light.

    • C.

      Green plants need light for cell division.

    • D.

      Plants grow best in the absence of light.

    Correct Answer
    A. Green water plants release a gas in the presence of light.
    Explanation
    The only difference between the two experimental set ups is the presence of light and the gas bubbles in the experimental set up with light. Therefore, the correct answer would be A. (Plants release oxygen gas as a byproduct of photosynthesis).

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  • 10. 

    In one of the steps of the carbon cycle, a person exhales a molecule of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. Which of the following is most likely to happen next to the atom of carbon in this molecule?

    • A.

      It may be used as part of a sugar in a plant.

    • B.

      It may become part of a protein in an animal.

    • C.

      It may be consumed as a fossil fuel is burned.

    • D.

      It may be decomposed into carbon and oxygen by a bacterium.

    Correct Answer
    A. It may be used as part of a sugar in a plant.
    Explanation
    Humans breath out carbon dioxide as a waste product of cellular respiration and plants use the carbon from the carbon dioxide to make high energy sugars (glucose) during photosynthesis. This is why A is the correct answer.

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  • 11. 

         At position Y, carbon is most likely to be in which of the following forms?

    • A.

      Protein

    • B.

      Solid Carbon

    • C.

      Carbohydrate

    • D.

      Carbon Dioxide

    Correct Answer
    D. Carbon Dioxide
    Explanation
    As part of the carbon cycle plants take in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (Letter Y). Animals take in carbon from carbohydrates produced by plants (Letter X). Choice D is the correct answer.

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  • 12. 

    A food web is shown below. Which of the following is most likely to lead to an increase in the number of foxes over time?

    • A.

      A decrease in owls

    • B.

      An increase in hawks

    • C.

      An increase in mountain lions

    • D.

      A decrease in raspberry bushes

    Correct Answer
    A. A decrease in owls
    Explanation
    If the owl population decreases, the hawk population will have less competition for rabbits and sparrows and will be able to increase. Therefore, A is the correct answer.

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  • 13. 

       If many trees are removed from a forest, what is the most immediate effect on the carbon cycle in that forest?

    • A.

      Increased rates of decomposition

    • B.

      Decreased use of atmospheric CO2

    • C.

      Decreased combustion of fossil fuels

    • D.

      Increased production of organic compounds

    Correct Answer
    B. Decreased use of atmospheric CO2
    Explanation
    If there are less trees in the forest, there will be less plants to take up carbon dioxide. Therefore, the answer is B.

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  • 14. 

    Fireflies produce light inside their bodies. The enzyme luciferase is involved in the reaction that produces the light. Scientists have isolated the luciferase gene. A scientist inserts the luciferase gene into the DNA of cells from another organism. If these cells produce light, the scientist knows that which of the following occurred?

    • A.

      The luciferase gene mutated inside the cells.

    • B.

      The luciferase gene was transcribed and translated.

    • C.

      The luciferase gene destroyed the original genes of the cells.

    • D.

      The luciferase gene moved from the nucleus to the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Correct Answer
    B. The luciferase gene was transcribed and translated.
    Explanation
    If a gene is expressed it gets transcribed and translated into the appropriate enzyme. This makes B is the correct answer choice.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following best describes the result of a mutation in an organism's DNA?

    • A.

      The mutation may produce a zygote.

    • B.

      The mutation may cause phenotypic change.

    • C.

      The mutation causes damage when it occurs.

    • D.

      The mutation creates entirely new organisms.

    Correct Answer
    B. The mutation may cause phenotypic change.
    Explanation
    Mutations may be positive, negative or neutral. Mutations can cause phenotypic changes or physical changes in an organism's traits, which may be beneficial to their survival or detrimental to their survival. Therefore, the correct answer is B.

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  • 16. 

    Assume that brown eyes (B) are dominant over tan eyes (b) in guinea pigs. When a brown-eyed male is mated with a tan-eyed female, 50% of the litter has brown eyes and 50% has tan eyes. What is the genotype of the female guinea pig?                   

    • A.

      BB

    • B.

      Bb

    • C.

      Bt

    • D.

      Bb

    Correct Answer
    D. Bb
    Explanation
    It might appear that you need to do a test cross to solve this problem, but the problem tells us the femaile guinea pig has tan eyes which is the recessive trait. The only way for her to express the recessive trait is to be homozygous recessive for eye color. Therefore, letter D would the correct choice.

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  • 17. 

    Thousands of years ago, giraffes with short necks were common within giraffe populations. Nearly all giraffe populations today have long necks. This difference could be due to:

    • A.

      Giraffes stretching their necks to keep their heads out of reach of predators

    • B.

      Giraffes stretching their necks so they could reach food higher in the trees

    • C.

      A mutation in genetic material controlling neck size occurring in some skin cells of a giraffe

    • D.

      A mutation in genetic material controlling neck size occurring in the reproductive cells of a giraffe.

    Correct Answer
    D. A mutation in genetic material controlling neck size occurring in the reproductive cells of a giraffe.
    Explanation
    Only mutations in reproductive cells will get passed on to future generations to cause phenotypic changes such as a change in neck length. Therefore, the correct answer is D.

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  • 18. 

    Scientists have concluded that snakes evolved from an ancestor with legs. Which of the following statements provides the best evidence for this conclusion?

    • A.

      Most species of snakes live on land.

    • B.

      Snakes move extremely fast to catch their prey

    • C.

      Snakes have a well-developed backbone and muscular system.

    • D.

      Some species of snakes have limb buds during their embryonic development.

    Correct Answer
    D. Some species of snakes have limb buds during their embryonic development.
    Explanation
    Many organisms have characteristics during embryological development that disappear as they continue to develop, such as the limb buds found in snakes and whales, which suggests that they evolved from ancestors who once had 4 limbs. This indicates choice D is the best answer.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following best explains how the fossil record provides evidence that evolution has occurred?

    • A.

      It indicates that forms of life existed on Earth at least 3.5 billion years ago.

    • B.

      It indicates the exact cause of structural and behavioral adaptations of organisms.

    • C.

      It shows how the embryos of many different vertebrate species are very similar.

    • D.

      It shows that the form and structure of groups of organisms have changed over time.

    Correct Answer
    D. It shows that the form and structure of groups of organisms have changed over time.
    Explanation
    The fossil record very clearly shows that the vast majority of organisms who have ever lived on this planet have gone extinct, but adaptations in the form and structure of organisms have allowed related groups of organisms to evolve. Therefore, choice D is the correct answer.

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  • 20. 

    On island chains like the one shown below, animal populations that spread from the main island to the other islands can evolve into separate species. Which of the following best explains what favors speciation in these situations?

    • A.

      Predators on the main island can easily migrate to follow the populations to the other islands.

    • B.

      Lack of disease on the other islands enables the populations to grow and change without limit.

    • C.

      The physical separation of the islands limits gene flow and interbreeding between the populations.

    • D.

      The climatic conditions of the islands allow the populations to breed all year and produce several generations

    Correct Answer
    C. The physical separation of the islands limits gene flow and interbreeding between the populations.
    Explanation
    Different species form when two different populations get seperated until they can no longer reproduce to produce fertile offspring. Therefore, choice C is the correct answer.

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  • 21. 

    Athletes want a drink to help them maintain constant cellular respiration during their game. To accomplish this goal, their drink should contain

    • A.

      ATP

    • B.

      Lipids

    • C.

      Glucose

    • D.

      Proteins

    Correct Answer
    C. Glucose
    Explanation
    During cellular respiration an organism converts glucose into ATP. Therefore an athelete would have to get glucose from their drink to carry out cellular respiration. This makes choice C the correct answer.

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  • 22. 

    Timothy has attached earlobes. His mother and father both have free earlobes, which are dominant. Which statement explains how Timothy inherited attached earlobes?

    • A.

      He received a recessive allele from each parent

    • B.

      He received a dominant allele from each parent

    • C.

      He received a recessive allele from his mother and a dominant allele from his father

    • D.

      He received a dominant allele from his mother and a recessive allele from his father

    Correct Answer
    A. He received a recessive allele from each parent
    Explanation
    The only way for Timothy to express the recessive trait would be to carry two alleles for the recessive trait. Therefore, he would have had to get one recessive allele from each parent, which would make A the correct answer.

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  • 23. 

    Which two processes result in variations that commonly influence the evolution of sexually reproducing species? 

    • A.

      Mitosis and natural selection

    • B.

      Extinction and gene replacement

    • C.

      Mutation and genetic recombination

    • D.

      Environmental selection and selective breeding

    Correct Answer
    C. Mutation and genetic recombination
    Explanation
    The two main sources of genetic variation for sexually reproducing organisms are mutations and genetic recombination. Mutation happen randomly upon exposure to mutagens and mistakes in DNA replication. Genetic recombination occurs during the production of sex cells when homologous chromosomes swap genetic material.

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  • 24. 

    During meiosis, homologous chromosomes can exchange DNA in a process known as –

    • A.

      Replication

    • B.

      Cytokinesis

    • C.

      Crossing over

    • D.

      Internal fertilization

    Correct Answer
    C. Crossing over
    Explanation
    When sex cells are produced through the process of meiosis, homologous chromosomes swap genetic material in a process known as crossing over, The correct answer is C.

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  • 25. 

    An organism Jimsonweed, a common plant in New Jersey, has 12 chromosomes in its body cells. How many chromosomes will an egg cell of this plant have? 

    • A.

      6 chromosomes

    • B.

      12 chromosomes

    • C.

      18 chromosomes

    • D.

      24 chromosomes

    Correct Answer
    A. 6 chromosomes
    Explanation
    Sex cells have half the number of chromosomes as an organism's body cells. This is how you get half your genes from your mommy and half from your daddy. If an organism has 12 chromosomes in their body cells, their sex cells would have to have 6 chromosomes. This makes A the correct answer choice.

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  • Apr 29, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 13, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Jtwelch84
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