Questions On Diseases: Multiple Choice! Quiz

18 Questions | Total Attempts: 250

SettingsSettingsSettings
Questions On Diseases: Multiple Choice! Quiz - Quiz

Do you have knowledge of diseases? Causes of disease could be infections, inflammation, environmental factors, or genetic defect, and it is characterized by an identifiable grouping of signs or symptoms or both. Pathogens or internal dysfunctions can also cause it. It could happen if you inherit a genetic illness or have a nutritional deficiency or imbalance. This quiz will provide you with a healthy awareness of diseases.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    A 23-year-old woman presents to her physician with a lump in her left breast. She has no family history of cancer and is taking low-dose oral contraceptives. On examination, she has a 2-cm rubbery, round, freely mobile mass. An ultrasound is performed showing a solid mass. Core needle biopsy is reported as a fibroadenoma. Which of the following characteristics was most likely seen on the sample?
    • A. 

      High nucleus to cytoplasm ratio

    • B. 

      High fraction of cells with mitotic spindles

    • C. 

      Cellular hyperplasia with glandular architecture

    • D. 

      Loss of glandular architecture

    • E. 

      Anaplastic cells

  • 2. 
    A 21-year-old woman presents with a painful right knee. An x-ray reveals a mass arising from the distal femur. Biopsy shows a malignant tumor arising from the bone, osteosarcoma; the malignant tumor cells laying down osteoid. When the patient was 2 years old, a cancerous lesion was surgically removed from the right eye. Which of the following regulatory genes is most likely responsible for these eye and bone lesions?
    • A. 

      MYC proto-oncogene

    • B. 

      RAS proto-oncogene

    • C. 

      RB suppressor gene

    • D. 

      TP53 suppressor gene

    • E. 

      BRCA1 suppressor gene

  • 3. 
    A 48-year-old man presents to the emergency room complaining of vague abdominal pain, intermittent fevers, and a 9-kg (20-lb) weight loss over the past 4 months. On physical examination, he has diffuse abdominal tenderness, hepatomegaly, and yellow sclera. CT-guided liver biopsy reveals hepatocellular carcinoma. Which of the following tumor markers is useful for monitoring the recurrence of disease following surgery in this patient?
    • A. 

      CEA

    • B. 

      AFP

    • C. 

      CA-125

    • D. 

      HCG

    • E. 

      PSA

  • 4. 
    A 10-month-old infant is taken to the doctor for persistent jaundice and easy fatigability. Laboratory studies are ordered and a peripheral smear shows the presence of spherocytes. Which of the following characteristics would be seen in hereditary spherocytosis?
    • A. 

      Increased osmotic fragility

    • B. 

      Sickling on treatment with sodium metabisulphite

    • C. 

      Hyper-segmented neutrophils

    • D. 

      Heinz bodies

    • E. 

      Positive Ham’s test

  • 5. 
    A mother came to the pediatric clinic with her one-year-old child, who appeared pale.  Physical examination revealed frontal bossing and splenomegaly. A complete blood count showed anemia. Peripheral blood smear revealed microcytic hypochromic red cells and many target cells. A radiograph of the skull showed a “hair on end” appearance. Based on the information provided, which of the following laboratory findings is most closely associated with this patient’s clinical condition?
    • A. 

      Tear-drop cells and leuko-erythroblastic reaction in peripheral smear

    • B. 

      Increase in HbF on electrophoresis

    • C. 

      Elevated lead levels

    • D. 

      Low serum ferritin

    • E. 

      Markedly hypocellular bone marrow

  • 6. 
    A bone marrow aspirate revealed a hypercellular marrow with 40% blasts. The blasts were positive for myeloperoxidase and Sudan Black B; and negative for PAS stain. Flow cytometry revealed positivity for CD13 and CD33.  What would be your diagnosis on the basis of all these findings?
    • A. 

      Acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma

    • B. 

      Chronic myeloid leukemia

    • C. 

      Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    • D. 

      Lymphoma

    • E. 

      Acute myeloid leukemia

  • 7. 
    A 45-year-old man comes to your office complaining of blood in his sputum and urine.  Physical examination reveals a man with hypertension, respiratory distress, and edema.  Urinalysis shows the presence of red blood cells and proteins in the urine. What type of hypersensitivity reaction is most likely associated with this patient’s diagnosis?
    • A. 

      Type I

    • B. 

      Type II

    • C. 

      Type III

    • D. 

      Type IV

  • 8. 
    A 55-year-old woman presents with dysphagia, diarrhea, and weight loss.  Physical examination reveals a woman who appears younger than her stated age with abnormal breath sounds.  Lab data is significant for antibodies against DNA topoisomerase I.  What is the most likely diagnosis?
    • A. 

      Systemic sclerosis

    • B. 

      Sjogrens syndrome

    • C. 

      CREST syndrome

    • D. 

      Systemic lupus erythematosus

    • E. 

      Discoid lupus

  • 9. 
    A 63-year-old man with diabetes mellitus and previous history of hypertension and M.I. presents to the clinic because of difficulty breathing while walking 25 yards on his lawn. He also requires 3-4 pillows to sleep at night. On physical examination, there are bibasilar crackles and pitting edema of lower extremities. Also, there is pressure in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen and distension of the right internal jugular vein is noted. Which of the following is the most likely pathophysiological mechanism of the manifestations in this patient’s lung? 
    • A. 

      Increased permeability of vessel wall

    • B. 

      Decreased plasma colloid-osmotic pressure

    • C. 

      Obstruction of lymphatic vessel flow

    • D. 

      Increased sodium retention by the kidneys

    • E. 

      Increased intravascular (hydrostatic) pressure

  • 10. 
    Dr. Richards has learned from a 2001 Swedish study that 25% of all the parents said their intellectual awareness of their child's impending death came less than 24 hours before the death happened. 45% said their emotional awareness came less than 24 hours before the child's death. The researchers also found that adequate information from the doctor on the child's fatal prognosis was the main predictor of intellectual and emotional awareness. According to this study, which of the following “SPIKES” components is best designed to reduce the chances that parents are unprepared emotionally and intellectually for dealing with their child’s illness?
    • A. 

      Knowledge

    • B. 

      Strategy and planning

    • C. 

      Invitation

    • D. 

      Empathy and emotions

    • E. 

      Setting Up

  • 11. 
    A 30-year-old woman is worked up for an abnormal Pap smear. Colposcopy shows lesions in the cervix indicative of a malignancy caused by Papillomavirus infection. Which of the following is the most likely process of transformation?
    • A. 

      Creating a hotspot for v-Src integration near a c-oncogene, thereby increasing cell growth and proliferation

    • B. 

      Permanently activating the Pkr pathway involved in cell growth and proliferation

    • C. 

      Binding protein E7 to Rb and bypassing cell cycle control

    • D. 

      Permanently activating the p53 pathway involved in cell growth and proliferation

    • E. 

      Permanently activating cell signalling pathways involved in cell growth and proliferation

  • 12. 
    Organ grafts between genetically identical individuals such as identical twins are characterized by the following statement:
    • A. 

      Not rejected even with no immunosuppression

    • B. 

      Subject to hyperacute rejection

    • C. 

      Rejected slowly due to minor histocompatibility antigens

    • D. 

      Subject to chronic rejection

    • E. 

      Rejected immediately due to alloincompatibility

  • 13. 
    A vaccine that is intended to specifically prevent the infection of human erythrocytes by malaria parasite must be directed against what stage of the organism’s life cycle?
    • A. 

      Gametocyte

    • B. 

      Sporozoite

    • C. 

      Hypnozoite

    • D. 

      Merozoite

    • E. 

      Trophozoite

  • 14. 
    A medical student on a community medicine posting discovered that the people living in an isolated area had no access to potable water and had been drinking untreated water from a pond that was infested with Cyclops (a water flea). Which infectious disease had they been most likely exposed to?
    • A. 

      Dracunculiasis

    • B. 

      Ascariasis

    • C. 

      Elephantiasis

    • D. 

      Onchocerciasis

    • E. 

      Schistosomiasis

  • 15. 
    K.L. was born in Ville de Saguenay (Quebec), birth was uneventful. However, she failed to thrive. Suddenly at the age of 5 months, her condition deteriorated rapidly and she was transferred to an emergency room. Glutamic: pyruvic transaminase (GPT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ammonia, and creatinine levels in blood were elevated; attending physicians noticed a strong cabbage-like smell originating from her. The most likely diagnosis is
    • A. 

      Tyrosinemia I

    • B. 

      Hyperlysinemia

    • C. 

      Cystinuria

    • D. 

      Methylmalonic aciduria

    • E. 

      Glycine cleavage enzyme deficiency

  • 16. 
    A 24-year-old man was sent by his physician to the warfarin investigatory clinic because his doctor was worried by the patient’s unstable INR values. He had recently developed atrial fibrillation for which he was prescribed warfarin.  At the clinic, his INR values were > 4.  Genetic analysis of his CYP2 9 enzyme was ordered and it showed that the patient had a CYP variant of 2C9 which had significantly reduced activity in the liver.  What was the most likely explanation for this patient’s INR values?
    • A. 

      Increased prothrombin time associated with reduced blood warfarin levels

    • B. 

      Reduced prothrombin time associated with increased blood warfarin levels

    • C. 

      Average prothrombin time but a decrease in the laboratory reference INR value

    • D. 

      Less prothrombin due to high warfarin levels resulting in a shortened clotting time

    • E. 

      Increased prothrombin time due to increased blood warfarin levels

  • 17. 
    A 25-year-old student is about to leave for sub-Sahara Africa on a short-term research program on drug resistance.  He was given mefloquine as a prophylactic measure because falciparum malaria was endemic and chloroquine resistance was widespread in the area he was visiting.  Which of the following mechanisms of resistance to drugs by the plasmodial cell, common to tumor cells, bacteria, and fungi, would be the most likely line of his research?
    • A. 

      Enhanced efflux transporter molecules

    • B. 

      Decreased chloroquine binding sites

    • C. 

      Enhanced activation of polymerase reactions

    • D. 

      Enhanced availability of TNF-alpha

    • E. 

      Increased expression of chloroquine catabolic enzymes

  • 18. 
    A patient, who received a renal transplant six months previously, is being maintained on methylprednisolone, sirolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil.  A week ago he was brought to the ER with a fever, pain over the graft, and he reported a significant decrease in urine volume.  A panel of tests and a renal biopsy were ordered. The results of tests on his blood revealed creatinine levels of 3.8/dL (normal 0.5-1.2mg/dL), BUN 56mg/dL (normal 5-20) ; the BUN /creatinine ratio is 14/1(normal 10/1).  Which of the following best reflects the most appropriate modification to the current course of therapy for this patient?
    • A. 

      Add a diuretic

    • B. 

      Add etanercept

    • C. 

      Add muromonab CD3

    • D. 

      Substitute cyclosporine for sirolimus

    • E. 

      Add azathioprine

Back to Top Back to top