Chapter 21 The Evidence For Evolution

59 Questions | Total Attempts: 232

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Chapter 21 The Evidence For Evolution

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Natural selection is a _________ that results in a historical record called _________.
  • 2. 
    The "clear air acts" passed in both America and England caused the ratio of dark to light moths in Biston populations in previously polluted areas to _________.
  • 3. 
    The "clear air acts" passed in both America and England caused the ratio of dark to light moths in Biston populations in unpolluted areas to _______ _____ ________.
  • 4. 
    _________ _________ is a term used to describe an evolutionary event in which darker individuals come to predominate over lighter individuals as a result of increased air pollution and the process of natural selection by predators.
  • 5. 
    _______ are the preserved remains, tracks, or traces of once-living organisms.
  • 6. 
    Some of the most dramatic evidence for evolution has come from human agriculture. One of the most highly selected crop plants is
    • A. 

      Peas.

    • B. 

      Tomatoes.

    • C. 

      Potatoes.

    • D. 

      Corn.

    • E. 

      Asparagus.

  • 7. 
    In the laboratory, fruit flies (Drosophila) were artificially selected for the number of bristles on their bodies. One population (R) was selected for low numbers of bristles, a second population (S) for high numbers of bristles.   After 35 generations (about 1 year's time), the two populations R and S were studied. Researchers found 
    • A. 

      No change was seen; it's much too soon.

    • B. 

      Some slight increase of bristle numbers was already evident.

    • C. 

      A vast, overlapping range of bristle numbers was seen.

    • D. 

      A slight increase in bristles in S, a slight decrease in R, with a little overlap in the middle ranges.

    • E. 

      A huge increase in S, a huge decrease in R, with no overlap whatsoever.

  • 8. 
    A major implication of this study of Drosophila is
    • A. 

      Absolutely no data to prove or disprove the theory of evolution.

    • B. 

      It takes thousands to millions of generations to see evolutionary change, if at all.

    • C. 

      Dramatic variation may be present within a population, but may not be observable unless strong selection occurs.

    • D. 

      Dramatic mutations may occur within a population under strong selection.

    • E. 

      Although evolutionary change was observed, this would not be expected in higher organisms such as mice.

  • 9. 
    Natural selection varies the shape of the beaks among Darwin's finches in response
    • A. 

      To the available food supply.

    • B. 

      To the available nest building material supplies.

    • C. 

      To the availability of potential mating partners.

    • D. 

      To presence of ectoparasites on their feathers.

    • E. 

      To the need to improve their feather preening abilities.

  • 10. 
    A technique used in dating a rock can be used to accurately predict the age of the fossils occurring in the rocks. This technique involves
    • A. 

      Fossil dating.

    • B. 

      Successive rock layering.

    • C. 

      Radioactive isotope decay.

    • D. 

      Structural geology.

    • E. 

      Developmental geology.

  • 11. 
    The evolution of similar forms in different lineages when exposed to the same selective pressures is
    • A. 

      Called divergence.

    • B. 

      Called convergence.

    • C. 

      Referred to as successive homologies.

    • D. 

      Referred to as descent.

    • E. 

      Also known as natural selection.

  • 12. 
    Domestication of dogs has led to
    • A. 

      A variety of homologous structures.

    • B. 

      A variety of phenotypes.

    • C. 

      A variety of mutations.

    • D. 

      A variety of analogous breeds.

    • E. 

      Many different species.

  • 13. 
    Industrial melanism is a term describing
    • A. 

      A rock contains 18 mg of the radioactive isotope carbon-14. The half-life of carbon-14 is 5,600 years. How many half-lives and years will it take before the carbon-14 decays to less than 4 mg? A. 1 half-lives; 5,600 years B. 2 half-lives; 11,200 years C. 3 half-lives; 16,800 years D. 4 half-lives; 22,400 years E. 9 half-lives; 50,400 years A rock contains 18 mg of the radioactive isotope carbon-14. The half-life of carbon-14 is 5,600 years. How many half-lives and years will it take before the carbon-14 decays to less than 4 mg? A. 1 half-lives; 5,600 years B. 2 half-lives; 11,200 years C. 3 half-lives; 16,800 years D. 4 half-lives; 22,400 years E. 9 half-lives; 50,400 years the color change induced by living in industrialized areas.

    • B. 

      The darker moths having higher mutation rates because of industrialization.

    • C. 

      the evolutionary process in which initially light-colored organisms become dark as a result of natural selection.

    • D. 

      The darker moths having higher reproductive success because of their pigmentation.

    • E. 

      The widespread implementation of pollution controls.

  • 14. 
    The evidence for industrial melanism as being due to an increase in the dark allele was provided from field tests carried out by
    • A. 

      Kettlewell.

    • B. 

      Lamarck.

    • C. 

      Darwin.

    • D. 

      Lamarck.

    • E. 

      Wallace.

  • 15. 
    The shape of the beaks of Darwin's finches, industrial melanism, and sickle-cell disease are often cited as examples of the process of _______________ leading to evolutionary change.
    • A. 

      Artificial selection

    • B. 

      Coevolution

    • C. 

      Intelligent design

    • D. 

      Founder effect

    • E. 

      Natural selection

  • 16. 
    Today, the fossil record
    • A. 

      Can be dated only with one layer in relation to older layers below and younger layers above, no actual dates can be estimated.

    • B. 

      Can be dated reasonably well only with uranium-238.

    • C. 

      Can be dated reasonably well using a variety of radioactive isotopes with known half-lives.

    • D. 

      Can be dated precisely, to within a single year, using radioactive isotopes.

    • E. 

      Can be dated precisely, to within a single year, using DNA hybridization.

  • 17. 
    Natural selection has favored the dark form of the peppered moth in areas subject to severe air pollution, perhaps because on darkened trees moth-eating birds less easily see them. As pollution abated, the light forms were favored because
    • A. 

      They are more cryptic.

    • B. 

      Of migration from more polluted areas.

    • C. 

      Of directional mutation.

    • D. 

      They were preyed on more.

    • E. 

      Of a bottleneck effect.

  • 18. 
    Darwin concluded that evolution was at work by studying the shapes of
    • A. 

      Seeds.

    • B. 

      Malarial parasites.

    • C. 

      Peppered moths.

    • D. 

      Hemoglobins.

    • E. 

      Beaks of finches.

  • 19. 
    Evidence for evolution includes all of the following except
    • A. 

      The fossil record.

    • B. 

      Homologous structures.

    • C. 

      The molecular record.

    • D. 

      Intelligent design.

    • E. 

      Vestigial structures.

  • 20. 
    Evidence for evolution can be obtained by examining presently existing species through studies on each of the following except one. Select the exception.
    • A. 

      Early development

    • B. 

      Vestigial structures

    • C. 

      Patterns of distribution

    • D. 

      Convergence

    • E. 

      Analogous structures

  • 21. 
    Progressive changes in fossils of different ages provides one of the strongest lines of evidence for
    • A. 

      Extinction.

    • B. 

      Evolution.

    • C. 

      Coevolution.

    • D. 

      Adaptation.

    • E. 

      Mutation.

  • 22. 
    The molecular record suggests that a series of evolutionary changes is tied to a progressive accumulation of
    • A. 

      Extinctions.

    • B. 

      Alterations of DNA sequences.

    • C. 

      Modifications of the environment.

    • D. 

      Somatic mutations.

    • E. 

      Structural modifications.

  • 23. 
    In the case of the toothed whales, the fossil record
    • A. 

      Shows they evolved from fish.

    • B. 

      Shows they evolved from swimming dinosaurs.

    • C. 

      Shows they evolved from a land mammal with hooves.

    • D. 

      Has fragmentary evidence that cannot be explained.

    • E. 

      Has no evidence about how they evolved.

  • 24. 
    Which of the following features of the humans does not provide evidence for its evolution from other vertebrates?
    • A. 

      Lanugo; fine fur during development

    • B. 

      Gill slits during development

    • C. 

      Long bony tail during development

    • D. 

      Opposable thumb

    • E. 

      Limb bones

  • 25. 
    Structures that are derived from the same body part in a common ancestor but may have different appearances and functions are called
    • A. 

      Analogous structures.

    • B. 

      Homologous structures.

    • C. 

      Vestigial structures.

    • D. 

      Embryonic structures.

    • E. 

      Homozygous structures.

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