2) Biology Revision - Keeping Healthy - Defence Against Infection

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Biology Quizzes & Trivia

B1.1 - 2


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Pathogens are _____________ that cause infectious diseases (eg - bacteria and viruses)

    • A.

      Bugs

    • B.

      Micro organisms

    • C.

      Specialist cells

    • D.

      Toxins

    Correct Answer
    B. Micro organisms
    Explanation
    Microorganisms are tiny living organisms that include bacteria and viruses. They are responsible for causing infectious diseases, commonly known as pathogens. These pathogens invade the body and can cause various illnesses. Therefore, microorganisms accurately describe the organisms that cause infectious diseases such as bacteria and viruses.

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  • 2. 

    ________ releases toxins

    Correct Answer
    bacteria
    Explanation
    Bacteria release toxins. Bacteria are microscopic organisms that can produce and release toxic substances known as toxins. These toxins can be harmful to other organisms, including humans, causing various diseases and infections. Bacterial toxins can damage cells, disrupt normal bodily functions, and lead to symptoms such as fever, inflammation, and tissue damage. Understanding the release of toxins by bacteria is crucial in the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections.

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  • 3. 

    _________ damage our cells

    Correct Answer
    Viruses
    Explanation
    Viruses are known to damage our cells. They invade the host cells and use their machinery to replicate themselves, often causing harm to the host organism in the process. Viruses can disrupt normal cellular functions, leading to cell death or dysfunction. This damage can result in various diseases and illnesses in humans and other organisms.

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  • 4. 

    An _________ is a protein coating on the pathogen that the body detectsso attacks the pathogen

    Correct Answer
    antigen
    Explanation
    An antigen is a protein coating on the pathogen that triggers the body's immune system to recognize and attack the pathogen. The immune system identifies antigens as foreign substances and produces antibodies to neutralize and eliminate them. This immune response is essential for protecting the body against infections and diseases caused by pathogens.

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  • 5. 

    White blood cells can...

    • A.

      Eat and digest pathogens

    • B.

      Move pathogens to the skins surface where they can escape

    • C.

      Ingest and destroy pathogens

    Correct Answer
    C. Ingest and destroy pathogens
    Explanation
    White blood cells, also known as leukocytes, play a crucial role in the immune system by ingesting and destroying pathogens. They are able to recognize foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and other harmful microorganisms, and engulf them through a process called phagocytosis. Once inside the white blood cell, the pathogens are broken down and destroyed, helping to eliminate the threat and protect the body from infection and disease.

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  • 6. 

    Bacterias come in many shapes and sizes. They are living cells and can _______ rapidly. They release toxins which make us ill.

    Correct Answer
    multiply
    Explanation
    Bacteria are living cells that have the ability to multiply rapidly. This means that they can reproduce and increase their population at a fast rate. As they multiply, they release toxins that can cause illness in humans. This explains why bacteria can quickly spread and cause infections or diseases.

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  • 7. 

    Bacteria can cause

    • A.

      Colds

    • B.

      Food poisoning

    • C.

      Mumps

    • D.

      Chicken pox

    • E.

      Cholera

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Food poisoning
    E. Cholera
    Explanation
    Bacteria can cause food poisoning and cholera. Food poisoning occurs when bacteria contaminate food, leading to illness when consumed. Cholera is a bacterial infection that causes severe diarrhea and dehydration. Both conditions are caused by specific bacteria and can be transmitted through contaminated food or water.

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  • 8. 

    Viruses are

    • A.

      Much bigger than bacteria

    • B.

      The same size as bacteria

    • C.

      Much smaller than bacteria

    • D.

      Similar size but a different shape to bacteria

    Correct Answer
    C. Much smaller than bacteria
    Explanation
    Viruses are much smaller than bacteria. While bacteria are single-celled organisms that can be seen under a microscope, viruses are much smaller and can only be observed with an electron microscope. Unlike bacteria, viruses are not considered living organisms as they cannot reproduce on their own and require a host cell to replicate. Due to their small size, viruses are often able to penetrate and infect host cells, causing various diseases.

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  • 9. 

    Viruses contain a fragment of ______ information inside a protective protein shell

    Correct Answer
    genetic
    Explanation
    Viruses contain a fragment of genetic information inside a protective protein shell. This genetic information can be in the form of DNA or RNA, and it carries the instructions for the virus to replicate and infect host cells. The protective protein shell, called a capsid, helps to shield the genetic material from the external environment and prevent it from being degraded. This allows the virus to survive and potentially cause infection when it enters a suitable host organism.

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  • 10. 

    They can only reproduce inside host ___s which can damage the ___. Once inside, the viruses multiplies creating thousands of copies of itself. These eventually fill the host ___ which burts open and the viruses are released into the bloodstream or airways to damage more ___. (all same word)

    Correct Answer
    cell
    Explanation
    Viruses can only reproduce inside host cells which can damage the cell. Once inside, the viruses multiply creating thousands of copies of themselves. These eventually fill the host cell which bursts open and the viruses are released into the bloodstream or airways to damage more cells.

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  • 11. 

    Viruses can cause

    • A.

      AIDS

    • B.

      Whooping cough

    • C.

      Rubella

    • D.

      Salmonella

    • E.

      Chicken pox

    • F.

      Influenza (flu)

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. AIDS
    C. Rubella
    E. Chicken pox
    F. Influenza (flu)
    Explanation
    Viruses can cause a variety of diseases, including AIDS, rubella, chicken pox, and influenza (flu). AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which attacks the immune system. Rubella is caused by the rubella virus and can lead to rash, fever, and birth defects if contracted during pregnancy. Chicken pox is caused by the varicella-zoster virus and is characterized by itchy blisters on the skin. Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is caused by influenza viruses and can cause respiratory symptoms such as fever, cough, and body aches.

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  • 12. 

    Pathogens are not the disease, they just cause the disease

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Pathogens are microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi that can cause diseases. However, it is important to note that pathogens themselves are not the disease, but rather they are the agents that trigger the disease. Once they enter the body, pathogens can invade and multiply, leading to the development of various diseases. Therefore, the statement that pathogens are not the disease but only cause the disease is true.

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  • 13. 

    White blood cells don't ingest the cells, they eat them.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    White blood cells don't eat the cells, they injest them.

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  • 14. 

    Antibodies and antitoxins are living specialist proteins

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Antibodies and antitoxins are not living but are specialist proteins

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  • 15. 

    Vaccines can contain

    • A.

      Harmless fragments of pathogens

    • B.

      Live pathogens in high quantities

    • C.

      Toxins produced by pathogens

    • D.

      Live pathogens treated to make them harmless

    • E.

      New untested medicines that cannot be swallowed easily

    • F.

      Dead pathogens

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Harmless fragments of pathogens
    C. Toxins produced by pathogens
    D. Live pathogens treated to make them harmless
    F. Dead pathogens
    Explanation
    Vaccines can contain harmless fragments of pathogens, toxins produced by pathogens, live pathogens treated to make them harmless, and dead pathogens. Harmless fragments of pathogens are included in vaccines to stimulate the immune system without causing disease. Toxins produced by pathogens can also be used to stimulate an immune response. Live pathogens can be included in vaccines, but they are treated to make them harmless and unable to cause disease. Dead pathogens are also used in some vaccines to stimulate an immune response.

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  • 16. 

    These dead or inactive pathogens acts as as an antigen (the protein coat the body detects) and when they are injected into the body they stimulte ____ blood cells to produce antibodies against the pathogen.

    Correct Answer(s)
    white
  • 17. 

    _____ cells are also created which mean if the person does get the infection later, the required antibodies will be able to reproduce rabidly and destroy it.

    Correct Answer(s)
    memory
  • 18. 

    Antibiotics...

    • A.

      Don't work on bacteria

    • B.

      Don't work on viruses

    • C.

      Kill bacteria and stop their growth

    • D.

      Kill viruses and stop their growth

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Don't work on viruses
    C. Kill bacteria and stop their growth
    Explanation
    Antibiotics are medications that are specifically designed to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. They target the specific mechanisms and structures that are unique to bacteria, such as their cell walls or protein synthesis. However, antibiotics do not have any effect on viruses, as viruses are fundamentally different from bacteria. Viruses are not living organisms and rely on host cells to reproduce. Therefore, antibiotics are not effective in treating viral infections.

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  • 19. 

    Some bacteria can become ______ to antibiotics and become _______ strains of bacteria. This can be caused by not completing a full course of antibiotics or over prescribing antibiotics (all same word)

    Correct Answer(s)
    resistant
    Explanation
    Bacteria can develop resistance to antibiotics, which means that the antibiotics are no longer effective in killing or inhibiting their growth. This resistance can occur when antibiotics are not taken for the full prescribed course, allowing some bacteria to survive and develop resistance. Overprescribing antibiotics can also contribute to the development of resistant strains, as it exposes bacteria to antibiotics unnecessarily and increases the likelihood of resistance developing. Therefore, the correct answer is "resistant."

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  • 20. 

    _____________ reduces risk of infection. This includes personal hygiene, keeping hospitals clean and sterilising equipment.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Cleanliness
    Explanation
    Cleanliness reduces the risk of infection by promoting personal hygiene practices, maintaining a clean environment in hospitals, and sterilizing equipment. Personal hygiene, such as regular handwashing, helps to prevent the spread of bacteria and viruses. Keeping hospitals clean, including regular cleaning and disinfection of surfaces, reduces the presence of pathogens. Sterilizing equipment ensures that it is free from any harmful microorganisms that could cause infections. Overall, maintaining cleanliness is an essential measure in reducing the risk of infection and promoting a safe and healthy environment.

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  • 21. 

    _______ discovered disease could be reduces by cleanliness in hospitals. He got doctors to wear appropriate protection, wash hands and sterilise equipment although his ideas were ignored at the time.

    • A.

      Remmelveis

    • B.

      Shemmelweis

    • C.

      Semmelweis

    • D.

      Semmelveis

    Correct Answer
    C. Semmelweis
    Explanation
    Semmelweis discovered that disease could be reduced by cleanliness in hospitals. He implemented measures such as doctors wearing appropriate protection, washing hands, and sterilizing equipment. Despite his ideas being ignored at the time, Semmelweis's findings were instrumental in the development of modern hospital hygiene practices.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 15, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 20, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Izzy_
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