Block 7 Temp Reg & Cancer

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| By Chachelly
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Cancer Quizzes & Trivia

Turning points from Johanessen and Sands


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Acclimatization to a hot environment includes the following change in sweat?

    • A.

      More dilute

    • B.

      More oily

    • C.

      Delayed onset

    • D.

      More volatile

    • E.

      More salty

    Correct Answer
    A. More dilute
    Explanation
    Acclimatization to a hot environment involves the body adapting to the heat by increasing sweat production. Sweating helps to cool down the body by evaporating the sweat from the skin surface. In order to efficiently cool down the body, the sweat becomes more dilute, meaning that it contains a higher amount of water and fewer electrolytes. This allows for more efficient evaporation and cooling of the body. Therefore, the correct answer is "More dilute".

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  • 2. 

    Core temperature is elevated during fever and exercise.   What distinguishes the rise in core temperature during fever from that during exercise?

    • A.

      Increased basal metabolic rate

    • B.

      Reduced sweat formation

    • C.

      Non-shivering thermogenesis

    • D.

      Reduced skin blood flow

    • E.

      Increased thermal setpoint

    Correct Answer
    E. Increased thermal setpoint
    Explanation
    During fever, the rise in core temperature is due to an increased thermal setpoint. This means that the body's internal thermostat is set to a higher temperature, causing the body to generate and retain more heat. On the other hand, during exercise, the rise in core temperature is primarily caused by increased metabolic activity and energy production, leading to an increased basal metabolic rate. Additionally, during exercise, sweat formation is increased to help cool down the body, whereas in fever, sweat formation may be reduced. Non-shivering thermogenesis and reduced skin blood flow are not specific to either fever or exercise.

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  • 3. 

    A surgical sympathectomy has completely interrupted the sympathetic nerves to a patient’s arm. How would you expect the thermoregulatory skin blood flow and sweating responses in that arm to be affected? Vasoconstriction                              Vasodilation                       Sweat  in the cold                                       in the heat                          formation

    • A.

      Abolished……………....……Intact…………………...........Intact

    • B.

      Abolished…………....………Intact………………...........…Abolished

    • C.

      Abolished………....…………Abolished…………...............Intact

    • D.

      Abolished……………......…..Abolished…………...........…Abolished

    Correct Answer
    D. Abolished……………......…..Abolished…………...........…Abolished
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that both thermoregulatory skin blood flow and sweating responses in the arm would be abolished. This is because a surgical sympathectomy completely interrupts the sympathetic nerves, which are responsible for controlling these responses. Without the sympathetic nerves, the blood vessels in the skin would not constrict or dilate appropriately to regulate temperature, and the sweat glands would not be activated to produce sweat. Therefore, both responses would be abolished in the affected arm.

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  • 4. 

    The gain or loss of heat as infrared energy between two objects that are not in physical contact with each other is called what?

    • A.

      Conduction

    • B.

      Convection

    • C.

      Radiation

    • D.

      Evaporation

    Correct Answer
    C. Radiation
    Explanation
    Radiation is the correct answer because it refers to the transfer of heat through electromagnetic waves, such as infrared radiation. Unlike conduction and convection, which require physical contact or movement of matter, radiation can occur even when objects are not in direct contact. This type of heat transfer is commonly observed in situations where heat is transferred from the Sun to the Earth, or when objects are heated by a fire or a hot object nearby.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is TRUE regarding the regulation of body temperature?

    • A.

      In a temperate climate under normal conditions, the greatest loss of body heat occurs through radiation

    • B.

      During water immersion, heat is mainly lost via radiation

    • C.

      The thalamus is the centre for integrating thermal information

    • D.

      As the skin possesses thermoreceptors, its temperature is regulated more closely than the core temperature

    Correct Answer
    A. In a temperate climate under normal conditions, the greatest loss of body heat occurs through radiation
    Explanation
    In a temperate climate under normal conditions, the greatest loss of body heat occurs through radiation. This means that when the environmental temperature is lower than the body temperature, heat is transferred from the body to the surroundings through the process of radiation. Other mechanisms of heat loss, such as conduction, convection, and evaporation, may also contribute to regulating body temperature, but in a temperate climate, radiation is the primary method of heat loss.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following is TRUE regarding sweating and heat loss?

    • A.

      Heat loss through sweating is controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system

    • B.

      The efficacy of sweating as a mechanism of heat loss is increased in tropical rain forest

    • C.

      Profuse sweating can lead to heat exhaustion

    • D.

      Common sweat is secreted by the apocrine glands

    Correct Answer
    C. Profuse sweating can lead to heat exhaustion
    Explanation
    Profuse sweating can lead to heat exhaustion because when we sweat excessively, our body loses a large amount of water and electrolytes. This can lead to dehydration and an imbalance in the body's temperature regulation system. Heat exhaustion occurs when the body is unable to cool itself effectively, leading to symptoms such as dizziness, fatigue, nausea, and rapid heartbeat. Therefore, it is important to stay hydrated and take breaks in a cool environment when sweating excessively to prevent heat exhaustion.

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  • 7. 

    Pathogens that produce fever cause which of the following?

    • A.

      Decreased production of interleukin-1 (IL-1)

    • B.

      Decreased set-point temperature in the hypothalamus

    • C.

      Shivering

    • D.

      Vasodilation of blood vessels in the skin

    Correct Answer
    C. Shivering
    Explanation
    When pathogens produce fever, one of the responses of the body is shivering. Shivering is a mechanism by which the body generates heat in order to increase the body temperature and reach the new set-point temperature established by the hypothalamus. Shivering involves rapid muscle contractions, which generate heat as a byproduct. This helps to increase the body temperature and fight off the infection caused by the pathogens.

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  • 8. 

    What happens to glycolysis when p53 is mutated?

    • A.

      Oxidative pentose pathway flux increases.

    • B.

      Non-oxidative pentose pathway flux decreases.

    • C.

      Glycolysis decreases

    • D.

      The amount of NADPH produced by the PPP decreases.

    • E.

      More pyruvate enters the mitochondria.

    Correct Answer
    D. The amount of NADPH produced by the PPP decreases.
    Explanation
    When p53 is mutated, it leads to a decrease in the amount of NADPH produced by the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). The PPP is responsible for generating NADPH, which is essential for various cellular processes, including antioxidant defense and biosynthesis of fatty acids and nucleotides. A decrease in NADPH production can disrupt these processes and lead to cellular dysfunction. This mutation does not directly affect glycolysis or the entry of pyruvate into the mitochondria.

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  • 9. 

    Which enzyme is responsible for the increase flux through the nonoxidative PPP in tumors?

    • A.

      Hexose Kinase 1

    • B.

      Phosphofructokinase-1

    • C.

      TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator

    • D.

      Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase

    • E.

      Pyruvate Kinase M2

    Correct Answer
    E. Pyruvate Kinase M2
    Explanation
    Pyruvate Kinase M2 is the correct answer because it is an enzyme that is known to play a key role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in cancer cells. It is highly expressed in tumors and is involved in promoting the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), which is a metabolic pathway that generates important cellular building blocks and antioxidants. By increasing the flux through the nonoxidative PPP, Pyruvate Kinase M2 helps cancer cells meet their increased demand for nucleotides and antioxidants, promoting their growth and survival.

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  • 10. 

    What molecule “fills up” the TCA cycle with carbon compounds so that it can keep working?

    • A.

      Glucose

    • B.

      Lactate

    • C.

      Glutamine

    • D.

      Alanine

    • E.

      Aspartate

    Correct Answer
    C. Glutamine
    Explanation
    Glutamine is the correct answer because it is an amino acid that can be converted into alpha-ketoglutarate, a key intermediate in the TCA cycle. Glutamine serves as a carbon source and "fills up" the TCA cycle with carbon compounds, allowing it to continue functioning. This process is important for energy production and the synthesis of other molecules in the cell.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following enzymes do tumor cells use to generate enough NADpH to keep fatty acid and nucleotide synthesis going?  

    • A.

      Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase

    • B.

      Malic enyzme

    • C.

      Transketolase

    • D.

      Glucose-6-Kinase

    • E.

      NADH Dehydrogenase

    Correct Answer
    B. Malic enyzme
    Explanation
    Tumor cells use Malic enzyme to generate enough NADPH to keep fatty acid and nucleotide synthesis going. NADPH is required for these processes as it acts as a reducing agent. Malic enzyme is involved in the malate-aspartate shuttle, which transfers reducing equivalents from the cytosol into the mitochondria, where NADPH is generated. This NADPH can then be used in various biosynthetic pathways, including fatty acid and nucleotide synthesis.

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  • 12. 

    What is one benefit, to cancer cells, to have the HK2-VDAC interaction on the outer mitochondrial membrane?

    • A.

      Pyruvate acid gets into the mitochondria more readily

    • B.

      Glucose gets into the mitochondria more easily

    • C.

      HK2 has a readily available source of ATP for phosphorylating glucose

    • D.

      The mitochondria can make ATP quicker so the cancer cells has a lot of ATP

    • E.

      Having the HK2-VDAC interaction slows down the glycolysis that is occurring in the cancer cell

    Correct Answer
    C. HK2 has a readily available source of ATP for phosphorylating glucose
    Explanation
    The HK2-VDAC interaction on the outer mitochondrial membrane provides a readily available source of ATP for HK2 to phosphorylate glucose. This allows cancer cells to efficiently produce ATP, which is essential for their rapid growth and proliferation. By having a constant supply of ATP, cancer cells can sustain their high energy demands and support their uncontrolled growth.

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  • 13. 

    The heat transfer mechanism that occurs between the sun and the outer layer of the skin is called what?

    • A.

      Conduction

    • B.

      Convection

    • C.

      Radiation

    • D.

      Evaporation

    Correct Answer
    C. Radiation
    Explanation
    Radiation is the correct answer because it refers to the heat transfer mechanism that occurs between the sun and the outer layer of the skin. Radiation involves the transfer of heat through electromagnetic waves, such as infrared radiation, without the need for direct contact between objects. In this case, the sun emits radiation in the form of sunlight, which is absorbed by the outer layer of the skin, resulting in the sensation of warmth.

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  • 14. 

    The heat transfer mechanism that occurs between arteries and veins in a countercurrent exchange is called what?

    • A.

      Conduction

    • B.

      Convection

    • C.

      Radiation

    • D.

      Evaporation

    Correct Answer
    B. Convection
    Explanation
    The heat transfer mechanism that occurs between arteries and veins in a countercurrent exchange is called convection. Convection refers to the transfer of heat through the movement of a fluid, such as blood, which carries heat from the arteries to the veins. In countercurrent exchange, the warm blood flowing in the arteries transfers its heat to the cooler blood flowing in the veins, maximizing the efficiency of heat exchange. This process helps to maintain a constant body temperature and is essential for the proper functioning of the circulatory system.

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  • 15. 

    What is the major heat source to retain body temperature for a nude 65-kg adult person in a 29oC/84.2oF environment?

    • A.

      Brain

    • B.

      Brown adipose tissue

    • C.

      Liver

    • D.

      Skeletal muscle

    • E.

      White adipose tissue

    Correct Answer
    D. Skeletal muscle
    Explanation
    Skeletal muscle is the major heat source to retain body temperature in a nude 65-kg adult person in a 29oC/84.2oF environment. Skeletal muscles generate heat through metabolic processes, such as muscle contractions and cellular respiration. When the body is exposed to cold temperatures, skeletal muscles contract involuntarily, known as shivering, to generate heat and maintain body temperature. This heat production helps to counteract the heat loss from the body to the environment and keep the body warm.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is a human thermoregulatory response controlled by cholinergic sympathetics?

    • A.

      Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    • B.

      Hand vasomotion

    • C.

      Shivering thermogenesis

    • D.

      Sweat secretion

    • E.

      Thermoregulatory behavior

    Correct Answer
    D. Sweat secretion
    Explanation
    Sweat secretion is a human thermoregulatory response controlled by cholinergic sympathetics. When the body temperature rises, the cholinergic sympathetics stimulate the sweat glands to produce sweat. Sweat then evaporates from the skin, which helps to cool down the body as the heat is carried away. This response helps to regulate body temperature and prevent overheating.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following will most faithfully reflect changes in human core temperature that could be caused by immersion in a warm body bath?

    • A.

      Oral temperature

    • B.

      Rectal temperature

    • C.

      Axillary temperature

    • D.

      Tympanic temperature

    • E.

      Esophageal temperature at the cardia

    Correct Answer
    E. Esophageal temperature at the cardia
    Explanation
    The esophageal temperature at the cardia is the most accurate reflection of changes in human core temperature caused by immersion in a warm body bath. This is because the esophagus is located close to the core of the body and is not affected by external factors such as ambient temperature or skin temperature. Therefore, measuring the temperature at the cardia of the esophagus provides a more reliable indicator of core temperature changes compared to other methods such as oral, rectal, axillary, or tympanic temperature measurements.

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  • 18. 

    In a man passively warmed such that his mean skin temperature reaches 40.5oC/104.9oF, which of the following circulatory responses will occur?

    • A.

      Increased cardiac output, decreased splanchnic blood flow

    • B.

      Increased cardiac output, increased muscle blood flow

    • C.

      Unchanged cardiac output, decreased right atrial pressure

    • D.

      Unchanged cardiac output, decreased renal blood flow

    Correct Answer
    A. Increased cardiac output, decreased splanchnic blood flow
    Explanation
    When the mean skin temperature of a person reaches 40.5oC/104.9oF, the body will initiate physiological responses to cool down. One of these responses is to increase cardiac output, which means that the heart pumps more blood per minute. This is done to increase blood flow to the skin, where heat can be dissipated through sweating and radiation. At the same time, the body will decrease blood flow to the splanchnic region (organs of the digestive system) to redirect blood to the skin. This is because the body prioritizes cooling down over digestion during heat stress. Therefore, the correct answer is increased cardiac output and decreased splanchnic blood flow.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is true at the beginning of the rising phase of fever?

    • A.

      Sweat secretion is stimulated

    • B.

      Mean skin temperature is below normal

    • C.

      Muscle blood flow is decreased

    • D.

      Behavioral thermoregulatory responses are inhibited

    • E.

      Warm-sensitive neurons in the integration center are excited

    Correct Answer
    B. Mean skin temperature is below normal
    Explanation
    At the beginning of the rising phase of fever, the mean skin temperature is below normal. This is because during fever, the body's temperature regulation system is disrupted, causing the body temperature to rise. As a result, the blood vessels near the skin constrict, reducing blood flow to the skin and causing the skin temperature to decrease. This is a physiological response aimed at conserving heat and raising the overall body temperature.

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  • 20. 

    The principal physical mechanism that accounts for the transfer of heat within the body is what?

    • A.

      Conduction

    • B.

      Convection

    • C.

      Radiation

    • D.

      Evaporation

    Correct Answer
    B. Convection
    Explanation
    Convection is the principal physical mechanism that accounts for the transfer of heat within the body. Convection involves the movement of heat through the circulation of fluids, such as blood, within the body. As the fluids circulate, they carry heat from one area to another, helping to regulate body temperature. This process is essential for maintaining a stable internal body temperature and ensuring that heat is distributed evenly throughout the body.

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  • 21. 

    When the environmental temperature increases moderately, what happens to blood flow to the skin?

    • A.

      It decreases to stop the transport of heat from the skin surface to deeper tissues

    • B.

      It decreases because the local thermoreceptors in the skin sense an increase in body temperature

    • C.

      It increases because the sweat glands release vasodilators

    • D.

      It increases as part of the body temperature regulatory mechanisms

    • E.

      It increases as the metabolic needs of the skin tissue increase

    Correct Answer
    D. It increases as part of the body temperature regulatory mechanisms
    Explanation
    When the environmental temperature increases moderately, blood flow to the skin increases as part of the body temperature regulatory mechanisms. This is because the body needs to dissipate heat and maintain its internal temperature within a narrow range. By increasing blood flow to the skin, the body can release heat through radiation and convection, helping to cool down the body. This is an important mechanism to prevent overheating and maintain homeostasis.

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  • 22. 

    If someone is experiencing heat exhaustion.  Which of the following would definitively indicate that they are now at risk for heat stroke?

    • A.

      Increased sympathetic dilation of their blood vessels

    • B.

      Increased hypotension

    • C.

      Their skin becomes very dry

    • D.

      They suddenly faint

    • E.

      They have an increased volume of sweat production

    Correct Answer
    C. Their skin becomes very dry
    Explanation
    When someone is experiencing heat exhaustion, their body is unable to cool itself properly, leading to symptoms such as heavy sweating, dizziness, and fatigue. However, if their skin suddenly becomes very dry, it is a definitive indication that they are now at risk for heat stroke. Heat stroke is a more severe condition where the body's temperature regulation system fails, and the lack of sweating and dry skin are key signs of this dangerous condition.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 05, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Chachelly

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