Exam 1 Nuclear And Cytoplasmic Staining

36 Questions | Total Attempts: 141

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Exam 1 Nuclear And Cytoplasmic Staining


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The most common method of biochemical bonding between tissue proteins and dyes is:
    • A. 

      Electrostatic

    • B. 

      Covalent

    • C. 

      Absorption

    • D. 

      Hydrogen

  • 2. 
    Most protein molecules are considered _____________ in nature because they are composed of both + and - charged free side chains which are available for biochemical bonding.
    • A. 

      Electrostatic

    • B. 

      Absorptive

    • C. 

      Covalent

    • D. 

      Amphoteric

  • 3. 
    Most cytoplasmic proteins are
    • A. 

      Anionic

    • B. 

      Acidophilic

    • C. 

      Basophilic

    • D. 

      Polychromatic

  • 4. 
    Nucleic acids, RNA and DNA and ribosomal RNA are
    • A. 

      Basophilic

    • B. 

      Cationic

    • C. 

      Acidophilic

    • D. 

      Metachromatic

  • 5. 
    The IEP of proteins in tissue is pH
    • A. 

      5

    • B. 

      7

    • C. 

      6

    • D. 

      8

  • 6. 
    Mordants are used to
    • A. 

      Oxidize tissue components

    • B. 

      Enhance tissue/dye attraction

    • C. 

      Change the refractive index of tissues

    • D. 

      Help differentiate stains

  • 7. 
    Eosin is an example of a ___________
    • A. 

      Anionic dye

    • B. 

      Nuclear stain

    • C. 

      Cationic dye

    • D. 

      Mordant dye

  • 8. 
    Powdered dyes have 2 main molecular components. The component that confers color is called the
    • A. 

      Auxochrome

    • B. 

      Autochrome

    • C. 

      Chromophore

    • D. 

      Chromeophore

  • 9. 
    Dyes require an ionized group to bind to tissue. This group is called the
    • A. 

      Chromophore

    • B. 

      Chromeophore

    • C. 

      Autochrome

    • D. 

      Auxochrome

  • 10. 
    Which of the following is NOT an example of an Acid Dye ionic group?
    • A. 

      -NH

    • B. 

      -SO4

    • C. 

      -COOH

    • D. 

      -OH

  • 11. 
    A stain which has methylene blue and eosin is known as a
    • A. 

      Dichromatic

    • B. 

      Monochromatic stain

    • C. 

      Romanowsky stain

    • D. 

      Trichromatic

  • 12. 
    Under alkaline conditions, methylene blue breaks down and forms two other distinct dyes. These dyes are called
    • A. 

      Azure A and B

    • B. 

      Azure 1 and 2

    • C. 

      Azure 3 and 4

    • D. 

      Azure B and D

  • 13. 
    Tissues exposed to acid solutions will become more _______
    • A. 

      Negatively charged

    • B. 

      Positively charged

    • C. 

      Amphoteric

    • D. 

      Metachromatic

  • 14. 
    What is the affect of the staining quality of eosin if the dye's pH becomes too alkaline?
    • A. 

      The staining intensity is increased as the tissue becomes more negatively charged

    • B. 

      No affect at all, eosin is stable across all pH ranges

    • C. 

      The staining intensity decreases as the tissue becomes more negatively charged

    • D. 

      The staining intensity is decreased due to excess hematoxylin uptake

  • 15. 
    In comparison to other fixatives, formalin tends to make tissues more _____ by cross-linking to amino groups, thus, lessening the intensity of eosin staining
    • A. 

      Acidophilic

    • B. 

      Basophilic

    • C. 

      Amphoteric

    • D. 

      Autofluorescent

  • 16. 
    Over fixation in which of the following fixatives will most likely impair nuclear detail?
    • A. 

      Bouins

    • B. 

      20% formalin

    • C. 

      Glutaraldehyde

    • D. 

      Glyoxal

  • 17. 
    Acetic acid can be added to Harris hematoxylin to
    • A. 

      Ripen the hematoxylin

    • B. 

      For a dye lake

    • C. 

      Make nuclear staining more specific

    • D. 

      Blue the hematoxylin

  • 18. 
    If the Harris hematoxylin is full strength, without acetic acid added, what is the intended mode of staining?
    • A. 

      Progressive

    • B. 

      Regressive

    • C. 

      Indirect 2-tier

    • D. 

      Autofluorescence

  • 19. 
    In the VVG elastic tissue stain, Weigert hematoxylin is combined with iodine to stain elastic fibers. What is used to differentiate the tissue to clearly demonstrate the elastic fibers?
    • A. 

      Weak acid alcohol

    • B. 

      Moderate strength acetic acid

    • C. 

      Excess mordant, ferric iodine

    • D. 

      Excess mordant, ferric chloride

  • 20. 
    Hematoxylin is extracted from
    • A. 

      Logwood trees

    • B. 

      Lichens

    • C. 

      Beetles

    • D. 

      Redwood trees

  • 21. 
    The active staining ingredient in ripened hematoxylin solutions is
    • A. 

      Aluminum-hematoxylin lake

    • B. 

      Aluminum-hematein lake

    • C. 

      Aluminum-hematin lake

    • D. 

      Sodium iodate

  • 22. 
    Ripening of hematoxylin is a process of
    • A. 

      Oxidation

    • B. 

      Reduction

    • C. 

      Hydrolysis

    • D. 

      Differentiation

  • 23. 
    Harris hematoxylin is converted into a dye lake by adding
    • A. 

      Ammonium aluminum sulfate

    • B. 

      Sodium iodate

    • C. 

      Ferric chloride

    • D. 

      Citric acid

  • 24. 
    You have chosen to perform a special stain procedure that uses several acid reagents. Of the choices below, which hematoxylin stain will best resist decolorization?
    • A. 

      Delafield

    • B. 

      Harris

    • C. 

      Weigert

    • D. 

      Mayer's

  • 25. 
    What method can enhance pale nuclear staining of over decalcified bone?
    • A. 

      Restain the slide with Weigert iron hematoxylin

    • B. 

      Nothing can help in this situation

    • C. 

      Reprocess the tissue and then rrstain

    • D. 

      Restain the slide with Mayer's hematoxylin

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