Respiratory Histology Hardest Trivia Quiz

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Respiratory Histology Hardest Trivia Quiz - Quiz

The human respiratory system is made up of a lot of organs, with the main one being the lungs. The respiratory system main function is designed to ensure that oxygen is transported from the lungs to the parts of the body. The quiz is designed to help you see just how much you know about the respiratory histology give it a shot!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Emphysema is associated with defects in the function of:

    • A.

      Smooth muscle

    • B.

      Reticular fibers

    • C.

      Hyaline cartilage

    • D.

      Elastic fibers

    • E.

      Respiratory epithelium

    Correct Answer
    D. Elastic fibers
    Explanation
    Emphysema is associated with destruction of elastic fibers by the enzyme elastase. Elastase is normally released by macrophages in the lungs. This elastase is normally kept under control by the inhibitor alpha1-antitrypsin. However, stimuli which inhibit alpha1-antitrypsin or stimuli that increase the amount of elastase (for instance influx of neutrophils, which also secrete elastase, into the lung) then the elastase can overwhelm the elastase inhibitor and result in destruction of elastic fibers.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following portions of the respiratory tract lack smooth muscle?

    • A.

      Trachea

    • B.

      Bronchi

    • C.

      Bronchioles

    • D.

      Alveolar Ducts

    • E.

      Alveoli

    Correct Answer
    E. Alveoli
    Explanation
    Alveoli lack any smooth muscle and hence is the correct answer for this question. The trachea has a bundlke of smooth muscle cells (trachealis muscle) spanning the open side of the C-shaped cartilages. Bronchi and bronchioles have spiraling bundles of smooth muscle cells. Even alveolar ducts can have a few smooth muscle in small knobs (covered by epithelium) at the jucntions between outpocketing of alveoli.

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  • 3. 

    All of the following are characteristics of capillaries found within the alveolar septa EXCEPT:

    • A.

      They have larger diameter than most capillaries

    • B.

      They have lower pressure than most capillaries

    • C.

      They are somatic, continuous capillaries

    • D.

      They exhibit tight junctions between the neighboring endothelial cells.

    • E.

      They lack a basal lamina

    Correct Answer
    E. They lack a basal lamina
    Explanation
    Alveolar capillaries, like all continuous capillaries, possess a basal lamina, which lies between the endothelial cells of the capillaries and the Type I pneumocytes

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  • 4. 

    A unique feature of the olfactory epithelium is the presence of:

    • A.

      Goblet cells

    • B.

      Neurons that are replaced throughout life

    • C.

      Hair cells

    • D.

      Receptors for taste

    • E.

      Clara cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Neurons that are replaced throughout life
    Explanation
    This is indeed a unique feature of the olfactory epithelium, which is a sensory epithelium in which the actual sensory receptor cells are bipolar neurons located within this pseudostratified epithelium. Unlike most other neurons in the human body, these sensory bipolar neurons can be replaced throughout adult life.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following statements about the respiratory tract is true?

    • A.

      Trachealis muscle contracts during inhalation

    • B.

      Diaphragm contracts during exhalation

    • C.

      Smooth muscle and cartilage disappear from the airways at the same point.

    • D.

      As one moves from the beginning to the end of the brochiolar tree, Goblet cells disappear before ciliated cells disappear

    • E.

      Hyaline cartilage is found only in the larynx and trachea

    Correct Answer
    D. As one moves from the beginning to the end of the brochiolar tree, Goblet cells disappear before ciliated cells disappear
    Explanation
    This is a true statement and reflects an important concept. The action of the cilia on ciliated epithelial cells is necessary to move the mucus (secreted byt he goblet cells) upwards through the airways to the oro-pharynx, where it can be swallowed and thus disposed of in the digestive tract. To insure that mucus from goblet cell secretions does not accumulate in the respiratory tract, the goblet cells disappear before the ciliated epithelial cells disappear (as you go deeper into the airway system). Both of these cell types disappear at the level of the bronchioles.

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  • 6. 

    Larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveolar septa have which of the following in common:

    • A.

      Respiratory epithelium

    • B.

      Smooth muscle

    • C.

      Hyaline cartilage

    • D.

      Elastic fibers

    • E.

      Striated muscle

    Correct Answer
    D. Elastic fibers
    Explanation
    Elastic fibers are found throughout the respiratory tract, both in the conducting and gas exchange portions.

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  • 7. 

    All of the following represent cells involved in the protective mechanisms of the respiratory tract EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Clara cells

    • B.

      Alveolar Macrophages

    • C.

      Ciliated epithelial cells

    • D.

      Goblet cells

    • E.

      Type I pneumocytes

    Correct Answer
    E. Type I pneumocytes
    Explanation
    Type I pneumocytes are very flattened squamous cells that provide a lining for the alveoli but do not perform any secretory or phagocytic functions that play a direct role in protection of the respiratory tract.

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  • 8. 

    Respiratory epithelium and olfactory epithelium are alike in which of the following properties?

    • A.

      Both contain goblet cells

    • B.

      Both are pseudostratified epithelia

    • C.

      Both contain bipolar sensory neurons

    • D.

      Both contain cells with motile cilia

    • E.

      Both contain Clara cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Both are pseudostratified epithelia
    Explanation
    Although the olfactory epithelium is different in terms of having bipolar sensory neurons, both the olfactory epithelium and the "respiratory epithelium) are true pseudostratified columnar epithelium.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following is NOT involved in gas exchange?

    • A.

      Terminal bronchioles

    • B.

      Respiratory bronchioles

    • C.

      Alveolar ducts

    • D.

      Alveolar sacs

    • E.

      Alveoli

    Correct Answer
    A. Terminal bronchioles
    Explanation
    This is the correct answer because gas exchange does not occur at the level of the terminal bronchioles.

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  • 10. 

    All of the following cells are found associated with alveoli EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Type I pneumocytes

    • B.

      Type II pneumocytes

    • C.

      Clara cells

    • D.

      Macrophages

    • E.

      Endothelial cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Clara cells
    Explanation
    Clara cells are NOT found in association with alveoli. Clara cells are found within the epithelium of bronchioles.

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  • 11. 

    All of the following are characteristics of Type II pneumocytes EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Contain organelles called lamellar bodies

    • B.

      Secrete surfactant

    • C.

      Phagocytize particulates reaching the alveoli

    • D.

      Form tight junctions with Type I pneumocytes

    • E.

      Divide to produce both Type I and Type II cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Phagocytize particulates reaching the alveoli
    Explanation
    Type II pneumocytes are not phagocytic cells. Alveolar macrophages phagocytose particulates that erach the alveoli.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following is NOT a significant activity of the nasal cavity?

    • A.

      Moisening air

    • B.

      Filtering air

    • C.

      Absorption of oxygen into blood

    • D.

      Sampling odors in air

    • E.

      Warming air

    Correct Answer
    C. Absorption of oxygen into blood
    Explanation
    This is not an activity that occurs in the nasal cavity. Gas exchange between air and blood occurs in the alveoli of the lung.

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  • 13. 

    In order for oxygen in the inspired air to reach hemoglobin, it must diffuse across all of the following structures EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Layer of surfactant

    • B.

      An endothelial cell

    • C.

      A Type I pneumocyte

    • D.

      One or more smooth muscle cells

    • E.

      The plasma membrane of the erythrocyte

    Correct Answer
    D. One or more smooth muscle cells
    Explanation
    The very thin alveolar wall or septum does not contain any smooth muscle cells and thus oxygen does not have to diffuse across smooth muscle cells in order to reach hemoglobin AND capillaries do not have smooth muscle.

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  • 14. 

    In order for oxygen to diffuse from the alveolar air spaces to the site of its binding to hemoglobin, it must diffuse across how many plasma membranes?

    • A.

      2

    • B.

      3

    • C.

      4

    • D.

      5

    • E.

      6

    Correct Answer
    D. 5
    Explanation
    The minimum gas diffusion barrier in the alveolar septum includes the highly flattened cytoplasm of a Type I pneumocyte, the fused basement membrane, the highly flattened cytoplasm of an endothelial cell making up the capillary wall, the blood plasma and finally the plasma membrane of the erythrocyte. There is a plasma membrane on each side of the flattened Type I pneumocyte and each side of the flattened endothelial cell. Therefore, there are a total of five (5) plasma membranes that must be crossed in order for the oxygen molecule to diffuse from the alveolar air space to the hemoglobin inside the cytoplasm of the erythrocyte (RBC). Two contributed by the Type I cell, 2 contributed by the endothelial cell and one by the erythrocyte.

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  • 15. 

    There are some interesting similarities and contrasts in the structural organization of the glomerular filtration barrier versus the alveolar gas diffusion barrier. In this regard, which of the following is NOT a true statement?

    • A.

      Both the filtration barrier and the gas diffusion barrier contain two epithelial layers.

    • B.

      Glomerular capillaries are fenetrated capillaries while alveolar capillaries are continuous capillaries.

    • C.

      Alveolar capillaries have a smaller diameter and a higher hydrostatic pressure than glomerular capillaries

    • D.

      Both the filtration barrier and the gas diffusion barrier include at least one basement membrane.

    • E.

      Type I pneumocytes in the alveolus are connected by tight (sealing) junctions while the glomerular podocytes are not.

    Correct Answer
    C. Alveolar capillaries have a smaller diameter and a higher hydrostatic pressure than glomerular capillaries
    Explanation
    Alveolar capillaries are larger diameter than most other capillaries and have a high flow but low resistance and low hydrostatic pressure because one does not want to force fluid out of these capillaries into the alveolar air spaces. On the other hand, one wants to have high resistance and high hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capillaries since the point of the glomerulus is to force fluid out of the capillaries and into the Bowman's (urinary) space in order to create the initial kidney filtrate.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following statements about the respiratory system is not correct?

    • A.

      Bronchioles lack hyaline cartilage

    • B.

      Elastic fibers are absent from alveoli

    • C.

      Bronchioles have a ciliated simple cuboidal epithelium

    • D.

      All extrapulmonary airways have C-shaped cartilage rings

    • E.

      Smooth msucle is found in alveolar ducts

    Correct Answer
    B. Elastic fibers are absent from alveoli
    Explanation
    Elastic fibers play an important role in the alveoli and are found in the alveolar septa. They help reduce the diameter of the alveoli during exhalation and hence helps to minimize the volume of the "anatomical" dead space.

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  • 17. 

    Smoking can lead to emphysema through a decrease in the activity of which one of the following?

    • A.

      Collagenase

    • B.

      Elastase

    • C.

      Nicotine

    • D.

      α1-antitrypsin

    • E.

      Surfactant

    Correct Answer
    D. α1-antitrypsin
    Explanation
    Components of smoke can inactivate the natural inhibitors (such as α1-antitrypsin) of elastase and hence result in an increase in elastase activity and hence increased damage to elastin in the respiratory system. Smoking can also lead to migration of neutophils into the respiratory system contributing an additional source of elastase (beyond that secreted by the alveolar macrophages).

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  • 18. 

    The diameter of bronchioles is regulated by ________ while the length of bronchioles can be regulated by ________.

    • A.

      Smooth muscle; elastic fibers

    • B.

      Elastic fibers; smooth muscle

    • C.

      Cartilage; elastic fibers

    • D.

      Collagen; elastic fibers

    • E.

      Cartilage; collagen

    Correct Answer
    A. Smooth muscle; elastic fibers
    Explanation
    The diameter of bronchioles is regulated by smooth muscle, which can contract or relax to control the size of the airways. On the other hand, the length of bronchioles can be regulated by elastic fibers, which provide flexibility and allow the bronchioles to expand or contract as needed.

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  • 19. 

    Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome (also called Hyaline Membrane Disease) results from the lack of function of which of the following cell types in the lung?

    • A.

      Type I pneumocyte (Type I alveolar cell)

    • B.

      Type II pneumocyte (Type II alveolar cell)

    • C.

      Alveolar Macrophage

    • D.

      Clara cell

    • E.

      Goblet cell

    Correct Answer
    B. Type II pneumocyte (Type II alveolar cell)
    Explanation
    Infant or neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (Hyaline Membrane Disease) is a result of the lack of production of surfactant in the alveoli of the lung. Surfactant reduces surface tension and reduces the energy necessary to inflate the alveoli during inhalation. Surfactant is produced by the Type II pneumocytes (also called Type II alveolar cells or foam cells) associated with the alveolar septa. If neonates are born prematurely, the Type II cells may not have matured enough to be producing and secreting sufficient surfactant. Type I pneumocytes (Type II alveolar cells) are squamous cells that create most of the lining of the alveolar lumen. Their morphology is designed to help minimize gas diffusion distances. The tight junctions between these cells help prevent entry of fluid into the air spaces of the alveoli. Clara cells are found within the epithelium of bronchioles and assist in detoxification of gases as well as secreting certain substances to coat the bronchiolar epithelium. Goblet cells are found in the respiratory epithelium lining the trachea and bronchi and the mucus they secrete into the airways assists in the process of mucociliary clearance.

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