Ch7 Regaining Postural Stability And Balance

25 Questions | Total Attempts: 62

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Body Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Balance is critical in dictating movement strategies within the ____ kinetic chain
    • A. 

      Closed

    • B. 

      Open

  • 2. 
    The position of the body in relation to gravity and its surroundings is sensed by combining _____, _____, and _____ inputs.
    • A. 

      Visual

    • B. 

      Vestibular (前庭の)

    • C. 

      Somatosensory (体知覚の)

    • D. 

      Afferent

    • E. 

      Efferent

  • 3. 
    Balance movements also involve motions of the _____, _____, and _____ joints, which are controlledby the cordinated actions along the kinetic chain.
    • A. 

      Ankle

    • B. 

      Knee

    • C. 

      Hip

    • D. 

      Shoulder

    • E. 

      Elbow

    • F. 

      Neck

    • G. 

      Wrist

  • 4. 
    Sensory organization
    • A. 

      Determines timing, direction and amplitude of correction based on input

    • B. 

      System relies on one sense at a time for orientation

    • C. 

      For adults the somatosensory system is relied on primarily

    • D. 

      Collection of processes that determine temporal sequencing and distribution of contractile activity

  • 5. 
    Muscle coordination
    • A. 

      Collection of processes that determine temporal sequencing and distribution of contractile activity

    • B. 

      Determines timing, direction and amplitude of correction based on input

    • C. 

      System relies on one sense at a time for orientation

    • D. 

      For adults the somatosensory system is relied on primarily

  • 6. 
    Somatosensory
    • A. 

      Provides information concerning relative position of body parts to support surface and each other

    • B. 

      Measures orientation of eyes and head in relation to surrounding objects

    • C. 

      Role in maintenance of balance

    • D. 

      Provides information dealing with gravitational, linear and angular accelerations of the head with respect to inertial space

    • E. 

      Minor role when visual and somatosensory systems are operating correctly

  • 7. 
    Vision
    • A. 

      Provides information concerning relative position of body parts to support surface and each other

    • B. 

      Measures orientation of eyes and head in relation to surrounding objects

    • C. 

      Role in maintenance of balance

    • D. 

      Provides information dealing with gravitational, linear and angular accelerations of the head with respect to inertial space

    • E. 

      Minor role when visual and somatosensory systems are operating correctly

  • 8. 
    Vestibular (前庭の)
    • A. 

      Provides information dealing with gravitational, linear and angular accelerations of the head with respect to inertial space

    • B. 

      Minor role when visual and somatosensory systems are operating correctly

    • C. 

      Measures orientation of eyes and head in relation to surrounding objects

    • D. 

      Role in maintenance of balance

    • E. 

      Provides information concerning relative position of body parts to support surface and each other

  • 9. 
    Ankle Strategy
    • A. 

      Shifts CoG by maintaining feet and rotating body at a rigid mass about the ankle joints

    • B. 

      Gastrocnemius or tibialis anterior are responsible for torque production about ankle

    • C. 

      Anterior/posterior sway is counteracted by gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior, respectively

    • D. 

      Effective for slow CoG movements when base of support is firm and within LOS

    • E. 

      Also effective when CoG is offset from center

    • F. 

      Relied upon more heavily when somatosensory loss occurs and forward/backward perturbations are imposed or support surface lengths are altered

    • G. 

      Aids in control of motion through initiation of large and rapid motions at the hip with anti-phase rotation of ankle

    • H. 

      Effective when CoG is near LOS perimeter and when LOS boundaries are contracted by narrower base of support

  • 10. 
    Hip Strategy
    • A. 

      Effective when CoG is near LOS perimeter and when LOS boundaries are contracted by narrower base of support

    • B. 

      Aids in control of motion through initiation of large and rapid motions at the hip with anti-phase rotation of ankle

    • C. 

      Relied upon more heavily when somatosensory loss occurs and forward/backward perturbations are imposed or support surface lengths are altered

    • D. 

      Shifts CoG by maintaining feet and rotating body at a rigid mass about the ankle joints

    • E. 

      Gastrocnemius or tibialis anterior are responsible for torque production about ankle

    • F. 

      Anterior/posterior sway is counteracted by gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior, respectively

    • G. 

      Effective for slow CoG movements when base of support is firm and within LOS

    • H. 

      Also effective when CoG is offset from center

  • 11. 
    Balance Error Scoring System (BESS)
    • A. 

      Utilizes three stances

    • B. 

      Double, single, tandem on both firm and foam surfaces

    • C. 

      Athletes are instructed to remain motionless with hands on hips for 20 seconds

    • D. 

      Unnecessary movements and correction of body position are counted as ‘errors’ (max score = 10)

    • E. 

      Results are best utilized if compared to baseline data

    • F. 

      Functional reach tests

    • G. 

      Timed agility tests

    • H. 

      Carioca

    • I. 

      Hop test

    • J. 

      Bass test for dynamic balance

    • K. 

      Timed T-band kicks

    • L. 

      Timed balance beam walks (eyes open and closed)

  • 12. 
    -Ability to keep body as motionless as possible -Measure of postural sway
    • A. 

      Steadiness

    • B. 

      Symmetry

    • C. 

      Dynamic stability

    • D. 

      Utilization of external perturbation

    • E. 

      Center of Pressure (CoP)

    • F. 

      Center of Balance (CoB)

    • G. 

      Center of Vertical Force (CoF)

  • 13. 
    -Ability to distribute weight evenly between 2 feet in upright stance -Measures center of pressure, center of balance and center of force
    • A. 

      Symmetry

    • B. 

      Dynamic stability

    • C. 

      Utilization of external perturbation

    • D. 

      Center of Pressure (CoP)

    • E. 

      Center of Balance (CoB)

    • F. 

      Center of Vertical Force (CoF)

    • G. 

      Steadiness

  • 14. 
    -Ability to transfer vertical projection of CoG around a stationary supporting base -Perception of safe limit of stability
    • A. 

      Dynamic stability

    • B. 

      Utilization of external perturbation

    • C. 

      Center of Pressure (CoP)

    • D. 

      Center of Balance (CoB)

    • E. 

      Center of Vertical Force (CoF)

    • F. 

      Steadiness

    • G. 

      Symmetry

  • 15. 
    -Some are systematic (sinusoidal) while others are unpredictable and determined via changes in subject sway
    • A. 

      Utilization of external perturbation

    • B. 

      Center of Pressure (CoP)

    • C. 

      Center of Balance (CoB)

    • D. 

      Center of Vertical Force (CoF)

    • E. 

      Steadiness

    • F. 

      Symmetry

    • G. 

      Dynamic stability

  • 16. 
    -Center of the distribution of the total force applied to the supporting surface -Calculated from horizontal moment and vertical force data through a triaxial force platform
    • A. 

      Center of Pressure (CoP)

    • B. 

      Center of Balance (CoB)

    • C. 

      Center of Vertical Force (CoF)

    • D. 

      Steadiness

    • E. 

      Symmetry

    • F. 

      Dynamic stability

    • G. 

      Utilization of external perturbation

  • 17. 
    -Point between feet where the ball and heel of each foot has 25% of the body weight (Chattecx Balance System) -Relative weight positioning
    • A. 

      Center of Balance (CoB)

    • B. 

      Center of Vertical Force (CoF)

    • C. 

      Steadiness

    • D. 

      Symmetry

    • E. 

      Dynamic stability

    • F. 

      Utilization of external perturbation

    • G. 

      Center of Pressure (CoP)

  • 18. 
    -Center of vertical force exerted by the feet against the support surface (Neurocom’s Equitest)
    • A. 

      Center of Vertical Force (CoF)

    • B. 

      Steadiness

    • C. 

      Symmetry

    • D. 

      Dynamic stability

    • E. 

      Utilization of external perturbation

    • F. 

      Center of Pressure (CoP)

    • G. 

      Center of Balance (CoB)

  • 19. 
    -CoG is maintained over a fixed base of support, on a stable surface
    • A. 

      Static

    • B. 

      Semi-dynamic

    • C. 

      Dynamic

    • D. 

      Functional

  • 20. 
    -Person maintains CoG over a fixed base of support while on a moving surface -Person transfers CoG over a fixed base of support to selected ranges and or directions within the LOS, while on a stable surface
    • A. 

      Static

    • B. 

      Semi-dynamic

    • C. 

      Dynamic

    • D. 

      Functional

  • 21. 
    -Maintenance of CoG within LOS over a moving base of support while on a stable surface (involve stepping strategy
    • A. 

      Static

    • B. 

      Semi-dynamic

    • C. 

      Dynamic

    • D. 

      Functional

  • 22. 
    -Same as dynamic with inclusion of sports specific task
    • A. 

      Static

    • B. 

      Semi-dynamic

    • C. 

      Dynamic

    • D. 

      Functional

  • 23. 
    Phase I
    • A. 

      Non-ballistic types of drills

    • B. 

      Static balance training

    • C. 

      Bilateral to unilateral on both involved and uninvolved sides

    • D. 

      Utilize multiple surfaces to safely challenge athlete and maintaining motivation

    • E. 

      With and without arms/counterbalance

    • F. 

      Eyes open and closed

    • G. 

      Alterations in various sensory information

    • H. 

      ATC can add perturbations

    • I. 

      Incorporation of multiaxial devices

    • J. 

      Train reflex stabilization and postural orientation

    • K. 

      Transition from static to dynamic

    • L. 

      Running, jumping and cutting – activities that require the athlete to repetitively lose and gain balance in order to perform activity

    • M. 

      Incorporate when sufficient healing has occurred

    • N. 

      Semi-dynamic exercised should be introduced in the transition

    • O. 

      Involve displacement or perturbation of CoG

    • P. 

      Bilateral, unilateral stances or weight transfers involved

    • Q. 

      Sit-stand exercises, focus on postural

    • R. 

      Dynamic and functional types of exercise

    • S. 

      Slow to fast, low to high force, controlled to uncontrolled

    • T. 

      Dependent on sport athlete is involved in

    • U. 

      Start with bilateral jumping drills – straight plane jumping patterns

    • V. 

      Advance to diagonal jumping patterns

    • W. 

      Increase length and sequences of patterns

    • X. 

      Progress to unilateral drills

    • Y. 

      Pain and fatigue should not be much of a factor

    • Z. 

      Can also add a vertical component to the drills

    • Addition of implements

    • Tubing, foam roll

    • Final step = functional activity with subconscious dynamic control/balance

  • 24. 
    Phase II
    • A. 

      Non-ballistic types of drills

    • B. 

      Static balance training

    • C. 

      Bilateral to unilateral on both involved and uninvolved sides

    • D. 

      Utilize multiple surfaces to safely challenge athlete and maintaining motivation

    • E. 

      With and without arms/counterbalance

    • F. 

      Eyes open and closed

    • G. 

      Alterations in various sensory information

    • H. 

      ATC can add perturbations

    • I. 

      Incorporation of multiaxial devices

    • J. 

      Train reflex stabilization and postural orientation

    • K. 

      Transition from static to dynamic

    • L. 

      Running, jumping and cutting – activities that require the athlete to repetitively lose and gain balance in order to perform activity

    • M. 

      Incorporate when sufficient healing has occurred

    • N. 

      Semi-dynamic exercised should be introduced in the transition

    • O. 

      Involve displacement or perturbation of CoG

    • P. 

      Bilateral, unilateral stances or weight transfers involved

    • Q. 

      Sit-stand exercises, focus on postural

    • R. 

      Dynamic and functional types of exercise

    • S. 

      Slow to fast, low to high force, controlled to uncontrolled

    • T. 

      Dependent on sport athlete is involved in

    • U. 

      Start with bilateral jumping drills – straight plane jumping patterns

    • V. 

      Advance to diagonal jumping patterns

    • W. 

      Increase length and sequences of patterns

    • X. 

      Progress to unilateral drills

    • Y. 

      Pain and fatigue should not be much of a factor

    • Z. 

      Can also add a vertical component to the drills

    • Addition of implements

    • Tubing, foam roll

    • Final step = functional activity with subconscious dynamic control/balance

  • 25. 
    Phase III
    • A. 

      Non-ballistic types of drills

    • B. 

      Static balance training

    • C. 

      Bilateral to unilateral on both involved and uninvolved sides

    • D. 

      Utilize multiple surfaces to safely challenge athlete and maintaining motivation

    • E. 

      With and without arms/counterbalance

    • F. 

      Eyes open and closed

    • G. 

      Alterations in various sensory information

    • H. 

      ATC can add perturbations

    • I. 

      Incorporation of multiaxial devices

    • J. 

      Train reflex stabilization and postural orientation

    • K. 

      Transition from static to dynamic

    • L. 

      Running, jumping and cutting – activities that require the athlete to repetitively lose and gain balance in order to perform activity

    • M. 

      Incorporate when sufficient healing has occurred

    • N. 

      Semi-dynamic exercised should be introduced in the transition

    • O. 

      Involve displacement or perturbation of CoG

    • P. 

      Bilateral, unilateral stances or weight transfers involved

    • Q. 

      Sit-stand exercises, focus on postural

    • R. 

      Dynamic and functional types of exercise

    • S. 

      Slow to fast, low to high force, controlled to uncontrolled

    • T. 

      Dependent on sport athlete is involved in

    • U. 

      Start with bilateral jumping drills – straight plane jumping patterns

    • V. 

      Advance to diagonal jumping patterns

    • W. 

      Increase length and sequences of patterns

    • X. 

      Progress to unilateral drills

    • Y. 

      Pain and fatigue should not be much of a factor

    • Z. 

      Can also add a vertical component to the drills

    • Addition of implements

    • Tubing, foam roll

    • Final step = functional activity with subconscious dynamic control/balance