Electrophysical Agents - Cryotherapy

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Electrophysical Agents - Cryotherapy - Quiz

Physiological effects of cryotherapy
indications of cryotherapy
safety aspects & contraindications
different applications


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Cryotherapy is the use of c__ agents as a first aid measure after trauma and as an a__ in rehab of musculoskeletal & neuromuscular dysfunction

    Explanation
    Cryotherapy is the use of cold agents as a first aid measure after trauma and as an aid in the rehabilitation of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular dysfunction. Cold agents, such as ice packs or cold compresses, help reduce pain, inflammation, and swelling by constricting blood vessels and numbing the area. This can promote healing and improve the recovery process for individuals with injuries or dysfunction in their muscles and nerves.

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  • 2. 

    Cryotherapy can help to prevent/reduce e__ of traumatic origin & inflammation

    Explanation
    Cryotherapy, which involves the application of cold temperatures, can help to prevent or reduce edema, which is swelling caused by fluid retention in the body's tissues. By constricting blood vessels and reducing blood flow to the affected area, cryotherapy can help to decrease inflammation and swelling, providing relief from edema.

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  • 3. 

    Cryotherapy works by 2 modes. They are:

    Explanation
    Cryotherapy works through two modes: conduction evaporation and evaporation conduction. Conduction evaporation refers to the process where heat is transferred from the body to a cold surface, causing the evaporation of moisture on the skin. This helps in reducing inflammation and numbing the area. Evaporation conduction, on the other hand, involves the application of a cold substance to the skin, which then evaporates, drawing heat away from the body. Both modes contribute to the therapeutic effects of cryotherapy by reducing pain and promoting healing.

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  • 4. 

    In conduction the internal energy is r___ by the ___ moving cooler particles from the more ___ moving hotter particles

    Explanation
    In conduction, the internal energy is released by the slower moving cooler particles to the more rapidly moving hotter particles.

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  • 5. 

    Conduction has the following features:

    • A.

      The greater the temp gradient btw the skin & cooling source the greater will be the resulting tissue temp change

    • B.

      Tissues with higher content have better thermal conductivity

    • C.

      Time of exposure is impt when considering the ability of cold to lower the temp of subcutaneous tissues, muscle & joints

    • D.

      Extraction of heat upon contact with the skin

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. The greater the temp gradient btw the skin & cooling source the greater will be the resulting tissue temp change
    B. Tissues with higher content have better thermal conductivity
    C. Time of exposure is impt when considering the ability of cold to lower the temp of subcutaneous tissues, muscle & joints
    Explanation
    The answer is a combination of all the given features of conduction. The greater the temperature gradient between the skin and cooling source, the greater the resulting tissue temperature change. Tissues with higher content have better thermal conductivity, meaning they are more effective at conducting heat. The time of exposure is important when considering the ability of cold to lower the temperature of subcutaneous tissues, muscle, and joints. Additionally, heat is extracted upon contact with the skin, further contributing to tissue temperature change.

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  • 6. 

    Evaporation reduces temp by means of 

    • A.

      Convection

    • B.

      Evaporation

    Correct Answer
    B. Evaporation
    Explanation
    Evaporation reduces temperature by means of evaporation itself. When a liquid evaporates, its molecules gain energy from the surroundings and transform into a gas state. This process requires heat energy, which is taken from the surrounding environment, causing a decrease in temperature. Therefore, evaporation is the correct answer as it directly explains how the reduction in temperature occurs.

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  • 7. 

    In biophysical effect, when cold is applied the immediate response is v__ of bld vessel and increase or decrease of bld flow.

    Correct Answer
    vasoconstriction decrease
    Explanation
    When cold is applied, the biophysical effect causes vasoconstriction, which refers to the narrowing of blood vessels. This narrowing leads to a decrease in blood flow.

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  • 8. 

    When expose to cold for a short time the arterioles and venules will c___ due to an interplay of factors

    Correct Answer
    constrict
    Explanation
    When exposed to cold for a short time, the arterioles and venules constrict. This is due to an interplay of factors such as the body's natural response to cold temperatures and the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Constriction of these blood vessels helps to reduce blood flow to the skin and extremities, which helps to conserve heat and prevent heat loss from the body. This physiological response is important for maintaining body temperature and protecting vital organs in cold environments.

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  • 9. 

    As cooled bld returns to general circulation, it will stimulate h__ conservation area  and this will result in further reflex c__ v__

    Correct Answer
    heat cutaneous vasoconstriction
    Explanation
    As cooled blood returns to general circulation, it will stimulate the heat conservation area and this will result in further reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction. This means that the body will constrict blood vessels near the skin's surface in order to conserve heat and prevent further heat loss. This is a physiological response to maintain body temperature in colder conditions.

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  • 10. 

    Hemodynamic effects can be seen in the following

    • A.

      Decrease joint bld flow

    • B.

      Increase in bld viscosity

    • C.

      Cold induced vasodilation after a long time of temp reduction

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Decrease joint bld flow
    B. Increase in bld viscosity
    C. Cold induced vasodilation after a long time of temp reduction
    Explanation
    Hemodynamic effects refer to the changes in blood flow and blood pressure within the circulatory system. In this case, the correct answer states that the following effects can be seen: decrease in joint blood flow, increase in blood viscosity, and cold-induced vasodilation after a long time of temperature reduction. These effects are all associated with changes in the flow and properties of blood within the body.

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  • 11. 

    The effects of cold stimulus on local bld flow will result in

    • A.

      Increase smooth muscle tone, decrease vasodilator modalities

    • B.

      Reflex, increase bld viscosity

    • C.

      Increase bld flow

    • D.

      Decrease bld flow

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Increase smooth muscle tone, decrease vasodilator modalities
    B. Reflex, increase bld viscosity
    D. Decrease bld flow
    Explanation
    Cold stimulus causes vasoconstriction, which leads to an increase in smooth muscle tone and a decrease in vasodilator modalities. This reflex response reduces blood flow to the affected area. Additionally, cold temperatures can increase blood viscosity, making it thicker and more resistant to flow. Therefore, the overall effect of cold stimulus on local blood flow is a decrease in blood flow.

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  • 12. 

    The rationale for using cold in the first 24-48 hrs following injury is due to

    • A.

      Less fluid filtration into interstitial due to vasoconstriction

    • B.

      Less inflammation & pain

    • C.

      Decrease metabolic rate and sec. hypoxic injury

    • D.

      Increase blood flow to affected areas

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Less fluid filtration into interstitial due to vasoconstriction
    B. Less inflammation & pain
    C. Decrease metabolic rate and sec. hypoxic injury
    Explanation
    The rationale for using cold in the first 24-48 hrs following injury is due to several factors. Firstly, cold causes vasoconstriction, which reduces the amount of fluid filtration into the interstitial space, helping to decrease swelling. Secondly, cold also helps to reduce inflammation and pain, providing relief to the injured area. Additionally, cold therapy can decrease the metabolic rate and secondary hypoxic injury, which can further promote healing. Lastly, cold therapy can increase blood flow to the affected areas, aiding in the delivery of nutrients and removal of waste products.

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  • 13. 

    The effect on peripheral nerves are

    • A.

      Alteration of nerve conduction velocity and synaptic activity

    • B.

      Blockage of synaptic transmission

    • C.

      Chg depends on duration and temp

    • D.

      Increase in neural activity to compensate for loss of temp

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Alteration of nerve conduction velocity and synaptic activity
    B. Blockage of synaptic transmission
    C. Chg depends on duration and temp
    Explanation
    The effect on peripheral nerves includes alteration of nerve conduction velocity and synaptic activity. This means that the speed at which nerve signals travel and the communication between nerve cells can be affected. Additionally, there can be blockage of synaptic transmission, which refers to the interruption or impairment of the transmission of signals between nerve cells. The extent of these effects depends on the duration and temperature of the stimulus. Furthermore, there may be an increase in neural activity to compensate for the loss of temperature.

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  • 14. 

    Short duration cold has an effect on muscle performance by increasing or decreasing it?

    Correct Answer(s)
    increasing
    Explanation
    Short duration cold has an increasing effect on muscle performance. When exposed to cold temperatures, the body's natural response is to constrict blood vessels in order to conserve heat. This vasoconstriction reduces blood flow to the muscles, resulting in decreased oxygen and nutrient supply. As a result, muscle performance is impaired. Additionally, cold temperatures can also decrease nerve conduction velocity, further affecting muscle function. Therefore, short duration cold has a negative impact on muscle performance, leading to a decrease in overall strength and efficiency.

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  • 15. 

    The neuromuscular effect will lead to reduce s___ which will decrease resistance to p__ stretch, decrease amplitude deep t__ reflex and frequency of c__

    Correct Answer(s)
    spasiticity passive tendon clonus
    Explanation
    The neuromuscular effect mentioned in the question will cause a decrease in spasiticity, which refers to the involuntary muscle contractions commonly seen in conditions like cerebral palsy. This reduction in spasiticity will also lead to a decrease in resistance to passive tendon stretch, meaning that the muscles will be more flexible and easier to stretch. Additionally, the amplitude of the deep tendon reflex will decrease, indicating a decrease in the intensity of the involuntary muscle response to stimuli. Lastly, the frequency of clonus, which is a rapid series of muscle contractions and relaxations, will also decrease.

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  • 16. 

    In order for spasticity to be reduced the reduction in g__ activity should be greater than the increase in a__ activity.a corresponding d__ in afferent spindle discharge

    Correct Answer(s)
    gamma alpha decrease
    Explanation
    In order for spasticity to be reduced, the activity of gamma motor neurons should decrease while the activity of alpha motor neurons should also decrease. This decrease in gamma activity is necessary to reduce the sensitivity of muscle spindles, which in turn decreases the afferent spindle discharge. This decrease in alpha activity helps to reduce the excessive muscle contraction and stiffness associated with spasticity. Therefore, a decrease in both gamma and alpha activity is necessary for the reduction of spasticity.

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  • 17. 

    To reduce spasticity the cold is applied by

    • A.

      Over hypertonic muscle for 10-30 mins

    • B.

      Method of app depends on accessibility, size & contour of body area

    • C.

      Exercise programme is carried out once spasticity is reduced. Cold can last for 1-1.5 hrs

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Over hypertonic muscle for 10-30 mins
    B. Method of app depends on accessibility, size & contour of body area
    C. Exercise programme is carried out once spasticity is reduced. Cold can last for 1-1.5 hrs
    Explanation
    To reduce spasticity, cold is applied over the hypertonic muscle for a duration of 10-30 minutes. The method of application depends on the accessibility, size, and contour of the body area. Once the spasticity is reduced, an exercise program can be carried out. The cold can last for 1-1.5 hours. This answer provides a comprehensive explanation of the different aspects related to reducing spasticity using cold therapy.

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  • 18. 

    . For musculoskeletal trauma, cold treatment can ___ pain threshold and ___ pain by acting as a counter-irritant.. __ is a technique that uses ice massage/ice water immersion to provide analgesia before ROM exercises

    • A.

      Increase decrease cryokinetics

    • B.

      Decrease increase ice bath

    Correct Answer
    A. Increase decrease cryokinetics
    Explanation
    Cold treatment for musculoskeletal trauma can increase the pain threshold and decrease pain by acting as a counter-irritant. Cryokinetics is a technique that uses ice massage or ice water immersion to provide analgesia before range of motion (ROM) exercises.

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  • 19. 

    The therapeutic indicators for using cold treatment are:

    • A.

      Reduce pain, spasticity, inflammation, spasm

    • B.

      Minimize/reduce oedema, synovial effusion, haemorrhage when combined with compression

    • C.

      Increase blood flow to aid in quick recovery

    • D.

      Facilitate muscle action

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Reduce pain, spasticity, inflammation, spasm
    B. Minimize/reduce oedema, synovial effusion, haemorrhage when combined with compression
    D. Facilitate muscle action
    Explanation
    Cold treatment is indicated for various therapeutic purposes. It can effectively reduce pain, spasticity, inflammation, and spasms. When combined with compression, cold treatment can also minimize or reduce oedema, synovial effusion, and haemorrhage. Additionally, cold treatment helps to increase blood flow, which aids in quick recovery. It also facilitates muscle action, making it beneficial for therapeutic purposes.

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  • 20. 

    Contraindications & Precautions to note are:

    • A.

      Cryoglobinaemia - bld protein forms a gel at low temp

    • B.

      Cold urticaria or hypersensitivity

    • C.

      Intolerance - severe pain, numbness, colour changes, cyanosis & mottling

    • D.

      Raynaud's phenomenon - associate with rheumatic disease

    • E.

      Paroxysmal cold haemoglobinuria

    • F.

      Peripheral vascular diesease

    • G.

      Hypertensive patients, superficial nerves, cold aversion

    • H.

      Pregnant patient, Patients with thrombophlebitis or other potentially thromboembolic diseases

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Cryoglobinaemia - bld protein forms a gel at low temp
    B. Cold urticaria or hypersensitivity
    C. Intolerance - severe pain, numbness, colour changes, cyanosis & mottling
    D. Raynaud's phenomenon - associate with rheumatic disease
    E. Paroxysmal cold haemoglobinuria
    F. Peripheral vascular diesease
    G. Hypertensive patients, superficial nerves, cold aversion
    Explanation
    This answer lists various contraindications and precautions to note when considering a certain treatment or procedure. These include cryoglobinaemia, which is a condition where blood proteins form a gel at low temperatures, cold urticaria or hypersensitivity, intolerance which can cause severe pain, numbness, color changes, cyanosis, and mottling, Raynaud's phenomenon which is associated with rheumatic disease, Paroxysmal cold haemoglobinuria, peripheral vascular disease, hypertensive patients, superficial nerves, and cold aversion. These contraindications and precautions should be taken into account to ensure the safety and effectiveness of the treatment or procedure.

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  • 21. 

    The methods of application are:. CP. IM. IT. CB. VS

    Correct Answer(s)
    cold pack ice massage ice towel cold baths vapocoolant spray
    Explanation
    The answer lists different methods of application for cold therapy, including cold pack, ice massage, ice towel, cold baths, and vapocoolant spray. These methods are commonly used to reduce pain, inflammation, and swelling by applying cold temperatures to the affected area. Cold pack involves applying a pack or compress filled with ice or frozen gel. Ice massage involves directly rubbing ice on the skin. Ice towel is a method where a towel soaked in ice water is applied to the body. Cold baths involve immersing the body in cold water. Vapocoolant spray is a topical spray that provides a cooling sensation.

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  • 22. 

    For cold baths the water temp varies btw __-__ deg C

    Correct Answer(s)
    13 18
    Explanation
    Cold baths typically have a water temperature that varies between 13 to 18 degrees Celsius. This temperature range is considered cold and can provide various benefits such as reducing inflammation, improving circulation, and increasing alertness. Cold baths are often used by athletes to aid in muscle recovery after intense physical activity. The lower temperature helps to constrict blood vessels, which can reduce swelling and soreness. Additionally, the cold water stimulates the body's natural response to cold, which can boost energy levels and mental clarity.

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  • 23. 

    For spray the skin should be covered __-__ times at at rate of __ cm per sec. It should not exceed __ secs or else F__ may occur.

    Correct Answer(s)
    2 3 10 6 frosting
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that when spraying the skin, it should be covered 2-3 times at a rate of 10 cm per second. The spraying process should not exceed 6 seconds, otherwise, frosting may occur.

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