Cardiovascular & Respiratory Test A

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Cardiovascular & Respiratory Test A - Quiz

Anatomy & Physiology
Unit 7 - Cardiovascular & Respiratory Systems Test


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The component of blood shown here are the:

    • A.

      Red blood cells

    • B.

      White blood cells

    • C.

      Plasma

    • D.

      Platelets

    Correct Answer
    A. Red blood cells
    Explanation
    The image shown in the question depicts red blood cells. These cells are responsible for carrying oxygen to different parts of the body. They have a distinct red color due to the presence of hemoglobin, a protein that binds to oxygen. Red blood cells are the most abundant type of blood cell and play a crucial role in maintaining overall health and functioning of the body.

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  • 2. 

    Which component of blood helps fight against viruses and bacteria?

    • A.

      Red blood cells

    • B.

      White blood cells

    • C.

      Plasma

    • D.

      Platelets

    Correct Answer
    B. White blood cells
    Explanation
    White blood cells, also known as leukocytes, are responsible for fighting against viruses and bacteria in the body. They are part of the immune system and play a crucial role in defending the body against infections. White blood cells can identify and destroy pathogens, produce antibodies, and regulate the immune response. They are able to move freely throughout the body and can target and eliminate foreign invaders, helping to keep the body healthy and free from infections.

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  • 3. 

    What would most likely happen if your body was unable to produce platelets?

    • A.

      Injuries might not heal properly

    • B.

      You would have a vitamin deficiency

    • C.

      You would have uncontrolled bleeding

    • D.

      You would have low energy due to a lack of oxygen

    Correct Answer
    A. Injuries might not heal properly
    Explanation
    If the body is unable to produce platelets, it would most likely result in injuries not healing properly. Platelets are responsible for blood clotting, which is essential for wound healing. Without enough platelets, the blood would not be able to clot effectively, leading to prolonged bleeding and delayed healing of injuries.

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  • 4. 

    Which is the small network of blood vessels, shown in the middle?

    • A.

      Veins

    • B.

      Capillaries

    • C.

      Arteries

    Correct Answer
    B. Capillaries
    Explanation
    Capillaries are the small network of blood vessels shown in the middle. Capillaries are responsible for connecting arteries and veins, allowing for the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste products between the blood and surrounding tissues. They have thin walls which facilitate the diffusion of substances. Unlike arteries and veins, capillaries have a smaller diameter and a greater number, making them the smallest and most numerous blood vessels in the body.

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  • 5. 

    Lymphocytes are best described as:

    • A.

      A type of red blood cell that carries oxygen

    • B.

      A type of white blood cell that fights viruses and bacteria

    • C.

      A type of pathogen

    • D.

      A type of blood vessel that transports oxygen-rich blood

    Correct Answer
    B. A type of white blood cell that fights viruses and bacteria
    Explanation
    Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune system. They are responsible for recognizing and attacking viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens in the body. Lymphocytes are specialized in producing antibodies and coordinating immune responses to protect the body from infections. Unlike red blood cells, their primary function is not carrying oxygen. Similarly, lymphocytes are not pathogens themselves, nor are they blood vessels.

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  • 6. 

    Phagocytosis is when lymphocytes:

    • A.

      Send out antibodies to destroy pathogens

    • B.

      Turn into pathogens

    • C.

      Engulf and destroy pathogens

    • D.

      Flow through the bloodstream

    Correct Answer
    C. Engulf and destroy pathogens
    Explanation
    Phagocytosis is a process in which lymphocytes engulf and destroy pathogens. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. They have the ability to recognize and bind to foreign substances, such as bacteria or viruses, and then engulf them through a process called phagocytosis. Once inside the lymphocyte, the pathogens are destroyed through various mechanisms, such as the release of enzymes or the production of toxic substances. This helps to eliminate the pathogens and protect the body from infection.

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  • 7. 

    Where are lymphocytes found in the body?

    • A.

      In the blood plasma

    • B.

      In the red blood cells

    • C.

      In the nerve cells

    • D.

      In the platelets

    Correct Answer
    A. In the blood plasma
    Explanation
    Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that play a crucial role in the immune system. They are primarily found in the blood plasma, which is the liquid component of blood. Lymphocytes circulate throughout the body via the bloodstream, allowing them to quickly reach and respond to infections or other foreign substances. They are also found in lymph nodes, the spleen, and other lymphoid tissues. However, the majority of lymphocytes are present in the blood plasma, making it the correct answer.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following BEST explains what antigens are?

    • A.

      Structures on the surface of cells that trigger an immune response

    • B.

      Viruses and bacteria

    • C.

      Small cell fragments that help blood clot

    • D.

      Tiny blood vessels where gases are exchanged with body tissues

    Correct Answer
    A. Structures on the surface of cells that trigger an immune response
    Explanation
    Antigens are structures on the surface of cells that trigger an immune response. This means that when antigens are detected by the immune system, it recognizes them as foreign and mounts a response to eliminate them. Antigens can be found on a variety of cells, including pathogens such as viruses and bacteria, as well as on normal cells in the body. The immune response can involve the production of antibodies, activation of immune cells, and other mechanisms to neutralize or eliminate the antigen.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following describes an ANTIGEN?

    • A.

      Virus

    • B.

      Bacteria

    • C.

      Dust

    Correct Answer
    C. Dust
    Explanation
    An antigen is a substance that triggers an immune response in the body. While viruses and bacteria can also be antigens, the presence of dust particles in the answer options suggests that dust can also act as an antigen. Dust particles can contain various allergens and irritants that can provoke an immune response, leading to symptoms such as sneezing, coughing, and watery eyes. Therefore, dust can be considered a valid description of an antigen in this context.

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  • 10. 

    Porcha is in a terrible car accident. If she has Type A-negative blood, she can only get a blood transfusion from someone who has:

    • A.

      O- or A-

    • B.

      O-

    • C.

      A- or A+

    • D.

      She cannot receive blood

    Correct Answer
    A. O- or A-
    Explanation
    Porcha can only receive a blood transfusion from someone who has O- or A- blood type. This is because O- is the universal donor, meaning it can be given to anyone regardless of their blood type. A- is compatible because Porcha has Type A-negative blood, which means she has the A antigen on her red blood cells and does not have the Rh antigen. A- blood does not have the Rh antigen as well, making it a suitable match for Porcha.

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  • 11. 

    A person with Type AB+ blood has Rh antigens on their blood cells.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Type AB+ blood is a blood type that contains both A and B antigens on the surface of red blood cells, as well as Rh antigens. Rh antigens are a specific type of antigen that can be present on the red blood cells of individuals with Rh-positive blood types. Therefore, it is correct to say that a person with Type AB+ blood has Rh antigens on their blood cells.

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  • 12. 

    A person who has B antigens present but no Rh antigens would be:

    • A.

      B-

    • B.

      A+

    • C.

      B+

    • D.

      O-

    Correct Answer
    A. B-
    Explanation
    A person who has B antigens present but no Rh antigens would be B-. This means that the person has the B blood type but does not have the Rh factor. The Rh factor is an additional antigen that can be present on red blood cells. So, in this case, the person would have B antigens but not the Rh antigen, resulting in the B- blood type.

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  • 13. 

    Taylor has type O+ blood and needs a blood transfusion. What kinds of blood could she receive? CHECK ALL THAT APPLY!!

    • A.

      A-

    • B.

      AB+

    • C.

      O+

    • D.

      O-

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. O+
    D. O-
    Explanation
    Taylor has type O+ blood, which means she has the O antigen on her red blood cells and the Rh factor. O+ blood can receive blood from donors with O+ and O- blood types. O+ blood can receive O- blood because O- blood does not have the Rh factor, which means it does not have the antigen that could cause a reaction in Taylor's body. Therefore, Taylor could receive O+ and O- blood types.

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  • 14. 

    A person with Type O+ blood can donate to a person who is A- .

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    A person with Type O+ blood cannot donate to a person who is A-. This is because the A- blood type contains the A antigen, which is not present in Type O+ blood. Therefore, there would be a mismatch in the blood types, making it incompatible for donation.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following indicates a normal blood pressure?

    • A.

      120/80 mmHg

    • B.

      95/70 mmHg

    • C.

      140/100 mmHg

    • D.

      90/55 mmHg

    Correct Answer
    A. 120/80 mmHg
    Explanation
    A blood pressure reading of 120/80 mmHg is considered normal because it falls within the healthy range. The top number, 120, represents the systolic pressure, which is the pressure in the arteries when the heart beats and pumps blood. The bottom number, 80, represents the diastolic pressure, which is the pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest between beats. A reading of 120/80 mmHg indicates that the individual has a healthy blood pressure, neither too high nor too low.

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  • 16. 

    A patient who has hypotension will most likely suffer from:

    • A.

      A stroke

    • B.

      Burst blood vessels

    • C.

      A heart attack

    • D.

      Dizziness

    Correct Answer
    D. Dizziness
    Explanation
    Hypotension refers to low blood pressure, which can lead to inadequate blood flow to the brain. This lack of blood flow can cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting. Therefore, it is likely that a patient with hypotension will experience dizziness as a symptom.

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  • 17. 

    Mr. Collins has hypotension. His BP is probably....

    • A.

      90/60 mmHg

    • B.

      125/85 mmHg

    • C.

      160/120 mmHg

    • D.

      20/10 mmHg

    Correct Answer
    A. 90/60 mmHg
    Explanation
    Mr. Collins has hypotension, which is characterized by low blood pressure. A normal blood pressure reading is around 120/80 mmHg. Therefore, the most likely blood pressure for someone with hypotension would be lower than this normal range. Among the given options, 90/60 mmHg is the only reading that falls within the low blood pressure range, indicating that it is the most probable blood pressure for Mr. Collins.

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  • 18. 

    Blood pressure is a measure of the force of blood on the walls of the arteries.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Blood pressure is a measure of the force exerted by blood against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps it throughout the body. It is an important indicator of cardiovascular health and can help diagnose conditions such as hypertension. This statement accurately describes the concept of blood pressure, making the answer "True" correct.

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  • 19. 

    Someone who has high cholesterol and doesn't exercise very often will probably have:

    • A.

      A normal blood pressure

    • B.

      Hypertension

    • C.

      Hypotension

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypertension
    Explanation
    Someone who has high cholesterol and doesn't exercise very often will probably have hypertension. High cholesterol levels can lead to the formation of plaque in the arteries, narrowing them and increasing blood pressure. Lack of exercise can also contribute to high blood pressure. Hypertension is characterized by consistently elevated blood pressure levels, which can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other health complications.

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  • 20. 

    Blood leaves the right ventricle through the...

    • A.

      Pulmonary veins

    • B.

      Pulmonary arteries

    • C.

      Inferior vena cava

    • D.

      Superior vena cava

    Correct Answer
    B. Pulmonary arteries
    Explanation
    Blood leaves the right ventricle through the pulmonary arteries. The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs to be oxygenated. The pulmonary arteries are responsible for carrying this deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs. Once in the lungs, the blood is oxygenated and then returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins. Therefore, the correct answer is pulmonary arteries.

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  • 21. 

    Which chamber of the heart is shown here?

    • A.

      Right atrium

    • B.

      Right ventricle

    • C.

      Left atrium

    • D.

      Left ventricle

    Correct Answer
    D. Left ventricle
    Explanation
    The given image shows the left ventricle of the heart. The left ventricle is responsible for pumping oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body. It is the largest and strongest chamber of the heart, with thick muscular walls to generate enough force to push blood into the systemic circulation.

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  • 22. 

    Which blood vessel is shown here?

    • A.

      Pulmonary vein

    • B.

      Pulmonary artery

    • C.

      Inferior vena cava

    • D.

      Aorta

    Correct Answer
    C. Inferior vena cava
    Explanation
    The blood vessel shown in the image is the inferior vena cava. The inferior vena cava is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower body back to the heart. It is located on the right side of the heart and enters the right atrium.

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  • 23. 

    What valve is shown here?

    • A.

      Mitral valve

    • B.

      Pulmonic valve

    • C.

      Aortic valve

    • D.

      Tricuspid valve

    Correct Answer
    A. Mitral valve
    Explanation
    The valve shown in the image is the mitral valve. This valve is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle of the heart. It consists of two cusps or flaps that open and close to regulate blood flow. The mitral valve prevents the backflow of blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium during the contraction phase of the heart.

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  • 24. 

    What chamber of the heart is shown here?

    • A.

      Right atrium

    • B.

      Right ventricle

    • C.

      Left ventricle

    • D.

      Left atrium

    Correct Answer
    B. Right ventricle
    Explanation
    The correct answer is right ventricle. The image or diagram provided is likely showing a cross-section or view of the heart, and based on the location and structure of the chamber depicted, it matches the characteristics of the right ventricle. The right ventricle is responsible for pumping oxygen-depleted blood to the lungs for oxygenation.

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  • 25. 

    The arrow is pointing to the:

    • A.

      Larynx

    • B.

      Trachea

    • C.

      Bronchi

    • D.

      Lungs

    Correct Answer
    B. Trachea
    Explanation
    The arrow is pointing to the trachea, which is a tube-like structure that connects the larynx (voice box) to the bronchi (airway tubes). It is responsible for conducting air in and out of the lungs during breathing. The trachea is located in the front of the neck and is easily recognizable due to its rigid C-shaped rings of cartilage.

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  • 26. 

    The organ shown below is the:

    • A.

      Diaphragm

    • B.

      Trachea

    • C.

      Pharynx

    • D.

      Nasal cavity

    Correct Answer
    A. Diaphragm
    Explanation
    The organ shown in the image is the diaphragm. The diaphragm is a dome-shaped muscle located beneath the lungs and separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities. It plays a crucial role in the process of breathing by contracting and relaxing to create changes in the thoracic cavity volume, allowing for inhalation and exhalation of air.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following best describes the diaphragm?

    • A.

      The throat where the nasal passage and mouth meet

    • B.

      Thin layer of muscle that pushes up on the lungs to help them inflate and deflate

    • C.

      Tube surrounded by cartilage and lined with mucus

    • D.

      Small sacs that help exchange gases with capillaries

    Correct Answer
    B. Thin layer of muscle that pushes up on the lungs to help them inflate and deflate
    Explanation
    The diaphragm is a thin layer of muscle that plays a crucial role in the process of breathing. It is located just below the lungs and separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. When the diaphragm contracts, it flattens and moves downward, creating more space in the chest cavity and allowing the lungs to expand. This expansion leads to inhalation. Conversely, when the diaphragm relaxes, it moves back up and reduces the space in the chest cavity, causing the lungs to deflate and air to be exhaled. Therefore, the description "thin layer of muscle that pushes up on the lungs to help them inflate and deflate" accurately represents the function of the diaphragm.

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  • 28. 

    The respiratory system helps add carbon dioxide to the blood from the heart.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The respiratory system is responsible for the exchange of gases, specifically oxygen and carbon dioxide, between the body and the environment. It helps in removing carbon dioxide from the blood and adding oxygen to it. Therefore, the statement that the respiratory system helps add carbon dioxide to the blood from the heart is incorrect.

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  • 29. 

    The organ shown below is responsible for:

    • A.

      Removing carbon dioxide from the blood

    • B.

      Bringing oxygen-rich air into the lungs

    • C.

      Causing the lungs to inflate

    • D.

      Making sure food does not enter the windpipe

    Correct Answer
    B. Bringing oxygen-rich air into the lungs
    Explanation
    The organ shown in the question is the lungs. The lungs are responsible for bringing oxygen-rich air into the body. Oxygen is inhaled through the lungs and then transported to the bloodstream, where it is delivered to the cells in the body. The lungs also remove carbon dioxide, a waste product, from the bloodstream and exhale it out of the body. Therefore, the lungs play a crucial role in the respiratory system by facilitating the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body and the environment.

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  • 30. 

    Which is NOT a symptom of a heart attack?

    • A.

      Shortness of breath

    • B.

      Excessive sweating

    • C.

      Slurred speech

    • D.

      Pain in the chest area

    Correct Answer
    C. Slurred speech
    Explanation
    Slurred speech is not a symptom of a heart attack. During a heart attack, the blood supply to the heart muscle is blocked, leading to chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, and excessive sweating. However, slurred speech is typically associated with conditions such as stroke or neurological disorders, not heart attacks. It is important to recognize the symptoms of a heart attack and seek immediate medical attention to minimize the damage to the heart muscle.

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  • 31. 

    A 65-year-old patient claims she is having a hard time catching her breath, and she feels a pain in her left arm that is getting worse with time. She probably:

    • A.

      Has asthma

    • B.

      Is having a stroke

    • C.

      Is having a heart attack

    • D.

      Is healthy

    Correct Answer
    C. Is having a heart attack
    Explanation
    Based on the symptoms described by the patient, it is likely that she is experiencing a heart attack. The difficulty in breathing and the worsening pain in the left arm are classic symptoms of a heart attack. Asthma typically presents with wheezing and shortness of breath, while a stroke would have different symptoms such as sudden weakness or numbness on one side of the body. Given her age and the specific symptoms mentioned, a heart attack is the most probable explanation.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for a stroke?

    • A.

      High blood pressure

    • B.

      High stress

    • C.

      Smoking

    • D.

      Asthma

    Correct Answer
    D. Asthma
    Explanation
    Asthma is not a risk factor for a stroke. While high blood pressure, high stress, and smoking are all known risk factors for stroke, asthma does not directly increase the risk of stroke. Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, which can cause breathing difficulties. However, it does not contribute to the development of blood clots or blockages in the blood vessels that are typically associated with strokes.

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  • 33. 

    A person with asthma uses this because it helps to:

    • A.

      Relax the muscles around the bronchioles

    • B.

      Increase the heart rate

    • C.

      Make the diaphragm contract to increase breathing

    • D.

      Lower the blood pressure

    Correct Answer
    A. Relax the muscles around the bronchioles
    Explanation
    A person with asthma uses this because it helps to relax the muscles around the bronchioles. Asthma is a condition that causes the airways to become inflamed and narrowed, making it difficult to breathe. By relaxing the muscles around the bronchioles, this can help to open up the airways and make breathing easier for someone with asthma.

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  • 34. 

    The image below shows a patient suffering from:

    • A.

      An ischemic stroke

    • B.

      A hemorrhagic stroke

    • C.

      A heart attack

    • D.

      Asthma

    Correct Answer
    B. A hemorrhagic stroke
    Explanation
    The image shows a patient suffering from a hemorrhagic stroke. This can be inferred from the presence of blood in the brain, which is characteristic of a hemorrhagic stroke. An ischemic stroke is caused by a blockage in the blood vessels supplying the brain, while a heart attack is a result of blockage in the blood vessels supplying the heart. Asthma is a respiratory condition and is unrelated to the symptoms shown in the image.

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