Cx510-3: Theories And Techniques Of Counseling And Psychotherapy - Final Exam

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Final Exam for CX510


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which answer is NOT one of the four common therapy factors identified by Lambert in his empirical analysis of common therapy factors?

    • A.

      Techniques

    • B.

      Therapeutic relationship

    • C.

      Determination

    • D.

      Expectancy

    Correct Answer
    C. Determination
    Explanation
    In his empirical analysis of common therapy factors, Lambert identified four factors that contribute to successful therapy. These factors are techniques, therapeutic relationship, expectancy, and determination. Therefore, determination is not one of the four common therapy factors identified by Lambert.

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  • 2. 

    For the most part, early treatments for human distress and disturbance consisted of a combination of:

    • A.

      Medical-biological procedures

    • B.

      Spiritual procedures

    • C.

      Psychosocial procedures

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Early treatments for human distress and disturbance encompassed a comprehensive approach that included medical-biological procedures, spiritual procedures, and psychosocial procedures. This means that individuals sought relief through a combination of physical, spiritual, and psychological interventions. Medical-biological procedures may have involved the use of medications or physical treatments, while spiritual procedures could include rituals or practices to address spiritual well-being. Psychosocial procedures likely involved therapy or counseling to address psychological and social factors contributing to distress. The inclusion of all these approaches highlights the multifaceted nature of early treatments for human distress.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following statements is true about the differences between counseling and psychotherapy?

    • A.

      Counselors and psychotherapists engage in very different sorts of behaviors.

    • B.

      Counselors and psychotherapists engage in the same behaviors, but in different proportions

    • C.

      Counselors tend to work on deeper issues, including unconscious processes.

    • D.

      Psychotherapy is an outdated term that is no longer used.

    Correct Answer
    B. Counselors and psychotherapists engage in the same behaviors, but in different proportions
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that counselors and psychotherapists engage in the same behaviors, but in different proportions. This means that both counselors and psychotherapists use similar techniques and interventions in their practice, but they may emphasize different aspects or approaches based on their training and theoretical orientation. While counselors may focus on addressing immediate concerns and providing guidance, psychotherapists may delve deeper into unconscious processes and work on long-standing issues. The answer highlights the overlapping nature of counseling and psychotherapy while acknowledging the differences in emphasis and scope.

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  • 4. 

    Having a reasonable theory and using it faithfully is one of the best ways to:

    • A.

      Develop a positive working relationship

    • B.

      Create expectancy or placebo effects

    • C.

      Have a fistful of techniques to use with your clients

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Having a reasonable theory and using it faithfully is one of the best ways to achieve all the mentioned outcomes. By having a well-founded theory and applying it consistently, a therapist can develop a positive working relationship with their clients. This can create trust, rapport, and a sense of collaboration, which are essential for effective therapy. Additionally, having a theoretical framework allows therapists to create expectancy or placebo effects, as clients may have greater belief in the effectiveness of the treatment. Finally, a theoretical foundation provides therapists with a range of techniques and strategies to apply in their practice, enhancing their ability to help clients.

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  • 5. 

     Informed consent includes the practice of:

    • A.

      Letting the client know about and consent to the ways you intend to work with them.

    • B.

      Trust building with the client.

    • C.

      Limiting how well a client will do in therapy.

    • D.

      Getting permission from a superior to counsel a client.

    Correct Answer
    A. Letting the client know about and consent to the ways you intend to work with them.
    Explanation
    Informed consent is an ethical and legal requirement in counseling and therapy. It involves informing the client about the nature, purpose, and potential risks and benefits of therapy, as well as the therapist's approach and techniques. By letting the client know about and consent to the ways the therapist intends to work with them, it ensures that the client is fully aware and has the opportunity to make an informed decision about their treatment. This promotes transparency, respect for autonomy, and a collaborative therapeutic relationship between the therapist and client.

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  • 6. 

     Metaphorically speaking, many theories books claim that ____________ is the father of modern psychotherapy.

    • A.

      Alfred Adler

    • B.

      Sigmund Freud

    • C.

      Pierre Janet

    • D.

      Carl Jung

    Correct Answer
    B. Sigmund Freud
    Explanation
    Sigmund Freud is often referred to as the father of modern psychotherapy because he developed the psychoanalytic theory, which had a significant impact on the field of psychology. Freud's theories, such as the concept of the unconscious mind, the importance of childhood experiences, and the use of free association, revolutionized the understanding and treatment of mental disorders. His work laid the foundation for many subsequent theories and therapeutic approaches in psychotherapy.

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  • 7. 

    According to Lambert, which of the following common therapeutic factors accounts for the most therapeutic change?

    • A.

      Extra-therapeutic change

    • B.

      The therapeutic relationship

    • C.

      Expectancy

    • D.

      Techniques

    Correct Answer
    A. Extra-therapeutic change
    Explanation
    Extra-therapeutic change refers to the factors outside of therapy that contribute to therapeutic improvement. This could include events or experiences in a person's life that lead to personal growth or positive change. Lambert suggests that extra-therapeutic change accounts for the most therapeutic improvement, indicating that factors such as life circumstances and personal development play a significant role in the success of therapy.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following major theoretical perspectives holds individuals responsible for their thoughts and behaviors that directly influence their feelings and physiology? (Hint: therapy focuses exclusively on the present)

    • A.

      Constructivistic Theory

    • B.

      Behavioral Theory

    • C.

      Person-Centered Theory

    • D.

      Reality Theory/Choice Theory

    Correct Answer
    D. Reality Theory/Choice Theory
    Explanation
    Reality Theory/Choice Theory holds individuals responsible for their thoughts and behaviors that directly influence their feelings and physiology. This theory emphasizes personal choice and responsibility, suggesting that individuals have the power to make choices that can lead to positive change in their lives. It focuses on the present moment and encourages individuals to take ownership of their actions and their impact on their own well-being. By recognizing that individuals have control over their thoughts and behaviors, this theory promotes personal growth and empowerment.

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  • 9. 

    Mary Smith and Gene Glass developed a new statistical method for evaluating the efficacy of therapy by pooling together and obtaining an overall average effect size obtained from outcome measures across a diverse range of therapy research studies.  This approach is called:

    • A.

      Linear Regression Analysis

    • B.

      Meta-Analysis

    • C.

      Meta-cognition

    • D.

      Double-blind statistical modeling

    Correct Answer
    B. Meta-Analysis
    Explanation
    Mary Smith and Gene Glass developed a new statistical method called Meta-Analysis. This method involves pooling together and obtaining an overall average effect size from outcome measures across a diverse range of therapy research studies. It is used for evaluating the efficacy of therapy and is a widely used approach in research and evidence-based practice.

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  • 10. 

      ___________ is central to successful counseling and psychotherapy.

    • A.

      A large office

    • B.

      A comfortable couch

    • C.

      Confidentiality

    • D.

      A power differential

    Correct Answer
    C. Confidentiality
    Explanation
    Confidentiality is central to successful counseling and psychotherapy because it creates a safe and trusting environment for clients to freely express their thoughts, feelings, and concerns. It ensures that the information shared during therapy sessions is kept private and not disclosed without the client's consent. This allows clients to be open and honest, knowing that their personal information will be protected. Confidentiality also helps build a strong therapeutic alliance between the client and therapist, promoting effective communication and facilitating the therapeutic process.

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  • 11. 

    The “Dodo Bird Effect” in chapter one indicates that:

    • A.

      Gestalt therapy has been thoroughly researched and been proven to be more effective than all of the other therapies

    • B.

      Alice expressed in her unconscious that she really was sexually attracted to the Dodo bird

    • C.

      Different therapist theoretical orientation and different techniques do not produce different results

    • D.

      There is always a power differential between client and therapist

    Correct Answer
    C. Different therapist theoretical orientation and different techniques do not produce different results
    Explanation
    The "Dodo Bird Effect" refers to the finding that different therapeutic approaches and techniques tend to have similar outcomes or effectiveness. This means that regardless of the specific theoretical orientation or techniques used by therapists, the results or benefits of therapy are generally comparable. This suggests that the specific approach or technique is not the most important factor in therapy, but rather the therapeutic relationship and other common factors are more influential in producing positive outcomes.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following is true about defense mechanisms?

    • A.

      They are automatic

    • B.

      They are conscious

    • C.

      They help clients view reality more accurately

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      Only a and b

    Correct Answer
    A. They are automatic
    Explanation
    Defense mechanisms are automatic psychological processes that operate unconsciously. They are mechanisms that individuals use to protect themselves from anxiety, distress, or threats to their self-esteem. These mechanisms operate without conscious awareness, meaning that individuals are not actively aware of using them. Therefore, the statement "They are automatic" is a true statement about defense mechanisms.

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  • 13. 

    A boy and a girl aged 11 are constantly bickering, and say that they hate each other.  Yet you suspect that they actually like each other.  Their behavior is an example of:

    • A.

      Denial

    • B.

      Reaction formation

    • C.

      Repression

    • D.

      Sublimation

    Correct Answer
    B. Reaction formation
    Explanation
    Reaction formation is a defense mechanism where a person behaves in a way that is opposite to their true feelings or desires. In this case, the boy and girl constantly bickering and saying that they hate each other could be a form of reaction formation, where they express dislike towards each other to hide their true feelings of liking each other. This behavior serves as a defense mechanism to protect themselves from vulnerability or rejection.

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  • 14. 

     A therapist finds herself feeling excessively and uncharacteristically irritated while listening to a client.  This is an example of:

    • A.

      Projection

    • B.

      Transference

    • C.

      Countertransference

    • D.

      Aggression

    Correct Answer
    C. Countertransference
    Explanation
    Countertransference is the term used to describe the therapist's emotional reaction towards a client that is based on the therapist's own unresolved issues or feelings. In this scenario, the therapist is experiencing excessive and uncharacteristic irritation while listening to the client, which suggests that the therapist's reaction is influenced by their own personal experiences or unresolved emotions. This is a common phenomenon in therapy and it is important for therapists to be aware of their countertransference reactions in order to provide effective and unbiased treatment.

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  • 15. 

    The main purpose of psychoanalytic therapy is to:

    • A.

      Transfer all of our maladaptive behaviors to the therapist

    • B.

      Identify our sexual cravings and desires

    • C.

      Help us slowly become aware of unconscious impulses

    • D.

      Realize the role culture and socialization has on our development

    Correct Answer
    C. Help us slowly become aware of unconscious impulses
    Explanation
    Psychoanalytic therapy aims to help individuals gradually become aware of their unconscious impulses. This therapeutic approach, developed by Sigmund Freud, focuses on exploring the unconscious mind and bringing repressed thoughts, feelings, and memories into conscious awareness. By gaining insight into these unconscious impulses, individuals can better understand the root causes of their behaviors, emotions, and conflicts, leading to personal growth and psychological healing. This process involves techniques such as free association, dream analysis, and interpretation of transference and resistance.

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  • 16. 

    According to the ‘basic rule’ of Psychoanalysis, a therapist might start a session by saying:

    • A.

      This is what I have in mind today for our first session.

    • B.

      Why did you come in to see me today?

    • C.

      What kinds of problems are you trying to work through?

    • D.

      Say whatever comes to mind.

    Correct Answer
    D. Say whatever comes to mind.
    Explanation
    This answer is correct because the 'basic rule' of Psychoanalysis encourages the patient to freely associate and express their thoughts and feelings without censorship or judgment. By saying "Say whatever comes to mind," the therapist is inviting the patient to speak openly and without restraint, allowing for the exploration of unconscious thoughts and emotions that may be contributing to their problems. This technique is known as free association and is a fundamental aspect of psychoanalytic therapy.

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  • 17. 

    According to Freud a fixation or complex is _____________.

    • A.

      Unacceptable

    • B.

      An unresolved unconscious conflict

    • C.

      A cigar

    • D.

      A swirling in the unconscious

    Correct Answer
    B. An unresolved unconscious conflict
    Explanation
    Freud believed that a fixation or complex refers to an unresolved unconscious conflict. This means that an individual's development becomes stuck or fixated at a certain stage due to unresolved issues or conflicts from their past. These unresolved conflicts continue to influence their behavior and personality in adulthood. Freud believed that resolving these conflicts through therapy is necessary for personal growth and development.

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  • 18. 

    Which of Freud’s Ego Defense Mechanisms is characteristic of a client being afraid to express aggression toward someone, so instead they may behave in an excessively loving manner?

    • A.

      Rationalization

    • B.

      Denial

    • C.

      Anger Management

    • D.

      Reaction Formation

    Correct Answer
    D. Reaction Formation
    Explanation
    Reaction Formation is a defense mechanism in which a person behaves in a way that is the opposite of their true feelings or desires. In this case, the client is afraid to express aggression towards someone, so instead they behave in an excessively loving manner. This is a form of reaction formation because they are expressing the opposite of their true feelings of aggression.

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  • 19. 

     If a client irrationally believed his/her therapist was being critical and judgmental this would be an example of :

    • A.

      Displacement

    • B.

      Countertransference

    • C.

      Denial

    • D.

      Transference

    Correct Answer
    D. Transference
    Explanation
    Transference refers to the process where a person unconsciously transfers feelings and emotions from past relationships onto a current relationship or situation. In this case, the client's irrational belief that the therapist is being critical and judgmental is likely a result of unresolved emotions or experiences from previous relationships being projected onto the therapist. This can hinder the therapeutic process as it may distort the client's perception and affect the therapeutic relationship.

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  • 20. 

     If you were a psychoanalytic therapist, which statement would best fit your theoretical approach?

    • A.

      Tune in and tell me what you're feeling right now

    • B.

      What kind of dream did you want to discuss?

    • C.

      Say whatever comes to mind

    • D.

      What happened next?

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Say whatever comes to mind
    Explanation
    As a psychoanalytic therapist, the statement "Say whatever comes to mind" would best fit your theoretical approach. This approach is based on the belief that the unconscious mind plays a significant role in shaping thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. By encouraging the client to freely express their thoughts and associations without censorship, the therapist can gain insight into the unconscious conflicts and desires that may be influencing the client's psychological well-being. This technique is known as free association and is a fundamental aspect of psychoanalysis.

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  • 21. 

    A preoccupation with money, dirt, and time would likely be a result of a fixation at the __________ stage of development.

    • A.

      Phallic

    • B.

      Latency

    • C.

      Oral

    • D.

      Anal

    • E.

      Genital

    Correct Answer
    D. Anal
    Explanation
    A preoccupation with money, dirt, and time is characteristic of the anal stage of development. During this stage, which occurs between the ages of 1 to 3 years, children focus on gaining control over their bowel movements and toilet training. They may develop an excessive concern with cleanliness and orderliness, leading to a fixation on money (as a symbol of control), dirt (as something to be avoided), and time (as a way to regulate their bodily functions).

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  • 22. 

     In the midst of a psychoanalytic oriented counseling session, Mr. Green, a client of Dr. Sommers, begins sucking his thumb and then runs from the office screaming, “I want my mommmmmmy.” Which defense mechanism seems to be operating here?

    • A.

      Reaction formation

    • B.

      Projection

    • C.

      Sublimation

    • D.

      Denial

    • E.

      Regression

    Correct Answer
    E. Regression
    Explanation
    Regression is the defense mechanism that seems to be operating in this scenario. Regression involves reverting back to an earlier stage of development in order to deal with anxiety or stress. In this case, Mr. Green's behavior of sucking his thumb and running from the office while calling for his mother indicates a return to a more childlike and dependent state, which can be seen as a way to cope with the overwhelming emotions he is experiencing in the counseling session.

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  • 23. 

     In Adlerian therapy, a goal for many clients is

    • A.

      Finding cause and effect relationships that impact personal decisions

    • B.

      Developing social interest or responsibility

    • C.

      Delve into childhood memories to uncover the problems at hand

    • D.

      Solve the Rubik's cube quandary

    Correct Answer
    B. Developing social interest or responsibility
    Explanation
    In Adlerian therapy, the goal for many clients is to develop social interest or responsibility. This means that the therapist aims to help clients become more aware of their connection to others and the world around them. By developing social interest, clients can learn to prioritize the well-being of others and contribute positively to their communities. This goal is central to Adlerian therapy as it emphasizes the importance of social connectedness and cooperation in promoting mental health and well-being.

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  • 24. 

    Alfred Adler is credited with being the founder of:

    • A.

      Individual Psychology

    • B.

      Object Relations Theory

    • C.

      Cognitive Therapy

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Individual Psychology
    Explanation
    Alfred Adler is credited with being the founder of Individual Psychology. This psychological approach focuses on understanding individuals as unique beings with their own subjective experiences and motivations. It emphasizes the importance of social relationships and the influence of childhood experiences in shaping an individual's personality. Adler believed that individuals strive for a sense of belonging and significance, and that psychological problems arise when these needs are not met. He also introduced concepts such as the inferiority complex and the importance of birth order in shaping personality.

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  • 25. 

     What technique would an Adlerian therapist be using if he suggested to his client who is wishing for greater self-confidence:  “Tomorrow, how about if you try to pretend for the day that you were filled with self-confidence?”

    • A.

      Creating new images

    • B.

      Push-button technique

    • C.

      'As-if' technique

    • D.

      Paradoxical strategy

    Correct Answer
    C. 'As-if' technique
    Explanation
    The Adlerian therapist is suggesting the 'As-if' technique to the client. This technique involves the client pretending or acting as if they already possess the desired quality, in this case, self-confidence. By behaving as if they are already confident, the client can gradually internalize this behavior and develop genuine self-confidence over time. This technique helps the client to step out of their comfort zone and practice new behaviors, which can ultimately lead to personal growth and increased self-confidence.

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  • 26. 

    Which three life tasks did Adler believe individuals must face in the world?

    • A.

      Work and occupation; social relationships; love and marriage

    • B.

      Education; work and occupation; love and marriage

    • C.

      Education; work; social relationships

    • D.

      Social relationships; work and occupation; death

    Correct Answer
    A. Work and occupation; social relationships; love and marriage
    Explanation
    Adler believed that individuals must face three life tasks in the world: work and occupation, social relationships, and love and marriage. These tasks are essential for personal growth and fulfillment. Work and occupation provide a sense of purpose and contribute to one's identity and self-worth. Social relationships are important for building connections, support systems, and a sense of belonging. Love and marriage involve forming intimate relationships and experiencing emotional fulfillment. These tasks are interconnected and play a significant role in an individual's overall well-being and satisfaction in life.

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  • 27. 

     Adler's "life-style" could be defined as

    • A.

      An individual's cognitive organization of early experiences

    • B.

      A person's career choice patterns

    • C.

      The person's spontaneity level

    • D.

      All three (a, b, and c) are accurate definitions

    • E.

      None of the above are correct

    Correct Answer
    A. An individual's cognitive organization of early experiences
    Explanation
    Adler's "life-style" refers to an individual's cognitive organization of early experiences. This means that it encompasses the way a person interprets and makes sense of their early life events, which then shapes their behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs. This definition focuses on how early experiences influence an individual's overall psychological makeup and the way they navigate the world.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following is NOT an archetype described by Jung?

    • A.

      Persona

    • B.

      Shadow

    • C.

      Object

    • D.

      Self

    Correct Answer
    C. Object
  • 29. 

    The ultimate goal of Jungian analysis is:

    • A.

      Individuation

    • B.

      Retroflection

    • C.

      Assimilation

    • D.

      Sublimation

    Correct Answer
    A. Individuation
    Explanation
    Jungian analysis aims to achieve individuation, which refers to the process of integrating and harmonizing all aspects of one's personality, including the conscious and unconscious elements. It involves self-discovery, self-acceptance, and the development of a unique and authentic self. Through this process, individuals strive to become whole and balanced, embracing their true selves and fulfilling their potential. Individuation is a central concept in Jungian psychology and is considered the ultimate goal of Jungian analysis.

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  • 30. 

    According to Jung, this is a shared pool of motives, urges, fears, and potentialities that we inherit by being human.

    • A.

      Transcendence

    • B.

      Collective unconscious

    • C.

      Intuition

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Collective unconscious
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Collective unconscious". According to Jung, the collective unconscious refers to a shared pool of motives, urges, fears, and potentialities that are inherited by all humans. It is believed to be a reservoir of ancestral memories and experiences that influence our behavior and perception. This concept suggests that there are universal symbols and archetypes that are present in the unconscious mind of every individual, regardless of their culture or upbringing.

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  • 31. 

    Both Jung and Freud believed that the key to psychological healing was to _______.

    • A.

      Interpret your dreams

    • B.

      Determine your archetype

    • C.

      Make the unconscious, conscious

    • D.

      Free-association

    Correct Answer
    C. Make the unconscious, conscious
    Explanation
    Both Jung and Freud believed that the key to psychological healing was to make the unconscious, conscious. This means that they both emphasized the importance of bringing hidden or repressed thoughts, feelings, and memories into conscious awareness. By doing so, individuals can gain insight into their inner conflicts, unresolved issues, and unconscious motivations, leading to a deeper understanding of themselves and ultimately promoting psychological healing. This process often involves techniques such as dream analysis, free-association, and exploring archetypes, which can help uncover and make conscious the unconscious aspects of the mind.

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  • 32. 

    Persons who have a small circle of friends, enjoy spending time alone, and rejuvenate with alone time rather than hanging out with their buddies, according to Jungian personality types could be considered

    • A.

      Weird

    • B.

      Judgmental

    • C.

      Introverted

    • D.

      Hiding something

    • E.

      Fun to be around

    Correct Answer
    C. Introverted
    Explanation
    Persons who have a small circle of friends, enjoy spending time alone, and rejuvenate with alone time rather than hanging out with their buddies, according to Jungian personality types could be considered introverted. This means that they tend to focus more on their inner thoughts and feelings, and find solitude to be energizing rather than draining. They may prefer quiet activities and introspection over socializing, and this is a characteristic commonly associated with introverted individuals.

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  • 33. 

    Jungians believe dreams are:

    • A.

      Disturbing to your dream patterns

    • B.

      Hard to remember in the morning

    • C.

      An aspect that you have fully 'arrived'

    • D.

      Central to establisihng the dialectic between your consciousness and unconsciousness

    • E.

      Unimportant

    Correct Answer
    D. Central to establisihng the dialectic between your consciousness and unconsciousness
    Explanation
    Jungians believe that dreams are central to establishing the dialectic between your consciousness and unconsciousness. This means that dreams play a crucial role in bridging the gap between the conscious and unconscious mind, allowing for a deeper understanding of oneself. Dreams are seen as a reflection of the unconscious mind, providing insights, symbols, and messages that can help individuals explore their inner selves and gain self-awareness. By analyzing and interpreting dreams, individuals can uncover hidden aspects of their psyche and promote personal growth and integration.

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  • 34. 

    According to Jung, universally shared motives, urges, fears, myths and symbols that are universally shared by all members of the human race are called:

    • A.

      Complexes

    • B.

      Collective unconscious

    • C.

      Personal unconscious

    • D.

      Archetypes

    Correct Answer
    D. Archetypes
    Explanation
    Archetypes are universally shared motives, urges, fears, myths, and symbols that are present in the collective unconscious of all individuals. These archetypes are inherited and are a part of the human psyche. They represent common patterns of behavior, thoughts, and emotions that are shared across cultures and time. Archetypes help to shape our experiences and influence our behavior, often manifesting in dreams, myths, and cultural symbols.

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  • 35. 

    For existentialists, the best and most direct route to personal empowerment is:

    • A.

      Acceptance of past failures

    • B.

      Understanding that other people play a role in our individual success and failures

    • C.

      Awareness of personal responsibilities

    • D.

      Identifying future goals

    Correct Answer
    C. Awareness of personal responsibilities
    Explanation
    Existentialists believe that personal empowerment can be achieved through awareness of personal responsibilities. This means recognizing and accepting that individuals have control over their own actions and choices, and taking responsibility for the consequences that result from them. By being aware of their own agency and the impact they have on their own lives, existentialists believe individuals can take charge of their own destiny and find meaning and fulfillment. This perspective emphasizes personal accountability and self-determination as the key to empowerment.

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  • 36. 

     In contrast to Gestalt therapists, purely existential therapists tend to:

    • A.

      Focus on the relationship rather than techniques

    • B.

      Use techniques such as the empty chair experiment, and playing the projection

    • C.

      Are incurable optimists

    • D.

      Think psychopathology is inherited

    Correct Answer
    A. Focus on the relationship rather than techniques
    Explanation
    Purely existential therapists tend to focus on the relationship rather than techniques. This means that they prioritize the therapeutic alliance and the connection between the therapist and the client, rather than relying heavily on specific therapeutic techniques or interventions. They believe that the quality of the therapeutic relationship is crucial for facilitating personal growth and self-awareness in the client. By emphasizing the relationship, existential therapists aim to create a safe and supportive space for clients to explore their thoughts, feelings, and existential concerns.

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  • 37. 

     The _______ involves the deepest of all possible connections between two individuals.

    • A.

      Therapeutic relationship

    • B.

      I-Thou relationship

    • C.

      Interpersonal relationship

    • D.

      Client confidentiality

    Correct Answer
    B. I-Thou relationship
    Explanation
    The I-Thou relationship involves the deepest of all possible connections between two individuals. This concept, introduced by philosopher Martin Buber, refers to a relationship where individuals fully engage with each other as unique and valuable beings, recognizing their shared humanity. It is a relationship characterized by mutual respect, empathy, and a genuine desire to understand and connect with the other person on a deep level. In this type of relationship, individuals see each other as subjects rather than objects, fostering a sense of authenticity and meaningful connection.

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  • 38. 

     One of the four ultimate concerns for the existentialist is freedom. A primary burden of freedom is

    • A.

      Freedom is control by my unconscious, therefore I have no control over it

    • B.

      I am my choices, and if I am free, I am responsible for my choices

    • C.

      I can point the blame for my choices on every other person except for myself because they too are free

    • D.

      I have no meaning in my life and am free to do whatever I want.

    Correct Answer
    B. I am my choices, and if I am free, I am responsible for my choices
    Explanation
    The correct answer emphasizes the existentialist belief that freedom comes with the responsibility of making choices. According to existentialism, individuals are defined by the choices they make and are fully responsible for the consequences of those choices. This perspective rejects the idea of blaming others or external factors for one's actions and emphasizes personal accountability. It suggests that freedom is not just about having the ability to do whatever one wants, but also about taking ownership of one's decisions and their impact on one's life.

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  • 39. 

     Gestalt therapy approaches primarily utilize ___________ to facilitate client self-assessment and discovery?

    • A.

      Reflection

    • B.

      Listening

    • C.

      Written tests

    • D.

      Confrontation

    Correct Answer
    D. Confrontation
    Explanation
    Gestalt therapy approaches primarily utilize confrontation to facilitate client self-assessment and discovery. Confrontation in this context refers to the therapist challenging the client's beliefs, behaviors, or inconsistencies in order to bring them into awareness. This technique encourages the client to confront their own thoughts, feelings, and actions, leading to self-reflection and insight. By confronting the client, the therapist helps them gain a deeper understanding of themselves and their patterns, ultimately promoting personal growth and change.

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  • 40. 

    According to person-centered theory, what are the two main learned needs of the person?

    • A.

      The need for constructive feedback and the need for constructive feed-forward.

    • B.

      The need for survival and the need for love and belonging

    • C.

      The need to confront reality and the need for freedom

    • D.

      The need for positive regard and teh need for self-regard

    Correct Answer
    D. The need for positive regard and teh need for self-regard
    Explanation
    According to person-centered theory, individuals have two main learned needs: the need for positive regard and the need for self-regard. The need for positive regard refers to the desire for acceptance, understanding, and validation from others, while the need for self-regard pertains to the individual's own sense of self-worth, self-acceptance, and self-esteem. These two needs are considered essential for personal growth and psychological well-being in person-centered theory.

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  • 41. 

     Unconditional positive regard, one of the core conditions of person-centered therapy, is also referred to as:

    • A.

      Transparency

    • B.

      Empathy

    • C.

      Acceptance

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Acceptance
    Explanation
    Unconditional positive regard, a core condition of person-centered therapy, refers to the therapist's nonjudgmental acceptance and support of the client. It involves valuing the client as a person, regardless of their thoughts, feelings, or behaviors. This unconditional acceptance creates a safe and supportive environment for the client to explore their experiences and emotions without fear of judgment or rejection. Transparency refers to being open and honest, while empathy is the ability to understand and share the feelings of another. Therefore, the correct term for unconditional positive regard is acceptance.

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  • 42. 

     Behaviorists view psychopathology as:

    • A.

      Maladaptive behavior is always learned

    • B.

      Maladaptive behaviors are pre-determined

    • C.

      Maladaptive behaviors are unconscious

    • D.

      Maladaptive behaviors are socially acceptable

    Correct Answer
    A. Maladaptive behavior is always learned
    Explanation
    Behaviorists view psychopathology as maladaptive behavior that is always learned. This means that according to behaviorists, maladaptive behaviors are not predetermined or unconscious, but rather they are acquired through the process of learning. This perspective suggests that psychopathology can be understood and treated by identifying the specific learned behaviors that are causing dysfunction and implementing strategies to unlearn or replace them with more adaptive behaviors.

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  • 43. 

    In Ellis’s A-B-C model The “B” refers to:

    • A.

      The client's behavior

    • B.

      The consequential bonus of controlling one's emotions

    • C.

      The individual's belief about the activating event

    • D.

      The naturally boring quality of cognitive therapy approaches

    Correct Answer
    C. The individual's belief about the activating event
    Explanation
    In Ellis's A-B-C model, the "B" refers to the individual's belief about the activating event. This means that it is the person's interpretation or perception of the event that influences their emotional and behavioral response. Ellis believed that it is not the event itself that causes distress, but rather the individual's thoughts and beliefs about the event. By identifying and challenging these beliefs, individuals can change their emotional and behavioral reactions, leading to healthier coping mechanisms and improved well-being.

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  • 44. 

    The ABCs in REBT are:

    • A.

      Antecedent, behavior, consequence of behavior

    • B.

      Antecedent, belief, consequence of behavior

    • C.

      Activating event, behavior, consequent feeling

    • D.

      Activating event, belief, consequent feeling

    Correct Answer
    D. Activating event, belief, consequent feeling
    Explanation
    The correct answer is activating event, belief, consequent feeling. In REBT (Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy), the ABC model is used to explain how our beliefs and thoughts about an activating event can influence our emotions and behaviors. The activating event refers to the external event or situation that triggers a response. Belief refers to the thoughts and interpretations we have about the event. Consequent feeling refers to the emotional response that is a result of our beliefs. This model helps individuals understand the connection between their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors, and allows them to challenge and change irrational beliefs to improve their emotional well-being.

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  • 45. 

     The purpose of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) is to help substitute a ______________________which will result in more positive and more comfortable consequent feelings.

    • A.

      Rational belief (rB) for a current irrational belief (iB)

    • B.

      Irrational belief (iB) for a rational belief (rB)

    • C.

      A maladaptive thought (mt) for a irrational belief (iB)

    • D.

      A rational belief (rB) for a maladaptive thought (mt)

    Correct Answer
    A. Rational belief (rB) for a current irrational belief (iB)
    Explanation
    The purpose of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) is to help substitute a rational belief (rB) for a current irrational belief (iB). This is because irrational beliefs often lead to negative and uncomfortable feelings, while rational beliefs can lead to more positive and comfortable feelings. By identifying and challenging irrational beliefs, individuals can work towards replacing them with rational beliefs, which can ultimately improve their emotional well-being.

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  • 46. 

     Identify the cognitive distortion based the following scenario: Susie sees Alice in the hallway at school and says hello. Alice does not reply or even look up for that matter. Susie believes that she must have done something to cause Alice to be angry with her.

    • A.

      Selective abstraction

    • B.

      Overgeneralization

    • C.

      Personalization

    • D.

      Polarized thinking

    Correct Answer
    C. Personalization
    Explanation
    The cognitive distortion in this scenario is personalization. Susie automatically assumes that Alice's lack of response is a result of something she did, taking it personally and attributing it to herself. This distortion involves taking responsibility for events or situations that are beyond one's control and assuming that others' actions are directly related to oneself.

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  • 47. 

     Betty is meeting with a feminist counselor to discuss her depression and dissatisfaction in her romantic relationship. Which theme is the counselor likely to focus on:

    • A.

      The lack of equality and mutual respect in Betty’s relationship.

    • B.

      The unconscious, repeating patterns that cause Betty to keep getting into dissatisfying relationships.

    • C.

      The social power structures that contribute to Betty's feelings of powerlessness in romantic relationships.

    • D.

      Both a and b

    • E.

      Both a and c

    Correct Answer
    E. Both a and c
    Explanation
    The counselor is likely to focus on both the lack of equality and mutual respect in Betty's relationship and the social power structures that contribute to Betty's feelings of powerlessness in romantic relationships. By addressing both themes, the counselor can help Betty understand the dynamics of her relationship and the external factors that may be impacting her feelings of depression and dissatisfaction. This holistic approach allows for a comprehensive exploration of Betty's experiences and can guide her towards healthier and more fulfilling relationships in the future.

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  • 48. 

    For many years, what training has been a significant educational aspect of feminist theory?

    • A.

      Cooking and cleaning

    • B.

      Child bearing

    • C.

      Assertiveness

    • D.

      Aggressiveness

    Correct Answer
    C. Assertiveness
    Explanation
    Assertiveness has been a significant educational aspect of feminist theory for many years. Feminist theory emphasizes the importance of women being assertive and standing up for their rights and equality. It encourages women to express their opinions, assert their boundaries, and demand equal treatment. By promoting assertiveness, feminist theory aims to empower women and challenge traditional gender roles and expectations.

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  • 49. 

    Theories of multiculturalism are considered the __________ in the family of theories.

    • A.

      Third force

    • B.

      Fourth force

    • C.

      Fifth place

    • D.

      End all be all

    • E.

      A positive extention of psychoanalytic thought

    Correct Answer
    B. Fourth force
    Explanation
    Theories of multiculturalism are considered the fourth force in the family of theories. This suggests that there are three other major forces or theories that exist within this family, and multiculturalism is seen as the fourth and distinct force. This implies that multiculturalism is a significant and influential perspective that adds to the existing theories in the field.

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  • 50. 

    When counselors develop an empirically-based rationale for using techniques from various theoretical orientations even though they don’t completely believe in or adhere to each particular theory, this is called:

    • A.

      Theoretical eclecticism

    • B.

      Technical eclecticism

    • C.

      Syncretism

    • D.

      De-synchrony

    • E.

      Intuitive counseling

    Correct Answer
    A. Theoretical eclecticism
    Explanation
    Theoretical eclecticism refers to the practice of using techniques from different theoretical orientations in counseling, even if the counselor does not fully believe in or adhere to each specific theory. It involves selecting and integrating various approaches based on empirical evidence and the needs of the client. This approach allows counselors to tailor their interventions to the unique circumstances of each individual, drawing from a range of theories and techniques to provide effective treatment.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 18, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Nilda_clark
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