Chapter 4 Online Study Guide

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Chapter 4 Online Study Guide - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following were the first to invade land? 

    • A.

      Amphibians

    • B.

      Insects

    • C.

      Birds

    • D.

      Reptiles

    • E.

      Mammals

    Correct Answer
    B. Insects
    Explanation
    Insects were the first to invade land because they were able to adapt to the terrestrial environment before other organisms. They developed specialized structures, such as tracheal tubes for breathing, and a waxy exoskeleton to prevent dehydration. This allowed them to thrive in various habitats on land and exploit new food sources. Insects played a crucial role in the colonization of terrestrial ecosystems and paved the way for other organisms, including amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, to follow.

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  • 2. 

     On the basis of their cell structure, organisms can be classified as either eukaryotic or _____________________

    Correct Answer
    prokaryotic
    prokaryote
    Explanation
    On the basis of their cell structure, organisms can be classified as either eukaryotic or prokaryotic. The term "prokaryotic" refers to organisms that have cells lacking a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. These organisms include bacteria and archaea. The term "prokaryote" is used to specifically refer to single-celled organisms that are prokaryotic. Therefore, both "prokaryotic" and "prokaryote" are correct answers to complete the statement.

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  • 3. 

    A group of interacting individuals of the same species that occupy a specific area at the same time.  

    • A.

      Community

    • B.

      Ecosystem

    • C.

      Population

    • D.

      Species

    Correct Answer
    C. Population
    Explanation
    A population refers to a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interact with each other. It is a fundamental unit of ecological study and is defined by its specific location and time frame. Populations can vary in size and can be influenced by factors such as birth rate, death rate, immigration, and emigration. In this context, the given definition perfectly matches the concept of a population.

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  • 4. 

    What is the most inner layer of the atmosphere? 

    • A.

      Stratosphere

    • B.

      Mesosphere

    • C.

      Thermosphere

    • D.

      Troposphere

    Correct Answer
    D. Troposphere
    Explanation
    The most inner layer of the atmosphere is the troposphere. It is the lowest layer of the atmosphere, extending from the Earth's surface up to about 12 kilometers. This layer is where weather occurs and where most of the Earth's air mass is located. It is also where temperature decreases with increasing altitude.

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  • 5. 

     Which layer of the atmosphere contains the beneficial ozone layer that protects us from UV?

    • A.

      Stratosphere

    • B.

      Mesosphere

    • C.

      Thermosphere

    • D.

      Troposphere

    Correct Answer
    A. Stratosphere
    Explanation
    The stratosphere is the layer of the atmosphere that contains the beneficial ozone layer. Ozone is a molecule made up of three oxygen atoms and it acts as a shield, protecting us from harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. The ozone layer absorbs most of the sun's UV-B and UV-C rays, preventing them from reaching the Earth's surface. This protection is important as excessive exposure to UV radiation can lead to various health issues, including skin cancer and cataracts.

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  • 6. 

     The sun is 72% _______

    • A.

      Hydrogen

    • B.

      Helium

    • C.

      Oxygen

    • D.

      Nitrogen

    Correct Answer
    A. Hydrogen
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Hydrogen because the sun is primarily composed of hydrogen gas, accounting for about 72% of its mass. Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the sun and plays a crucial role in its energy production through nuclear fusion reactions.

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  • 7. 

     Fission is the form of nuclear energy that we use in nuclear powerplants. The atoms are broken apart releasing energy. We have been striving to figure out FUSION, the subject of many movies. Fusion is the fusing of two atoms together. The sun is powered by fusion. The temperature and pressure in its inner core are so high that _____________ nuclei fuse to form _____________ nuclei.

    • A.

      Hydrogen, helium

    • B.

      Helium, hydrogen

    • C.

      Oxygen, nitrogen

    • D.

      Nitrogen, oxygen

    Correct Answer
    A. Hydrogen, helium
    Explanation
    The temperature and pressure in the sun's inner core are so high that hydrogen nuclei fuse to form helium nuclei. This process, known as nuclear fusion, releases a tremendous amount of energy and is what powers the sun.

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  • 8. 

     Which of the following is not a greenhouse gas?

    • A.

      Water vapor

    • B.

      Carbon dioxide

    • C.

      Methane

    • D.

      Nitrous oxide

    • E.

      Ozone

    • F.

      All of the above are greenhouse gases

    Correct Answer
    F. All of the above are greenhouse gases
    Explanation
    All of the given options are greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases are those gases in the Earth's atmosphere that trap heat and contribute to the greenhouse effect, causing global warming. Water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone are all greenhouse gases.

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  • 9. 

     Instead, one ecosystem tends to merge with the next in a transitional zone called an ________, a region containing a mixture of species from adjacent ecosystems and often species not found in either of the bordering ecosystems.

    • A.

      Niche

    • B.

      Adaptive radiation

    • C.

      Ecotone

    • D.

      Biome

    • E.

      Abiotic

    Correct Answer
    C. Ecotone
    Explanation
    An ecotone is a transitional zone where two ecosystems merge together. It contains a mixture of species from both ecosystems, as well as species that are unique to the ecotone itself. This is why an ecotone often contains species that are not found in either of the bordering ecosystems. It serves as a transition area where the characteristics of both ecosystems blend together, creating a unique and diverse environment.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following processes takes Nitrogen out of the atmosphere (remember out atmosphere is 80% Nitrogen and the major reservoir of that element!) 

    • A.

      Nitrogen Fixation

    • B.

      Nitrification

    • C.

      Denitrification

    • D.

      Ammonification

    Correct Answer
    A. Nitrogen Fixation
    Explanation
    Nitrogen Fixation is the process that takes Nitrogen out of the atmosphere. This process converts atmospheric nitrogen into a form that plants can use, such as ammonia or nitrate. It is carried out by certain bacteria and cyanobacteria, as well as by lightning strikes. Nitrogen Fixation is essential for the nitrogen cycle, as it provides a source of nitrogen for organisms to build proteins and other essential molecules.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following is a highly poisonous gas with a rotten-egg smell? Hint: Sulfur Cycle

    • A.

      H2S

    • B.

      HS

    • C.

      H3S

    • D.

      H2S2

    Correct Answer
    A. H2S
    Explanation
    H2S is a highly poisonous gas with a rotten-egg smell. It is formed during the sulfur cycle and is commonly found in natural gas and crude oil. H2S is toxic and can cause various health issues, including respiratory problems, eye irritation, and even death in high concentrations. Its distinct odor is often used as a warning sign of its presence in order to prevent accidental exposure.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following is a gaseous cycle? 

    • A.

      Phosphorus

    • B.

      Sulfur

    Correct Answer
    B. Sulfur
    Explanation
    Sulfur is a gaseous cycle because it undergoes various transformations between its gaseous form (sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide), solid form (sulfur) and liquid form (sulfuric acid). These transformations occur through processes such as volcanic emissions, combustion of fossil fuels, and bacterial and chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Sulfur plays a crucial role in atmospheric chemistry, climate, and the formation of aerosols, making it an important gaseous cycle in the Earth's system.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following process puts nitrogen back into the atmosphere? 

    • A.

      Nitrogen fixation

    • B.

      Nitrification

    • C.

      Ammonification

    • D.

      Denitrification

    Correct Answer
    D. Denitrification
    Explanation
    Denitrification is the process that puts nitrogen back into the atmosphere. During denitrification, bacteria convert nitrates (NO3-) into nitrogen gas (N2) and release it into the atmosphere. This process occurs in oxygen-depleted environments, such as wetlands or waterlogged soils, where bacteria use nitrates as an alternative source of oxygen for respiration. Denitrification helps maintain the balance of nitrogen in the ecosystem by recycling nitrogen from nitrates back into the atmosphere, completing the nitrogen cycle.

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  • 14. 

     In the water cycle, which of the following process describes water moving downward through soil and permeable rock formations to grounwater storage areas called aquifers?

    • A.

      Infiltration

    • B.

      Percolation

    • C.

      Transpiration

    • D.

      Precipitation

    Correct Answer
    B. Percolation
    Explanation
    Percolation is the process that describes water moving downward through soil and permeable rock formations to groundwater storage areas called aquifers. This process occurs when water infiltrates the ground and seeps through the small spaces and cracks in the soil and rocks, eventually reaching the aquifers where it is stored.

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  • 15. 

     Read the case study on page 95. The Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire is incredibly famous and you will hear about this again in college. Answer the critical thinking question using at least 3 complete sentences.

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