# Properties Of Matter Mid-term Prep Quiz 2018

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• 1.

### What is an atom?

• A.

The smallest part of an element that is a basic unit of matter

• B.

The unit measure of an element

• C.

Elements that make up molecules

• D.

Neutrons in the nucleus

A. The smallest part of an element that is a basic unit of matter
Explanation
An atom is the smallest part of an element that is considered the basic unit of matter. It consists of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons, and is surrounded by electrons. Atoms combine to form molecules, but they themselves are not molecules. The other options, such as the unit measure of an element or neutrons in the nucleus, do not accurately describe what an atom is.

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• 2.

### Identify the statement that is correct about the number of protons and electrons in an atom:

• A.

The number of protons and the number of electrons in an atom are always equal.

• B.

The number of protons is always greater than the number of electrons in an atom.

• C.

The number of protons is always less than the number of electrons in an atom.

• D.

The number of protons and electrons equals the mass of an atom.

A. The number of protons and the number of electrons in an atom are always equal.
Explanation
The statement that is correct about the number of protons and electrons in an atom is that the number of protons and the number of electrons in an atom are always equal. This is because the number of protons determines the atomic number of an element, and in a neutral atom, the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons, balancing out the positive charge of the protons with the negative charge of the electrons.

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• 3.

### Why are Hydrogen covalent bonds non-polar?

• A.

Hydrogen bonds are non-polar because electrons in the bonds between identical atoms (H-H) are shared uniformly. This means electrons spend equal amounts of time around each atomic center.

• B.

Hydrogen bonds are non-polar because protons in the bonds between identical atoms (H-H) are shared uniformly. This means electrons spend equal amounts of time around each atomic center.

• C.

Hydrogen bonds are non-polar because protons in the bonds between identical atoms (H-H) are not shared uniformly. This means electrons do not spend equal amounts of time around each atomic center.

• D.

Hydrogen bonds are non-polar because protons and electrons in the atom of identical atoms (H-H) are shared uniformly. This means electrons do not spend equal amounts of time around each atomic center.

A. Hydrogen bonds are non-polar because electrons in the bonds between identical atoms (H-H) are shared uniformly. This means electrons spend equal amounts of time around each atomic center.
Explanation
Hydrogen covalent bonds are non-polar because electrons in the bonds between identical atoms (H-H) are shared uniformly. This means that the electrons spend equal amounts of time around each atomic center. In a non-polar covalent bond, the electrons are evenly distributed between the two atoms, resulting in no significant difference in electronegativity. This uniform sharing of electrons leads to a non-polar molecule, as there is no separation of charge.

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• 4.

### What makes valence electrons different from other electrons?

• A.

Being in the outer shell, valance electrons can be shared or transferred (removed from or attached to) other atoms.

• B.

Being in one of an atom's core shells, valance electrons are shared or transferred (removed from or attached to) within an atom.

• C.

A valence electron is ionic and can be a cation or an anion.

• D.

A valence electron determines the electronegativity of an atom.

A. Being in the outer shell, valance electrons can be shared or transferred (removed from or attached to) other atoms.
Explanation
Valence electrons are different from other electrons because they are located in the outermost shell of an atom. This outer shell is involved in chemical bonding and interactions with other atoms. Valence electrons have the ability to be shared or transferred to other atoms, which allows for the formation of chemical bonds. This sharing or transferring of valence electrons is what enables atoms to combine and form molecules. In contrast, electrons in the core shells of an atom are not involved in bonding and are typically not easily shared or transferred. Therefore, the correct answer is that valence electrons can be shared or transferred with other atoms.

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• 5.

### What is an atom's atomic number?

• A.

An atom's atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

• B.

An atom's atomic number is the number of the protons and neutrons of the atom.

• C.

An atom's atomic number is the number of valence electrons.

• D.

An atom's atomic number is the atom's electronegativity.

A. An atom's atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Explanation
The atomic number of an atom refers to the number of protons in its nucleus. Protons carry a positive charge and are responsible for determining the element to which an atom belongs. By knowing the atomic number, one can identify the element and its properties. The other options provided in the question are incorrect. The number of protons and neutrons together is known as the mass number, not the atomic number. Valence electrons and electronegativity are unrelated to an atom's atomic number.

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• 6.

### Choose the statement that best explains:Why do hydrogen atoms usually exist as molecules, H2?

• A.

Hydrogen has an atomic number of one and is unsatisfied when the outermost orbital is unfilled. A hydrogen molecule of two hydrogen atoms is more stable than two individual hydrogen atoms

• B.

Hydrogen has an atomic number of two and does not need to share

• C.

Hydrogen usually combines with other atoms to form covalent bonds

• D.

Hydrogen has one proton and is in search of one neutron

A. Hydrogen has an atomic number of one and is unsatisfied when the outermost orbital is unfilled. A hydrogen molecule of two hydrogen atoms is more stable than two individual hydrogen atoms
Explanation
Hydrogen has an atomic number of one, meaning it has one proton in its nucleus and one electron in its outermost orbital. The outermost orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons, so a single hydrogen atom is unsatisfied and unstable with only one electron. However, when two hydrogen atoms combine to form a hydrogen molecule (H2), they share their electrons and fill each other's outermost orbitals. This sharing of electrons makes the hydrogen molecule more stable than two individual hydrogen atoms.

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• 7.

### Choose the term that best completes the statement:The term ____________ is applied to any substance that cannot be made simpler without changing its chemical make-up.

• A.

Element

• B.

Atom

• C.

Molecule

• D.

Substance

A. Element
Explanation
An element is the term that best completes the statement. An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means. It consists of only one type of atom and retains its chemical identity. Therefore, an element cannot be made simpler without changing its chemical make-up.

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• 8.

### What is matter?

• A.

Anything that has mass and occupies space.

• B.

Anything that has density and occupies space.

• C.

Anything that has volume and takes up space.

• D.

Anything that has electrons and takes up space.

A. Anything that has mass and occupies space.
Explanation
The correct answer is "Anything that has mass and occupies space." This definition aligns with the scientific understanding of matter, which states that matter is anything that has mass (the amount of matter in an object) and occupies space (has volume). This definition encompasses a wide range of substances, including solids, liquids, and gases, as well as subatomic particles such as electrons.

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• 9.

### What is a chemical bond?

• A.

A chemical bond is the force that holds atoms together.

• B.

A chemical bond is the nucleus energy level that holds atoms together.

• C.

A chemical bond is the exchange of valence electrons.

• D.

A chemical bond is the pairing and sharing of electrons.

A. A chemical bond is the force that holds atoms together.
Explanation
A chemical bond refers to the force that holds atoms together. This force is formed through the attraction between the positively charged nucleus of one atom and the negatively charged electrons of another atom. It is this bond that allows atoms to form molecules and compounds, creating a stable arrangement of atoms. This force can be formed through various mechanisms such as the exchange or sharing of valence electrons between atoms.

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• 10.

### The number of _______________ determines what element it is and its chemical behavior.

• A.

The number of protons determines what element it is and its chemical behavior.

• B.

The number of neutrons determines what element it is and its chemical behavior.

• C.

The number of protons and electrons determines what element it is and its chemical behavior.

• D.

The number of electrons determines what element it is and its chemical behavior.

A. The number of protons determines what element it is and its chemical behavior.
Explanation
The number of protons determines what element it is and its chemical behavior because the number of protons in an atom's nucleus is unique to each element. This number is known as the atomic number and it defines the element's identity. The chemical behavior of an element is determined by the arrangement and interactions of its electrons, which are influenced by the number of protons in the nucleus. Therefore, the number of protons is crucial in determining both the identity and chemical behavior of an element.

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• 11.

### Identify two of the key ideas that make up the kinetic-molecular theory of matter:

• A.

Matter (solids, liquids, gases) is made up of tiny particles called atoms and molecules. Matter is made up of particles that are constantly moving.

• B.

Matter is made up of elements that move. Elements are not attracted to one another.

• C.

Depending on the temperature a sample of matter is in determines if forms molecules. All molecules are kinetic.

• D.

Solids, liquids and gases are always in motion. Solid particles have the largest amount of energy, that's what holds them together, gas particles have the least amount of energy, that's why they drift apart.

A. Matter (solids, liquids, gases) is made up of tiny particles called atoms and molecules. Matter is made up of particles that are constantly moving.
Explanation
The explanation for the given correct answer is that according to the kinetic-molecular theory of matter, matter is composed of small particles called atoms and molecules. These particles are in constant motion, which means they are always moving. This theory helps to explain the behavior and properties of different states of matter, such as solids, liquids, and gases.

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• 12.

### The kinetic-molecular theory explains how matter can change among the phases of solid, liquid and gas. A change in phase (solid, liquid, gas) occurs when the energy of the particles is changed. All particles have energy, the amount of energy varies depending on what factor?

• A.

Temperature

• B.

Location

• C.

Ionic bond

• D.

Covalent bond

A. Temperature
Explanation
The kinetic-molecular theory states that matter can change between the phases of solid, liquid, and gas based on the energy of the particles. Temperature is the factor that determines the amount of energy the particles have. As temperature increases, the particles gain more energy and can overcome the attractive forces holding them together, causing a change in phase. Therefore, temperature is the key factor that affects the energy of particles and leads to phase changes in matter.

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• 13.

### Different states of matter. Compare the states of matter.  Identify the true statements:

• A.

Solids: atoms or molecules are very attracted to one another. Solids vibrate but do not move past one another. Solids have a definite volume and definite shape.

• B.

Liquids: atoms or molecules are attracted to one another. Liquids vibrate but are able to move past one another. Liquids have a definite volume but do not have a definite shape.

• C.

Gases: atoms or molecules are barely attracted to one another. Gases vibrate and move more freely past one another. Gases do not have a definite volume or definite shape.

• D.

All of the are true.

D. All of the are true.
Explanation
The given answer is correct because all the statements about solids, liquids, and gases are true. Solids have a definite volume and shape, and their atoms or molecules are strongly attracted to each other. Liquids have a definite volume but not a definite shape, and their atoms or molecules are attracted to each other. Gases do not have a definite volume or shape, and their atoms or molecules are barely attracted to each other. Therefore, all the statements are true.

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• 14.

### Heating and cooling a solid: Consider the metal ball and ring demonstration. Identify what is true about heating and cooling the metal ball and ring.

• A.

Heating the metal ball increases the motion of its atoms. The motion competes with the attraction between the atoms and makes the atoms move slightly further apart. The slightly larger metal ball will not fit through the ring. When the metal ball cools, the atoms slow down and their attractions bring the atoms closer together. This allows the metal ball to fit through the ring again.

• B.

Heating the metal ball decreases the motion of its atoms. The loss of motion breaks the attraction between the atoms and makes the atoms resist each other. This resistance causes the metal ball to not fit through the ring. When the metal ball cools, the atoms attract and come closer together. This allows the metal ball to fit through the ring again.

• C.

When the metal ball is heated it loses atoms and therefore causes the ball to lose attraction and not fit through the ring. When it is cooled, because it has less atoms, it is tighter and can fit through the ring.

A. Heating the metal ball increases the motion of its atoms. The motion competes with the attraction between the atoms and makes the atoms move slightly further apart. The slightly larger metal ball will not fit through the ring. When the metal ball cools, the atoms slow down and their attractions bring the atoms closer together. This allows the metal ball to fit through the ring again.
Explanation
When the metal ball is heated, the increased motion of its atoms causes them to move slightly further apart, making the ball slightly larger. As a result, it will not fit through the ring. However, when the metal ball cools, the atoms slow down and their attractions bring them closer together. This allows the metal ball to fit through the ring again.

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• 15.

### Heating and Cooling Gases:  Consider the example of the bubble that forms on a bottle dipped in detergent solution then heated. Identify what is true about heating and cooling gases:

• A.

Heating the bottle increases the motion of gas molecules inside the bottle. Since gas molecules are not very attracted to each other, they spread out easily and quickly. The molecules will hit the inside of the bottle and the bubble film harder and more often. The molecules push against the inside of the film harder than the surrounding air pushes from the outside. This pushes the bubble film out and forms a bubble. When the bubble is still on top and you cool the bottle, the bubble will shrink and may go inside the bottle. This happens because cooling the gas slows the molecules down. The slower moving molecules hit the film less often and with less force. The molecules in the outside air are moving faster and push against the bubble from the outside. Since the outside air molecules are pushing harder, the bubble gets pushed down and smaller.

• B.

Heating the bottle decreases the motion of gas molecules inside the bottle. Since gas molecules are not very attracted to each other, the heat causes them to slow down. The molecules will hit the inside of the bottle and the bubble film. The molecules push against the inside of the film around causing a reaction within the solution. This pushes the bubble film up and out and forms a bubble. When the bubble is still on top and you cool the bottle, the bubble will shrink. This happens because cooling the bottle evaporates the bubble.

A. Heating the bottle increases the motion of gas molecules inside the bottle. Since gas molecules are not very attracted to each other, they spread out easily and quickly. The molecules will hit the inside of the bottle and the bubble film harder and more often. The molecules push against the inside of the film harder than the surrounding air pushes from the outside. This pushes the bubble film out and forms a bubble. When the bubble is still on top and you cool the bottle, the bubble will shrink and may go inside the bottle. This happens because cooling the gas slows the molecules down. The slower moving molecules hit the film less often and with less force. The molecules in the outside air are moving faster and push against the bubble from the outside. Since the outside air molecules are pushing harder, the bubble gets pushed down and smaller.
Explanation
Heating the bottle increases the motion of gas molecules inside the bottle, causing them to spread out easily and quickly. This increased motion leads to the molecules hitting the inside of the bottle and the bubble film harder and more often. The molecules push against the inside of the film with greater force than the surrounding air pushes from the outside, resulting in the formation of a bubble. When the bottle is cooled, the gas molecules slow down, hitting the film less often and with less force. The faster-moving molecules in the outside air push against the bubble from the outside, causing it to shrink and potentially go inside the bottle.

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• Current Version
• Mar 15, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• Nov 29, 2018
Quiz Created by
Rhaveno

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