What Do You Know About Bacterial Conjugation? Trivia Facts Quiz

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What Do You Know About Bacterial Conjugation? Trivia Facts Quiz - Quiz

What do you know about bacterial conjugation? Bacteria are very interesting to study, and in this special quiz, we get to understand the process through which genetic material moves through bacteria cells. Do give it a shot and be sure to check out other quizzes on bacteria, their importance, and how they affect other organisms. All the best!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

     ________ bacterial strains require nutritional supplements to grow in a minimal medium.

    • A.

      Autotrophic

    • B.

      Prototrophic 

    • C.

      Phototrophic

    • D.

      Heterotrophic

    • E.

       Auxotrophic 

    Correct Answer
    E.  Auxotrophic 
    Explanation
    Auxotrophic bacterial strains require nutritional supplements to grow in a minimal medium. This means that these strains are unable to synthesize certain essential molecules or nutrients on their own and therefore rely on external sources for their growth. Autotrophic strains, on the other hand, are capable of synthesizing all necessary nutrients from inorganic sources. Prototrophic strains can synthesize all essential molecules and do not require any additional supplements. Phototrophic strains use light as an energy source for growth. Heterotrophic strains obtain energy from organic compounds.

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  • 2. 

     Minimal media is

    • A.

      Growth media used in the smallest volume in which cells can grow. 

    • B.

      Growth media designed to minimize the growth of contaminants. 

    • C.

      Growth media that contains the minimal nutritional requirements for normal cells

    • D.

       a way to visualize new mutations in a minimum amount of time

    • E.

       used to reveal only mutant cell colonies against a dark background. 

    Correct Answer
    C. Growth media that contains the minimal nutritional requirements for normal cells
    Explanation
    Minimal media is a type of growth media that contains only the essential nutrients required for the growth of normal cells. It is designed to provide the minimal nutritional requirements for cell growth, without any unnecessary additives or supplements. This allows researchers to control and study specific cellular processes without interference from additional nutrients or contaminants. Minimal media is commonly used in laboratory settings to investigate the nutritional requirements of cells and to study their growth and metabolism under controlled conditions.

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  • 3. 

    An arg- strain of E. coli is transformed with a plasmid carrying the wild‐type (arg+) gene. The transformed cells are replica‐plated to two minimal medium plates: one supplemented with arginine and one lacking arginine. The transformed cells would grow on 

    • A.

      Only the plate supplemented with arginine

    • B.

      Only the plate lacking arginine.

    • C.

      Both plates

    • D.

      Neither plate

    • E.

      The plate supplemented with arginine, but only if a mutation occurred. 

    Correct Answer
    C. Both plates
    Explanation
    The correct answer is both plates. This is because the transformed cells now carry the wild-type (arg+) gene, which allows them to produce arginine. Therefore, they will be able to grow on both the plate supplemented with arginine and the plate lacking arginine. The presence of the plasmid carrying the wild-type gene ensures that the cells have the necessary genetic material to produce arginine, regardless of the availability of arginine in the medium.

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  • 4. 

    When Lederberg and Tatum performed their experiments on gene transfer in bacteria that lead to our understanding of conjugation, what were their controls?

    • A.

      They mixed strains A and B together.

    • B.

      They put strain A on one side of a U‐shaped tube and strain B on the other, with a filter between them. 

    • C.

      They found bio- met- cells

    • D.

      They plated strain A and strain B separately onto minimal media plates to screen for spontaneous prototrophs

    • E.

       They observed mating bridges with transmission electron microscopes. 

    Correct Answer
    D. They plated strain A and strain B separately onto minimal media plates to screen for spontaneous prototrophs
    Explanation
    Lederberg and Tatum's control in their experiments on gene transfer in bacteria was to plate strain A and strain B separately onto minimal media plates. This control allowed them to screen for spontaneous prototrophs, which are bacteria that can grow on minimal media without any additional nutrients. By plating the strains separately, they could determine if any prototrophs that grew were the result of gene transfer between the two strains or if they were simply spontaneous mutations. This control helped them to establish a baseline for comparison and to identify the specific effects of gene transfer through conjugation.

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  • 5. 

    A plasmid such as an F factor that is capable of integrating into the bacterial chromosome is a(n) 

    • A.

      Prophage

    • B.

      Episome. 

    • C.

      Auxisome

    • D.

       perisome

    • E.

      Elaiosome. 

    Correct Answer
    B. Episome. 
    Explanation
    An episome is a type of plasmid that is capable of integrating into the bacterial chromosome. It can exist as an independent extrachromosomal element or become integrated into the host chromosome. This ability allows the episome to be stably inherited during bacterial cell division. In contrast, a prophage is a bacteriophage that has integrated into the host genome, while auxisome, perisome, and elaiosome are not relevant to the integration of plasmids into the bacterial chromosome.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following has episomal DNA inserted in the cellʹs chromosome?

    • A.

      An F+ cell 

    • B.

      An Fʹ plasmid

    • C.

      An Hfr cell

    • D.

      An F- cell

    • E.

       All except D

    Correct Answer
    C. An Hfr cell
    Explanation
    An Hfr cell has episomal DNA inserted in the cell's chromosome. Hfr stands for High frequency of recombination, which means that the F factor (a plasmid that allows for conjugation) has integrated into the bacterial chromosome. This integration allows for the transfer of both the F factor and some chromosomal DNA during conjugation. Therefore, an Hfr cell contains episomal DNA inserted in its chromosome. An F+ cell contains the F factor as a separate plasmid, an F' plasmid contains extra chromosomal DNA but not integrated into the chromosome, and an F- cell lacks the F factor altogether.

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  • 7. 

    Cotransduction can be detected when the transduced genes are 

    • A.

      Closely linked

    • B.

      Far apart on the same chromosome

    • C.

      On different chromosomes. 

    • D.

      Mutant

    • E.

       Both B and D 

    Correct Answer
    A. Closely linked
    Explanation
    Cotransduction can be detected when the transduced genes are closely linked on the same chromosome. This means that the genes are located close to each other on the same chromosome and are likely to be transduced together during the process of transduction.

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  • 8. 

    Mtl, polA, and xyl are bacterial genes that can be transmitted using an Hfr strain. An interrupted mating experiment resulted in xyl exconjugants appearing at 7 minutes and reaching maximum level by 30 minutes. The mtl gene function exconjugants appeared at 11 minutes and leveled off at 80% maximum by about 33 minutes, while polA did not appear until 24 minutes into the experiment and then only slowly rose to about 30%. Which of the following shows the gene order with the insertion site (arrow) location correctly? 

    • A.

      Xyl mtl polA → 

    • B.

      PolA mtl xyl →

    • C.

       mtl xyl polA → 

    • D.

      Mtl polA xyl → 

    • E.

      None of these 

    Correct Answer
    B. PolA mtl xyl →
    Explanation
    The interrupted mating experiment shows that xyl exconjugants appeared at 7 minutes and reached maximum level by 30 minutes. This indicates that xyl is the closest gene to the insertion site. The mtl gene function exconjugants appeared at 11 minutes and leveled off at 80% maximum by about 33 minutes, suggesting that mtl is the second closest gene to the insertion site. polA did not appear until 24 minutes into the experiment and slowly rose to about 30%, indicating that it is the farthest gene from the insertion site. Therefore, the correct gene order with the insertion site correctly is polA mtl xyl.

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  • 9. 

    Conjugation by which of the following with an F- cell results in a cell that remains F-? 

    • A.

       F+ 

    • B.

      Hfr

    • C.

       F

    • D.

      A and C

    • E.

      B and C

    Correct Answer
    B. Hfr
    Explanation
    When an F- cell undergoes conjugation with an Hfr cell, the F- cell will remain F-. This is because an Hfr cell contains the F factor integrated into its chromosome, and during conjugation, the Hfr cell transfers a portion of its chromosome to the F- cell. However, the F factor itself is not transferred, so the F- cell does not become F+. Therefore, the correct answer is Hfr.

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  • 10. 

    The reason that many plasmids used in laboratories for transformation experiments contain an ampicillin resistance gene (ampR) is 

    • A.

      So that the plasmid can replicate in bacterial cells.

    • B.

      So that the plasmid can recombine with the bacterial genome. 

    • C.

      To enable the recipient cell to conjugate

    • D.

       to provide a selectable marker

    • E.

      To map point mutations. 

    Correct Answer
    D.  to provide a selectable marker
    Explanation
    The reason that many plasmids used in laboratories for transformation experiments contain an ampicillin resistance gene (ampR) is to provide a selectable marker. This means that only the bacterial cells that have successfully taken up the plasmid and are able to produce the ampicillin resistance protein will survive and grow in the presence of ampicillin. This allows researchers to easily identify and select the transformed cells for further analysis.

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  • 11. 

    In a genetic cross between two bacteriophage T4 rII mutants, r+ recombinants are produced. The genetic changes in these two rII mutants must be 

    • A.

      Heterozygous

    • B.

      Heteroallelic

    • C.

      Homozygous.

    • D.

      Homoallelic. 

    • E.

       polymorphic. 

    Correct Answer
    B. Heteroallelic
    Explanation
    The production of r+ recombinants in a genetic cross between two bacteriophage T4 rII mutants suggests that the genetic changes in these mutants must be heteroallelic. Heteroallelic means that the two mutants have different alleles at the same locus, which allows for recombination to occur. This recombination can result in the production of recombinant offspring with a combination of traits from both parental mutants.

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  • 12. 

    In E. coli, λ DNA integrates into which site on the bacterial chromosome? 

    • A.

      Ori

    • B.

      Trp

    • C.

      Bio

    • D.

      Gal

    • E.

      Att

    Correct Answer
    E. Att
    Explanation
    In E. coli, λ DNA integrates into the att site on the bacterial chromosome. The att site is a specific region where the λ DNA is inserted and integrated into the host genome. This integration allows the λ DNA to become a part of the bacterial chromosome and replicate along with it. The att site is essential for the lysogenic cycle of the λ phage, where it remains dormant in the host genome until conditions are favorable for the phage to enter the lytic cycle and produce new phage particles.

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  • 13. 

    To grow on artificial medium, prototrophic bacteria require 

    • A.

      Sunlight. 

    • B.

       amino acid supplements

    • C.

       vitamin supplements

    • D.

      All of these

    • E.

       None of these 

    Correct Answer
    E.  None of these 
    Explanation
    Prototrophic bacteria are able to synthesize all the necessary nutrients they need for growth on their own, including amino acids and vitamins. Therefore, they do not require amino acid or vitamin supplements to grow on an artificial medium. Additionally, sunlight is not a requirement for the growth of bacteria. Hence, the correct answer is "None of these."

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  • 14. 

    E. coli strains that are Hfr 

    • A.

      Are easily mutated

    • B.

      Are susceptible to infection by bacteriophage

    • C.

      Contain the F factor integrated in the bacterial chromosome. 

    • D.

       have a low frequency of recombination

    Correct Answer
    C. Contain the F factor integrated in the bacterial chromosome. 
    Explanation
    E. coli strains that are Hfr contain the F factor integrated in the bacterial chromosome. The F factor is a piece of DNA that can transfer genes between bacteria through a process called conjugation. When the F factor is integrated into the bacterial chromosome, it allows for the transfer of a larger portion of the chromosome during conjugation. This integration increases the frequency of recombination and gene transfer between bacteria. Therefore, E. coli strains that are Hfr have a high frequency of recombination, which is the opposite of what is stated in the answer choices.

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  • 15. 

     The E. coli chromosome is 

    • A.

      Linear. 

    • B.

       circular. 

    • C.

      Single‐stranded. 

    • D.

      Less than a megabase in length. 

    • E.

       compartmentalized within an intracellular membrane

    Correct Answer
    B.  circular. 
    Explanation
    The correct answer is circular. This is because the E. coli chromosome is a circular DNA molecule that is found in the cytoplasm of the bacteria. Unlike linear chromosomes found in eukaryotes, the circular chromosome of E. coli allows for efficient replication and gene expression. This circular structure also helps to prevent the loss of genetic material during cell division.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following methods can be used to create competent bacterial cells? 

    • A.

       Treating the cells chemically

    • B.

       Exposing cells to a strong electric field 

    • C.

       Making the cell membrane more permeable to DNA

    • D.

       Allowing the culture to enter stationary phase growth

    • E.

       A, B, and C only 

    Correct Answer
    E.  A, B, and C only 
    Explanation
    Treating the cells chemically, exposing cells to a strong electric field, and making the cell membrane more permeable to DNA are all methods that can be used to create competent bacterial cells. These techniques help to increase the ability of the bacterial cells to take up and incorporate foreign DNA, such as plasmids, into their own genetic material. Treating the cells chemically can weaken the cell wall, making it easier for DNA to enter the cell. Exposing cells to a strong electric field, known as electroporation, creates temporary pores in the cell membrane, allowing DNA to pass through. Making the cell membrane more permeable to DNA can be achieved by using certain chemicals or by subjecting the cells to specific environmental conditions.

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  • 17. 

    In general, the transformation of most genes occurs at a frequency of one in every ________ cells. 

    • A.

      10

    • B.

      100

    • C.

      1,000

    • D.

      10,000

    • E.

      1,000,000 

    Correct Answer
    C. 1,000
    Explanation
    The transformation of most genes occurs at a frequency of one in every 1,000 cells. This means that out of every 1,000 cells, only one cell will undergo the transformation of the gene. The other 999 cells will not undergo this transformation.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following statements is true regarding a temperate phage? 

    • A.

       It can reproduce at warm or cool temperatures

    • B.

       It is required for transformation

    • C.

      It can be lytic or lysogenic

    • D.

       It causes bacterial cells to conjugate

    • E.

       It reproduces by binary fission

    Correct Answer
    C. It can be lytic or lysogenic
    Explanation
    A temperate phage refers to a type of bacteriophage that has the ability to enter into a lysogenic or lytic cycle. In the lysogenic cycle, the phage integrates its genetic material into the host bacterium's genome and replicates along with it. This allows the phage to be passed on to future generations of bacterial cells without causing immediate cell death. On the other hand, in the lytic cycle, the phage immediately takes over the host bacterium's machinery to replicate and eventually causes cell lysis and death. Therefore, the statement that a temperate phage can be lytic or lysogenic is true.

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  • 19. 

    In the lysogenic bacteriophage life cycle, the λ chromosome.

    • A.

      Replicates and the phage genes take over the bacterium

    • B.

       inserts itself physically into the host cellʹs chromosome

    • C.

      Expresses a repressor protein gene that inhibits the lytic pathway. 

    • D.

       is replaced by a piece of bacterial DNA when packaged inside phage progeny. 

    • E.

      Both B and C 

    Correct Answer
    E. Both B and C 
    Explanation
    In the lysogenic bacteriophage life cycle, the lambda chromosome inserts itself physically into the host cell's chromosome, allowing it to replicate and take over the bacterium. Additionally, the lambda chromosome expresses a repressor protein gene that inhibits the lytic pathway. Therefore, both statements B and C are correct.

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  • 20. 

    Co Transduction bacteria can occur if 

    • A.

      A bacterial cell picks up two fragments of DNA from the environment, each with a different gene

    • B.

       double crossover occurs between prophage DNA and the bacterial chromosome.

    • C.

      Two genes are closely linked enough so that they can be packaged into a phage head and injected into a cell by a single phage

    • D.

       two genes are introduced into the same bacterium by simultaneous infection with two different phages

    • E.

       Both C and D 

    Correct Answer
    E.  Both C and D 
    Explanation
    Co-transduction in bacteria can occur if two genes are closely linked enough so that they can be packaged into a phage head and injected into a cell by a single phage, or if two genes are introduced into the same bacterium by simultaneous infection with two different phages. In both cases, the genes are transferred together and can be co-transduced.

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  • 21. 

    Genetic exchange in bacteria by transduction requires cell‐to‐cell contact. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Genetic exchange in bacteria by transduction does not require cell-to-cell contact. Transduction is a process where genetic material is transferred from one bacterium to another by a bacteriophage (a virus that infects bacteria). The bacteriophage acts as a carrier of the genetic material and transfers it between bacteria without direct contact between the cells. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 22. 

    The viral chromosome of a bacteriophage can never integrate into the host bacteriumʹs chromosome. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The viral chromosome of a bacteriophage can integrate into the host bacterium's chromosome. This process is known as lysogeny, where the viral DNA becomes a part of the bacterial DNA and is replicated along with it. This integration allows the viral DNA to be passed on to daughter cells during cell division. Therefore, the statement that the viral chromosome of a bacteriophage can never integrate into the host bacterium's chromosome is false.

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  • 23. 

    Genetic mapping experiments performed by Seymour Benzer on rII mutants in the T4 phage showed that the gene is indivisible by the process of mutation and recombination.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because the genetic mapping experiments conducted by Seymour Benzer on rII mutants in the T4 phage showed that the gene is divisible by the process of mutation and recombination. This means that the gene can be broken down into smaller units and can be rearranged through mutation and recombination.

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  • 24. 

    In the case of genetic exchange in bacteria by transformation, there is an exchange of DNA back and forth between cells, and a complete diploid cell is formed. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    In the case of genetic exchange in bacteria by transformation, there is no exchange of DNA back and forth between cells. Instead, a single strand of DNA is taken up by a recipient cell and incorporated into its own genome, resulting in a partially diploid cell. Therefore, the statement that a complete diploid cell is formed is incorrect.

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  • 25. 

    In genetic exchange by conjugation, a single Hfrstrain will transfer the entire bacterial chromosome to the recipient, allowing mapping in minutes from the first gene entering to the last one before the other half of the inserted F factor. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    In genetic exchange by conjugation, a single Hfr strain will not transfer the entire bacterial chromosome to the recipient. Instead, it transfers only a portion of the chromosome along with the F factor. This means that mapping the entire bacterial chromosome would not be possible in minutes from the first gene entering to the last one before the other half of the inserted F factor. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 26. 

    ʺHot spotsʺ are locations in a gene where mutations are found at a relatively high frequency. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    "Hot spots" in a gene refer to specific locations where mutations occur frequently. This means that these areas are more prone to genetic changes compared to other regions of the gene. Therefore, the statement that "hot spots" are locations in a gene where mutations are found at a relatively high frequency is true.

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  • 27. 

     A complete bacterial medium contains only the nutrients required for the growth of wild‐type cells. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because a complete bacterial medium contains not only the nutrients required for the growth of wild-type cells but also additional nutrients that may be required for the growth of mutant or genetically modified cells. These additional nutrients can support the growth of cells with specific nutritional requirements or genetic modifications that differ from the wild-type cells.

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  • 28. 

    A merodiploid cell has two copies of one or a few genes and only one copy of all the others. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A merodiploid cell is a type of cell that contains two copies of one or a few specific genes, while having only one copy of all the other genes. This can occur due to a duplication event or the introduction of an extra copy of a gene. In this case, the statement is true because it accurately describes the characteristic of a merodiploid cell.

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  • 29. 

    In F+ × F- crosses, none of the bacterial chromosome is transferred; only the F factor is. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In F+ × F- crosses, the F factor is transferred from the F+ bacterial chromosome to the F- bacterial chromosome. This means that the F- bacteria becomes F+ and gains the ability to transfer the F factor in future crosses. However, the rest of the bacterial chromosome is not transferred in this process. Therefore, the statement that none of the bacterial chromosome is transferred is true.

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  • 30. 

     To enhance the efficiency of transformation, bacterial cells can be induced to take up DNA by a strong electrical field. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Bacterial transformation is a process where bacteria can take up foreign DNA from their environment. To enhance this process, bacterial cells can be induced to take up DNA by a strong electrical field, which is known as electroporation. This electrical field creates temporary pores in the bacterial cell membrane, allowing the DNA to enter the cell more efficiently. Therefore, the statement is true.

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