1.
IDRR and DRIVE3 and Drive Cubed are predictive programs that tell the user how fast a driver should respond.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The given statement is false. IDRR, DRIVE3, and Drive Cubed are not predictive programs that tell the user how fast a driver should respond. There is no information provided about what these programs actually do or what their purpose is. Therefore, it cannot be concluded that they are predictive programs for driver response speed.
2.
The driver response models listed above have considered both methodology and substantive variables.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The statement is true because the driver response models mentioned in the question have taken into account both methodology and substantive variables. This means that these models have considered not only the methods or techniques used in analyzing driver responses but also the actual variables or factors that influence driver behavior. Therefore, the statement is correct.
3.
Multiple Linear Stepwise Regression was described by Tabachnik & Fidell (1996) to be the "...surest path to the best prediction equation."
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The given correct answer is true. According to Tabachnik & Fidell (1996), Multiple Linear Stepwise Regression is described as the "surest path to the best prediction equation." This suggests that using this method would result in the most accurate and reliable prediction equation.
4.
The driver response models listed above mark the first time that research in the field of crash reconstruction has utilized multiple regression.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The statement is false because it claims that the driver response models listed above are the first time research in the field of crash reconstruction has used multiple regression. However, this is not true as multiple regression has been used in crash reconstruction research prior to the models mentioned above. Therefore, the correct answer is false.
5.
Cut off response times are not normally distributed, but once response times exceed 1 to 1.25 seconds, response times start to become normally distributed if similar scenarios are compared.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The statement suggests that response times that exceed 1 to 1.25 seconds start to follow a normal distribution when compared to similar scenarios. This implies that a majority of response times fall within a certain range, with fewer occurrences of extremely fast or slow response times. Therefore, the statement is true.
6.
If you used 1.6 seconds as a response time with a 0.5 second range, you would be able to model real-life response times most of the time.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
Using a response time of 1.6 seconds with a range of 0.5 seconds would not accurately model real-life response times most of the time. In real-life scenarios, response times can vary greatly and are influenced by various factors such as network congestion, server load, and user actions. A range of 0.5 seconds is too narrow to account for these variations, and using a fixed response time of 1.6 seconds does not accurately represent the variability of real-life response times. Therefore, the statement is false.
7.
Response times to known lights and sounds do not accurately report real-life response times, primarily due to the fact that many of the most influential variables are not accounted for in these response times.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The given statement explains that response times to known lights and sounds are not an accurate representation of real-life response times because they do not consider important variables. This implies that the response times measured in controlled environments may not reflect how people respond in real-life situations. Therefore, the correct answer is "True" as it aligns with the explanation provided.
8.
You may use the same coefficients utilized in the regression equation to adjust a study when considering more variables in the analysis.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The statement is false because when considering more variables in the analysis, it is not appropriate to use the same coefficients utilized in the regression equation to adjust a study. This is because the coefficients in the regression equation are specific to the variables included in that particular equation, and adding more variables may require different coefficients to accurately represent the relationships between the variables.
9.
We need the perception response time for a path intrusion. A study by Phelps reported the average response time to a path intrusion was 0.635 seconds and Eubanks, Olson & Haight reported a time of 1.91 seconds for a path intrusion. Yet we know that Olson & Sivak reported an average response time of 1.1 seconds. Which study should be used in your analysis?
Correct Answer
A. All of them; each study had different methodologies and if the differences are accounted for, all three report real-life response times with relative accuracy
Explanation
The correct answer is "All of them; each study had different methodologies and if the differences are accounted for, all three report real-life response times with relative accuracy." This is because each study had its own unique approach and methodology in measuring perception response time for a path intrusion. By considering the differences in methodologies and accounting for them, it is possible to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the real-life response times.
10.
DRIVE3 and IDRR can be used to estimate the likely results of a PRT study, and it has been shown that DRIVE3 and IDRR report the resulting PRT of studies with relative accuracy (see presentation), and also report real-life response times with relative accuracy. There is, however, a considerable range (35% coefficient of variation) due to human variability.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The explanation for the given correct answer is that DRIVE3 and IDRR can be used to estimate the likely results of a PRT study and have been shown to report the resulting PRT of studies with relative accuracy. They also report real-life response times with relative accuracy. However, there is a considerable range of variability due to human variability, which is indicated by the 35% coefficient of variation. Therefore, the statement that DRIVE3 and IDRR can estimate the likely results of a PRT study with relative accuracy is true.
11.
The Subtractive Method utilized by Donders more than 140 years ago can be used to show how response times change as the methodology of a study changes.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The Subtractive Method, developed by Donders over 140 years ago, is a useful tool for studying how response times vary with changes in methodology. This method involves subtracting the time taken for a simple task from the time taken for a more complex task, allowing researchers to isolate and measure the additional time required for the more complex task. By using this method, researchers can gain insights into how different factors or conditions affect response times, providing valuable information for further studies and experiments. Therefore, the statement that the Subtractive Method can be used to show how response times change as the methodology of a study changes is true.
12.
The methodology that is the foundation of DRIVE3 and IDRR has been peer reviewed more than a dozen times, has been presented at more than 100 conferences and lectures, has been granted two awards and is being utilized in at least 7 countries. Despite being accepted in the field, the user should be aware of its limitations and understand the programs are tools for a defined purpose.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The explanation for the given correct answer is that the methodology of DRIVE3 and IDRR has undergone extensive peer review, has been presented at numerous conferences and lectures, has received two awards, and is currently being used in at least 7 countries. This information suggests that the methodology is well-established and widely accepted in the field. However, it is important for users to recognize that the programs have limitations and should be used as tools for a specific purpose.