The Heart: Part 1 (Pretest)

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| By Carmen.lydell
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Carmen.lydell
Community Contributor
Quizzes Created: 1 | Total Attempts: 142
Questions: 12 | Attempts: 142

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Heart Quizzes & Trivia

In humans and other mammals and in birds, the heart is a four-chambered double pump that is the center of the circulatory system. The heart is essentially a muscle and like any other muscle in the human body, it contracts and expands. Take the pretest below on the heart and get to learn more.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following organs generally receives the greatest radiation dose during Cardiac CT?

    • A.

      Stomach

    • B.

      Breast

    • C.

      Heart

    • D.

      Esophagus

    Correct Answer
    B. Breast
    Explanation
    The breast and skin receive highest radiation dose. Breast shields lower dose but increase image noise.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following options will lead to the greatest reduction in radiations exposure to the patient?

    • A.

      Decreasing peak tube voltage from 120 to 100 kVp

    • B.

      Decreasing tube current from 500 to 400 mAs

    • C.

      Increasing collimation from 64 x 0.5 to 32 x 1mm

    • D.

      Decreasing pitch from 0.3 to 0.2

    Correct Answer
    A. Decreasing peak tube voltage from 120 to 100 kVp
    Explanation
    The change in radiation is proportional to the square of the peak tube voltage, while it is proportional to the changeof tube current. Increasing slice thickness will help reduce radiation dose but to a smaller degree. Decreasing the pitch will increase the radiation dose, because there is more overlap/oversampling.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following should be considered in preparation for a cardiac CT scan to assess for anomalous coronary artery origin in a 32 year woman with a heart rate of 86 bpm despite beta-blocker administration?

    • A.

      Increase pitch from 0.2 to 0.4

    • B.

      Prospective ECG-triggering instead of retrospective ECG-gating

    • C.

      Dual source CT and retrospective ECG-gating

    • D.

      MRI examination

    Correct Answer
    D. MRI examination
    Explanation
    Young women are at higher risk from radiation induced cancer from cardiac CT, while using a low-dose rpospective ECG triggered exam with new technology scanners, the proximal coronaries can frequently be visualized with MRI.

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  • 4. 

    A major reason why thin collimation and thin slice reconstruction are required for coronary CTA is to:

    • A.

      Increase scan coverage

    • B.

      Minimize radiation dose

    • C.

      Obtain adequate temporal resolution

    • D.

      Achieve high z-axis resolution and avoid volume averaging

    Correct Answer
    D. Achieve high z-axis resolution and avoid volume averaging
    Explanation
    In coronary CT angiography, the imaging target is a small structure (< 5mm) in diameter. Therefore, images reconstructed must be performed at thin slices (

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following factors does not influence the number of photons which contribute to a reconstructed slice?

    • A.

      Tube current

    • B.

      Scan time

    • C.

      Reconstructed slice width

    • D.

      Reconstruction kernel

    Correct Answer
    D. Reconstruction kernel
    Explanation
    Tube current, scan time and reconstruction slice width all influence the number of photons which contribute to the reconstruction of a single slice whereas reconstruction kernel selection is a post processing technique used to display the data.

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  • 6. 

    Regarding data acquisition in axial (prospective) and helical (retrospective) scanning modes, which of the following statements is correct?

    • A.

      In axial scanning mode, each detector row is dedicated to one z-axis slice per gantry rotation

    • B.

      In axial scanning mode, each detector row is dedicated to multiple z-axis slice levels per gantry rotation

    • C.

      In helical scanning mode, each detector row is dedicated to one z-axis slice level per gantry rotation

    • D.

      Each detector row is always dedicated to one z-axis slice level per gantry rotation, in either axial or helical scanning mode.

    Correct Answer
    A. In axial scanning mode, each detector row is dedicated to one z-axis slice per gantry rotation
    Explanation
    In axial scanning (used in prospective gating) the table does not move during scan acquisition and patient is fed through in a stepwise manner thus each detectors remains dedicated to one z axis level . In helical scanning (with retrospective gating) there is contnuous movement during acquisition therefore each detector row acquires data from multiple slice levels throughout the scan and reconstructed by interpolation.

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  • 7. 

    A patient taking sildenafil (Viagra) for erectile dysfunction took the medication two days ago. He presents for a cardiac CTA for atypical chest pain, what is the most appropriate action?

    • A.

      Proceed with scan without sublingual nitroglycerin

    • B.

      Proceed with the scan with sublingual nitroglycerin

    • C.

      Reschedule his test for next day

    • D.

      Consider alternate testing

    Correct Answer
    B. Proceed with the scan with sublingual nitroglycerin
    Explanation
    Nitroglycerin should not be used if sildenafil is taken in the past 24 hours. The half-life of sildenafil is 4-5h therefore, is cleared by 24h.

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  • 8. 

    A 44 year-old man with chest pain and equivocal stress ECG test arrives for Cardiac CTA. His Calcium score is 400. The patient has a history of bronchospasm and daily use of bronchodilator. His heart rate at check-in is 88 bpm. How do you proceed?

    • A.

      Perform scan without beta-blocker using retrospective gating

    • B.

      Use a short-acting IV metoprolol immediately prior to scan

    • C.

      Use a long-acting oral metoprolol one hour before the scan

    • D.

      Cancel the study and consider alternative diagnostic test

    Correct Answer
    D. Cancel the study and consider alternative diagnostic test
    Explanation
    A beta blocker (IV or oral) should not be used in patients with a history of severe bronchospasm.

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  • 9. 

    Studies have shown the diagnostic accuracy of coronary CTA is decreased in patients with:

    • A.

      Tachycardia

    • B.

      BMI >30kg/m2

    • C.

      Calcium score >400

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Diagnostic accuracy of Cardiac CT is decreased with high heart rates (particularly > 70bpm), BMI >30 and high calcium scores

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  • 10. 

    For which patient would coronary CTA NOT be appropriate?

    • A.

      Patients admitted for a ST elevation MI and have positive Troponin

    • B.

      Patients with borderiine or equivocal positive stress tests

    • C.

      Patient with atypical chest pain, a LBBB of unknown duration, with normal serial cardiac enzymes

    • D.

      Patients who are admitted to rule out MI, with negative biomarkers (negative Troponin)

    Correct Answer
    A. Patients admitted for a ST elevation MI and have positive Troponin
    Explanation
    Coronary CTA (Computed Tomography Angiography) is not appropriate for patients admitted for a ST elevation MI (Myocardial Infarction) and have positive Troponin because these patients require immediate intervention and treatment rather than a diagnostic imaging test. ST elevation MI indicates a complete blockage of a coronary artery, which requires urgent reperfusion therapy such as angioplasty or thrombolytic therapy. Positive Troponin levels confirm myocardial damage, further emphasizing the need for immediate treatment. Coronary CTA is not suitable in this scenario as it would cause unnecessary delay in providing the necessary medical intervention.

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  • 11. 

    An advantage of performing a coronary CT angiogram with retrospectively ECG-gated CT compared to prospective ECG-triggered CT includes all EXCEPT:

    • A.

      The ability to reconstruct overlapping slices for increased z-axis resolution.

    • B.

      Considerably less radiation exposure.

    • C.

      Ability to calculate ejection fraction.

    • D.

      Arrhythmias are less likely to cause image artifacts.

    Correct Answer
    B. Considerably less radiation exposure.
    Explanation
    Prospective ECG triggered exams are associated with significantly reduced radiation (up to 80%) compared to retrospective acquisition.

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  • 12. 

    When performing a "triple rule out" protocol, the simultaneous opacification of the coronary arteries, thoracic aorta, and pulmonary arteries requires which of the following?

    • A.

      Faster contrast injection

    • B.

      Larger contrast volume

    • C.

      Higher tube current

    • D.

      Thinner slice collimation

    Correct Answer
    B. Larger contrast volume
    Explanation
    To simultaneously opacify the coronary arteries, aorta and pulmonary arteries, the duration of the contrast injection must be longer which will result in a larger volume of contrast. This is due to longer z-axis and contrast opacification in the pulmonary arteries must be maintained at the same time as the aorta. The scan also requires a longer breathhold. Rate of contrast injection, tube current and slice collimation are unchanged.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jun 21, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Carmen.lydell
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