# Electrophysical Agents - Shortwave Diathermy

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Discuss physiological effects of shortwave diathermyUnderstand diff heating patternsDiscuss indications for use of SWDIdentify safety aspect and contra-indicationsClarify common clinical apps for SWD

• 1.

### Diathermy means h__

Explanation
Diathermy refers to the therapeutic use of heat. It is a medical technique that involves the application of high-frequency electromagnetic currents to generate heat within body tissues. This heat can help in promoting blood circulation, reducing pain, and aiding in the healing process. Diathermy is commonly used in physical therapy and rehabilitation to treat various conditions such as muscle spasms, joint stiffness, and inflammation.

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• 2.

### The frequency, wavelength and velocity of SWD is

• A.

25.3 Mhz, 12m, 2x10 power of 7 m/s

• B.

27.12 Mhz, 11m, 3x10 power of 8 m/s

B. 27.12 Mhz, 11m, 3x10 power of 8 m/s
Explanation
The correct answer is 27.12 MHz, 11m, 3x10^8 m/s. This is because the frequency of SWD is given as 27.12 MHz, which represents the number of cycles per second. The wavelength is given as 11m, which represents the distance between two consecutive peaks or troughs of the wave. The velocity is given as 3x10^8 m/s, which represents the speed at which the wave propagates through the medium.

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• 3.

### Max efficiency in oscillation frequency btw patient circuit and machine circuit depends on

• A.

Tissue type

• B.

Bone density

• C.

Position of body parts

• D.

Position of diathermy electrodes

A. Tissue type
C. Position of body parts
D. Position of diathermy electrodes
Explanation
The efficiency of oscillation frequency between the patient circuit and machine circuit depends on three factors: tissue type, position of body parts, and position of diathermy electrodes. Tissue type refers to the composition and characteristics of the body tissues, which can affect how well the oscillation frequency is transmitted. The position of body parts is important as it determines the proximity and alignment of the patient circuit and machine circuit, affecting the efficiency of frequency transmission. Lastly, the position of diathermy electrodes plays a role in ensuring proper contact and alignment for optimal frequency transfer.

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• 4.

### Two different types of SWD are c__ field and i__ field

condenser induction
Explanation
The correct answer is "condenser induction" because it correctly identifies two different types of SWD, which are the "condenser field" and the "induction field". These are two distinct types of SWD that are used in different applications and have different characteristics.

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• 5.

### The difference btw the 2 SWD fields are

• A.

Types of energy emitted

• B.

Type of rotation and position of the eqpt

• C.

Type of electrode used during a diathermy application

A. Types of energy emitted
C. Type of electrode used during a diathermy application
Explanation
The correct answer is "types of energy emitted" and "type of electrode used during a diathermy application". This means that the two SWD (shortwave diathermy) fields differ in terms of the energy they emit and the type of electrode used during a diathermy application.

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• 6.

### The 2 types of biophysical principles for heating effects are e__ m__ field

electric magnetic
Explanation
The correct answer is "electric magnetic." This refers to the two types of biophysical principles that are involved in heating effects, which are the electric field and the magnetic field. Both of these fields can generate heat when they interact with biological tissues.

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• 7.

### The methods for heating effects using electric field are:. IO. DR. ECDThe amt of depolarization of polarizable molecules depends on DEC..

ionic oscillation dipole rotation electron cloud distortion di-electric constant
Explanation
The correct answer is IO, DR, ECD. The explanation for this answer is that the heating effects using an electric field involve ionic oscillation, dipole rotation, and electron cloud distortion. These processes occur in polarizable molecules and are influenced by the dielectric constant (DEC). The amount of depolarization of these molecules depends on these factors.

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• 8.

### Di-electric means

• A.

Ease with which the effect of a charge can be passed thru a material

• B.

Ease of polarization

A. Ease with which the effect of a charge can be passed thru a material
Explanation
The term "di-electric" refers to the ease with which the effect of a charge can be passed through a material. This means that a di-electric material allows for the easy transmission of electrical charge or energy. It is a measure of how well a material can conduct electricity or allow an electric field to pass through it.

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• 9.

### Di-electric constant means

• A.

Ease with which the effect of a charge can be passed thru a material

• B.

Ease of polarization

B. Ease of polarization
Explanation
The di-electric constant refers to the ease with which a material can be polarized. Polarization occurs when a material's atoms or molecules align in response to an electric field, creating a separation of positive and negative charges. The higher the di-electric constant, the easier it is for polarization to occur in the material. Therefore, the correct answer is "ease of polarization."

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• 10.

### A low impedance is due to

• A.

High dielectric constant, high conductivity

• B.

Low dielectric constant, low conductivity

A. High dielectric constant, high conductivity
Explanation
A low impedance is due to high dielectric constant and high conductivity. Impedance is a measure of the opposition to the flow of electric current in a circuit. A high dielectric constant indicates that the material has a high ability to store electrical energy, while high conductivity means that the material allows the flow of electric current easily. Both of these properties contribute to reducing the impedance in a circuit, allowing for efficient flow of current.

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• 11.

### A low dielectric constant & conductivity is = to

• A.

High water content, muscle nerve, blood vessels, internal organs & moist skin

• B.

Low water content, bone, capsule, ligaments, fat, dry skin

• C.

All of the above

B. Low water content, bone, capsule, ligaments, fat, dry skin
Explanation
A low dielectric constant and conductivity are characteristics that indicate low water content. Water has a high dielectric constant and conductivity, so materials with low water content, such as bone, capsule, ligaments, fat, and dry skin, have low dielectric constant and conductivity. On the other hand, high water content is associated with materials like muscle, nerve, blood vessels, internal organs, and moist skin, which have high dielectric constant and conductivity. Therefore, the correct answer is low water content, bone, capsule, ligaments, fat, dry skin.

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• 12.

### A high dielectric constant & conductivity is = to

• A.

High water content, muscle nerve, blood vessels, internal organs & moist skin

• B.

Low water content, bone, capsule, ligaments, fat, dry skin

• C.

All of the above

A. High water content, muscle nerve, blood vessels, internal organs & moist skin
Explanation
The correct answer is "high water content, muscle nerve, blood vessels, internal organs & moist skin." This is because materials with high dielectric constant and conductivity are good conductors of electricity. Water, muscle, blood vessels, internal organs, and moist skin have high water content, which makes them good conductors of electricity. On the other hand, materials with low water content such as bone, capsule, ligaments, fat, and dry skin have lower dielectric constant and conductivity, making them poorer conductors of electricity. Therefore, the correct answer includes the materials that have high water content and are good conductors of electricity.

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• 13.

### The electric field will

• A.

Converge onto substance with high dielectric constant

• B.

Converge onto substance with low dielectric constant

• C.

Diverge within substances with high dielectric constant

• D.

Diverge within substances with low dielectric constant

A. Converge onto substance with high dielectric constant
C. Diverge within substances with high dielectric constant
Explanation
The electric field will converge onto substances with high dielectric constant because these substances have a greater ability to store electrical energy. This causes the electric field lines to concentrate towards the high dielectric constant material. On the other hand, the electric field will diverge within substances with high dielectric constant because the electric field lines spread out due to the lower ability of these substances to store electrical energy.

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• 14.

### The closer/smaller the electrode, the more superficial & local the pattern of heating

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
The statement is true because the closer/smaller the electrode, the more concentrated the heat is in a specific area. This means that the heating effect will be more superficial and localized, affecting only the immediate surrounding tissue. In contrast, larger or more distant electrodes will distribute the heat over a larger area, resulting in a more generalized heating effect. Therefore, the size and proximity of the electrode play a crucial role in determining the pattern of heating.

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• 15.

### Pattern of heating is changed by altering the relationship of the electrode to each other

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
By altering the relationship of the electrode to each other, the pattern of heating can be changed. This suggests that the positioning or arrangement of the electrodes can affect how heat is distributed or concentrated. Therefore, the statement is true.

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• 16.

### The four types of electrode placement are:. T/CP. CP. L. CF

transverse contra-planar coplanar longitudinal cross fire
Explanation
The correct answer is the explanation of the four types of electrode placement. The four types are transverse, contra-planar, coplanar, longitudinal, and cross fire. These types refer to the arrangement of electrodes in relation to each other during a medical procedure or test. Transverse placement means the electrodes are positioned horizontally, contra-planar means they are placed on opposite sides of the body, coplanar means they are on the same plane, longitudinal means they are arranged vertically, and cross fire means they are positioned diagonally. These different placements allow for specific targeting and analysis of the body's electrical activity.

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• 17.

### The characteristics of contra-planar (plates in series) are

• A.

Current intensity is same in all parts of the series circuit

• B.

Current has a choice of path it can follow

• C.

The tissue with greatest molecular activity is elevated to the highest degree

• D.

Fat has higher impedance than muscle or bone

A. Current intensity is same in all parts of the series circuit
C. The tissue with greatest molecular activity is elevated to the highest degree
D. Fat has higher impedance than muscle or bone
Explanation
The given answer correctly identifies three characteristics of contra-planar (plates in series). The first characteristic is that the current intensity is the same in all parts of the series circuit. This means that the current flowing through each plate is equal. The second characteristic is that current has a choice of path it can follow. This means that the current can flow through different paths within the circuit. The third characteristic is that fat has higher impedance than muscle or bone. This means that fat resists the flow of current more than muscle or bone.

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• 18.

### The characteristics of co-planar (plates in parallel) are

• A.

Current intensity is same in all parts of the series circuit

• B.

Current has a choice of path it can follow

• C.

Heat produced depends on density of current

• D.

Always follow the path of least resistance

• E.

As more current flows through tissues of low impedance, more heat is generated in these tissues

B. Current has a choice of path it can follow
C. Heat produced depends on density of current
D. Always follow the path of least resistance
E. As more current flows through tissues of low impedance, more heat is generated in these tissues
Explanation
The characteristics of co-planar (plates in parallel) are that the current has a choice of path it can follow, the heat produced depends on the density of current, it always follows the path of least resistance, and as more current flows through tissues of low impedance, more heat is generated in these tissues.

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• 19.

### In induction field diathermy, the heating effects is done by

• A.

Using magnetic field

• B.

Induce an electrical current within body parts

• C.

Using an electric field

• D.

Made of metal that is shape into a coil

A. Using magnetic field
B. Induce an electrical current within body parts
D. Made of metal that is shape into a coil
Explanation
In induction field diathermy, the heating effects are achieved by using a magnetic field. This magnetic field is used to induce an electrical current within body parts. This is accomplished by using a metal coil that is shaped into a coil. When the magnetic field passes through the coil, it creates an electric current, which generates heat and causes the desired therapeutic effects.

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• 20.

### In induction field diathermy a low i__ conductor (body part) is placed with m__ field and a e__ current is induced called a e__ current

impedance magnetic electric eddy
Explanation
In induction field diathermy, a low impedance conductor (body part) is placed within a magnetic field, and an electric current is induced called an eddy current.

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• 21.

### The strength of the m__ field is u__: greatest current density is in lowest or highest impedance tissues

magnetic uniform lowest
Explanation
The strength of the magnetic field is greatest in tissues with the lowest impedance. The term "magnetic uniform lowest" suggests that the magnetic field is evenly distributed and has the least resistance in tissues with low impedance. This means that the current density, or the amount of current flowing through a given area, is highest in these tissues. Therefore, the correct answer is that the greatest current density is in tissues with the lowest impedance.

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• 22.

### Induction field diathermy is very effective for heating tissues with low conductivities & low electrolyte content, especially those well perfused with blood

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
it should be high conductivities & high electrolyte content

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• 23.

### There is high heat factor in fat, bone and collagen tissue as these have high conductivity as muscle

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
there is low heat factor and conductivity as muscle

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• 24.

### In principles of application for capacitor field the spacing of electrode

• A.

Must have wide spacing for uniform field

• B.

Strongest field closest to the conductor & weakens as it spreads out

• C.

If spacing is too large, deep tissues receive less heat

• D.

The depth for greatest absolute heating is 6 cm (2-9 cm)

• E.

The depth for greatest absolute heating is 4 cm (2-7 cm)

A. Must have wide spacing for uniform field
C. If spacing is too large, deep tissues receive less heat
E. The depth for greatest absolute heating is 4 cm (2-7 cm)
Explanation
The spacing of the electrode in the principles of application for a capacitor field must be wide in order to achieve a uniform field. If the spacing is too large, deep tissues receive less heat. The depth for the greatest absolute heating is between 2-7 cm.

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• 25.

### In principles of application for capacitor field the size of electrode

• A.

A little smaller than the part in order to achieve a uniform magnetic field

• B.

A little larger than the part in order to achieve a uniform electric field

• C.

If one is smaller than the other, the field tends to be concentrated on one side & dispersed on the other

• D.

If one is larger than the other, the field tends to be concentrated on one side & dispersed on the other

B. A little larger than the part in order to achieve a uniform electric field
D. If one is larger than the other, the field tends to be concentrated on one side & dispersed on the other
Explanation
The size of the electrode in principles of application for a capacitor field should be a little larger than the part in order to achieve a uniform electric field. If one electrode is larger than the other, the field tends to be concentrated on one side and dispersed on the other. This ensures that the electric field is evenly distributed across the capacitor, allowing for efficient operation.

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• 26.

### The position of electrodes relative to tissues should be p__ to the surface so the skin and electrode distance is c__.

parallel constant
Explanation
The position of electrodes relative to tissues should be parallel to the surface so the skin and electrode distance is constant. This means that the electrodes should be placed in such a way that they are parallel to the surface of the skin, ensuring that the distance between the skin and the electrodes remains constant. This is important for accurate measurements and to minimize any potential variations in the electrical signals being recorded.

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• 27.

### The characteristics of heat pattern in induction field are

• A.

Magnetic field pass through tissues easily

• B.

Strongest field are those close to the conductor and weakens as it spreads out

• C.

Most heating occurs in superficial tissues but not in fatty tissues

• D.

Cable must be 2-7 cm from skin

A. Magnetic field pass through tissues easily
B. Strongest field are those close to the conductor and weakens as it spreads out
C. Most heating occurs in superficial tissues but not in fatty tissues
Explanation
the cable must be 2-3 cm from skin

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• 28.

### In Technique of application the following must be done: . explain treatment . the part to be treated must be covered to avoid burns . thermal sensation tested & recorded . assess part to be treated . position & support part to be treated . test machine . select appropriate methods . no need for instruction to patients . switch on machine

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
all are correct except:

. part to be treated must be exposed
. re-assess machine

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• 29.

### The effects of continuous SWD are

• A.

Increase rate of cell metabolism

• B.

Increase blood supply

• C.

Relaxation of muscle

• D.

Relief of pain

• E.

Increase extensibility of fibrous tissue

• F.

Increase collagen deposition & organization

A. Increase rate of cell metabolism
B. Increase blood supply
C. Relaxation of muscle
D. Relief of pain
E. Increase extensibility of fibrous tissue
Explanation
Continuous SWD (shortwave diathermy) is a therapeutic modality that uses electromagnetic waves to provide various benefits. The increase in the rate of cell metabolism occurs due to the stimulation of cellular activity by the electromagnetic waves. This leads to an increased blood supply to the area, as the cells require more oxygen and nutrients for their increased metabolic activity. The relaxation of muscles occurs as the electromagnetic waves penetrate deep into the tissues, promoting muscle relaxation and reducing muscle tension. This, in turn, helps in relieving pain. Additionally, continuous SWD also increases the extensibility of fibrous tissue, making it more flexible, and stimulates collagen deposition and organization, aiding in tissue healing and repair.

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• 30.

### The indications for continuous SWD are

• A.

Relieve or reduce pain

• B.

Increase blood flow

• C.

Decrease oedema

• D.

Decrease & relieve muscle spasm

• E.

Increase tissue extensibility

• F.

Decrease feeling of stiffness

A. Relieve or reduce pain
B. Increase blood flow
C. Decrease oedema
D. Decrease & relieve muscle spasm
E. Increase tissue extensibility
F. Decrease feeling of stiffness
Explanation
All of the above is correct

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• 31.

### The contra-indications for continuous SWD are: metal implant implanted pacemaker impaired thermal sensation un-cooperative patient too young or too old pregnant uterus fracture ankle jointconditions where hemorrhage is likely to occurischaemic tissuesactive tuberculosis lesionactive venous thrombosispyrexic patient

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
all are correct except fracture ankle joint

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• 32.

### The correct dosage for Continuous SWD is

• A.

Power output of 55-500W

• B.

Power output of 55-400W

• C.

To heat tissue 37.5-55 deg C, 100-230 W

• D.

To heat tissue 37.5-44 deg C, 80-120 W

A. Power output of 55-500W
D. To heat tissue 37.5-44 deg C, 80-120 W
• 33.

### If energy is added to tissue faster than it can be dissipated what will happen to temp and physiological aspect

• A.

Temperature is loss as vasoconstriction cause heat to be removed

• B.

Temperature will rise which cause vasodilation to increase heat removal

B. Temperature will rise which cause vasodilation to increase heat removal
Explanation
Heat gain & loss will then be in balance at a new and higher local temp

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• 34.

### How long does it take for vascular adjustment to occur & reach a steady state?Ans: _ to _ mins

15 20
Explanation
Vascular adjustment refers to the process in which blood vessels in the body adapt to changes in blood flow and pressure. It involves the dilation or constriction of blood vessels to maintain a steady state. The given answer range of 15 to 20 minutes suggests that it takes approximately this amount of time for vascular adjustment to occur and reach a steady state. This means that after an initial change in blood flow or pressure, it takes about 15 to 20 minutes for the blood vessels to fully adapt and stabilize.

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• 35.

### For acute, chronic disorder and treatment of sinusitis, the time limits are

• A.

17 for acute, 25 for chronic and sinusitis acute sensation is perceptible warmth, chronic mild warmth same as chronic time treatment

• B.

15 for acute, 20 for chronic and sinusitis acute sensation is perceptible warmth, chronic mild warmth same as chronic time treatment

B. 15 for acute, 20 for chronic and sinusitis acute sensation is perceptible warmth, chronic mild warmth same as chronic time treatment
• 36.

### The dosage for acute, sub-acute and chronic conditions are:Values are for Mean Power and Time Limit for each category

• A.

1W, 11-15 mins : 3 & 6 W, 20 mins : >7W, 12-17 mins

• B.

3W, 10-15 mins : 2 & 5 W, 15 mins : >5W, 15-20 mins

B. 3W, 10-15 mins : 2 & 5 W, 15 mins : >5W, 15-20 mins
Explanation
The correct answer is 3W, 10-15 mins : 2 & 5 W, 15 mins : >5W, 15-20 mins. This answer is based on the given dosage values for each category of conditions. For acute conditions, the dosage is 3W (3 watts) for 10-15 minutes, and for sub-acute conditions, the dosage is 2W (2 watts) for 15 minutes. For chronic conditions, the dosage is 5W (5 watts) for 15 minutes. Additionally, for acute conditions, the time limit is 15-20 minutes, while for sub-acute and chronic conditions, the time limit is 15-20 minutes. Therefore, the given answer correctly represents the dosage for each category of conditions.

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• 37.

### In pulse mode SWD the heat  generated is dissipated during which period

• A.

On

• B.

Off

B. Off
Explanation
In pulse mode SWD, the heat generated is dissipated during the Off period. During the Off period, the power supply to the device is turned off, allowing the generated heat to dissipate. This helps in preventing overheating and potential damage to the device.

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• 38.

### The experimental effect of pulse SWD are

• A.

Wound healing

• B.

Acceleration of nerve regeneration

• C.

No diference

A. Wound healing
B. Acceleration of nerve regeneration
Explanation
The experimental effect of pulse SWD includes wound healing and acceleration of nerve regeneration. This means that when pulse SWD is applied, it can promote the healing of wounds and enhance the regeneration of nerves. The statement "no difference" is not applicable here as it contradicts the given effects of pulse SWD.

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• 39.

### The clinical effect of pulse SWD are

• A.

Resolve bruising & swelling

• B.

Acceleration of nerve regeneration

• C.

No difference (btw placebo & PSWD)

• D.

Healing of donor sites of skin grafts (7 days)

• E.

Reduction of pain, swelling and disability (within 1st 7 days) but no placebo

• F.

Increase rate of healing (post dental surgery)

A. Resolve bruising & swelling
C. No difference (btw placebo & PSWD)
D. Healing of donor sites of skin grafts (7 days)
E. Reduction of pain, swelling and disability (within 1st 7 days) but no placebo
F. Increase rate of healing (post dental surgery)
Explanation
The clinical effects of pulse SWD include resolving bruising and swelling, healing of donor sites of skin grafts within 7 days, reducing pain, swelling, and disability within the first 7 days (with no placebo effect), and increasing the rate of healing after dental surgery. There is no difference in the effects between placebo and PSWD.

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• 40.

### The main effects of PSWD are

• A.

Increase number & activity of cells in injured region

• B.

Aids reabsorption of haematoma

• C.

Reduce inflammation

• D.

Reduce swelling

• E.

Increase rate of fibrin deposition & orientation

• F.

Increase pain threshold

• G.

Increase collagen deposition & organization

• H.

Increase nerve growth

A. Increase number & activity of cells in injured region
B. Aids reabsorption of haematoma
C. Reduce inflammation
D. Reduce swelling
E. Increase rate of fibrin deposition & orientation
G. Increase collagen deposition & organization
H. Increase nerve growth
Explanation
The main effects of PSWD include increasing the number and activity of cells in the injured region, aiding in the reabsorption of hematoma, reducing inflammation and swelling, increasing the rate of fibrin deposition and orientation, increasing collagen deposition and organization, and promoting nerve growth.

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• 41.

### The therapeutic uses of PSWD are:

• A.

All tissue trauma (accidental & post-operative)

• B.

Healing of donor sites

• C.

Acute infection (paranasal sinusitis)

• D.

Subacute & chronic infections

• E.

Early peripheral nerve lesion

• F.

Pain (variety of condition, including phantom limb pain, degenerative arthritis, osteoporosis)

A. All tissue trauma (accidental & post-operative)
C. Acute infection (paranasal sinusitis)
D. Subacute & chronic infections
E. Early peripheral nerve lesion
F. Pain (variety of condition, including phantom limb pain, degenerative arthritis, osteoporosis)
Explanation
The therapeutic uses of PSWD include treating all tissue trauma (both accidental and post-operative), healing of donor sites, acute infection such as paranasal sinusitis, subacute and chronic infections, early peripheral nerve lesions, and pain management for a variety of conditions including phantom limb pain, degenerative arthritis, and osteoporosis. PSWD can be effective in promoting healing, reducing infection, and alleviating pain in these different scenarios.

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• 42.

### The contraindications for PSWD are:

• A.

No significant heating, low avg power applied by very short pulses -- no danger of burn due to concentration of field by water/metal

• B.

Treatment is relatively, not absolutely, athermal

• C.

Longer pulses given at higher frequencies can lead to heating and hence burn

• D.

Due to unknown mode of action

• E.

Rapidly dividing tissues (foetus/uncontrolled growth of pre-cancerous tissues/neoplasm)

• F.

Hypertension

• G.

Tuberculosis

• H.

Seriously hyper-pyrexic patients

• I.

Patient with cardiac pacemaker

• J.

Patient with hearingaids & other electronic equipment

A. No significant heating, low avg power applied by very short pulses -- no danger of burn due to concentration of field by water/metal
B. Treatment is relatively, not absolutely, athermal
C. Longer pulses given at higher frequencies can lead to heating and hence burn
D. Due to unknown mode of action
E. Rapidly dividing tissues (foetus/uncontrolled growth of pre-cancerous tissues/neoplasm)
G. Tuberculosis
H. Seriously hyper-pyrexic patients
I. Patient with cardiac pacemaker
J. Patient with hearingaids & other electronic equipment
Explanation
The contraindications for PSWD include the following:
- No significant heating: The low average power applied by very short pulses reduces the risk of burns due to the concentration of the field by water or metal.
- Treatment is relatively, not absolutely, athermal: PSWD treatment may involve some degree of heating, but it is not considered to be a significant factor.
- Longer pulses given at higher frequencies can lead to heating and hence burn: When longer pulses are used at higher frequencies, there is a higher risk of heating and potential burns.
- Unknown mode of action: The exact mechanism of how PSWD works is not fully understood, which may present risks in certain cases.
- Rapidly dividing tissues (foetus/uncontrolled growth of pre-cancerous tissues/neoplasm): PSWD may not be suitable for patients with rapidly dividing tissues, such as a developing fetus or uncontrolled growth of pre-cancerous tissues.
- Tuberculosis: Patients with tuberculosis may have compromised immune systems and should avoid PSWD treatment.
- Seriously hyper-pyrexic patients: Patients with high fever may not be suitable candidates for PSWD treatment.
- Patient with cardiac pacemaker: PSWD may interfere with the function of a cardiac pacemaker, posing risks to the patient.
- Patient with hearing aids & other electronic equipment: PSWD may interfere with the function of hearing aids and other electronic equipment, making it unsuitable for patients using such devices.

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• 43.

### Application of PSWD. both i__ & c__ electrode can be used as for PSWD. patient feels sensation of warmth - NO or YES. visual display of output to be shown using a f__ t__

inductive capacitative no fluorescent tube
Explanation
The correct answer is "inductive capacitative no fluorescent tube." This means that for the application of PSWD (possibly referring to a medical procedure or device), both the inductive and capacitative electrodes can be used. The patient may feel a sensation of warmth during the procedure. The visual display of the output should be shown using a fluorescent tube.

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• 44.

### For non thermal treatment the dosage will be

• A.

>25 W

• B.

< 25 W

B. < 25 W
Explanation
The given answer "< 25 W" suggests that the dosage for non thermal treatment will be less than 25 watts. This implies that the power or energy used in the treatment process will be below 25 watts, indicating a lower intensity or level of treatment.

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• 45.

### For  thermal treatment the dosage will be

• A.

>25 W

• B.

< 25 W

A. >25 W

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• Aug 30, 2023
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• Jan 03, 2011
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