Biology Final Exam Practice Set Trivia

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Biology Exam Quizzes & Trivia

This quiz is to help you study for your biology final exam. This will help you with your score on the exam.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Restriction enzymes are

    • A.

      Amino acids

    • B.

      Protein, produced by bacteria, which cuts DNA apart

    • C.

      Ribonucleic acid

    • D.

      DNA that joins another enzyme

    Correct Answer
    B. Protein, produced by bacteria, which cuts DNA apart
    Explanation
    Restriction enzymes are proteins produced by bacteria that have the ability to cut DNA molecules at specific sequences. These enzymes play a crucial role in genetic engineering and molecular biology by allowing scientists to manipulate and study DNA. By recognizing and binding to specific DNA sequences, restriction enzymes can cleave the DNA at those sites, creating fragments that can be further analyzed or combined with other DNA molecules. This ability to cut DNA at specific sites makes restriction enzymes valuable tools in various applications, such as DNA cloning, gene editing, and DNA fingerprinting.

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  • 2. 

    The Proteins of a restriction enzymes helps the bacteria from infections caused by

    • A.

      Malaria

    • B.

      Fungi

    • C.

      Virus

    • D.

      Other bacteria

    Correct Answer
    C. Virus
    Explanation
    Restriction enzymes are proteins produced by bacteria to defend themselves against viral infections. These enzymes recognize specific DNA sequences and cut the DNA at those sites, rendering the viral DNA inactive. This defense mechanism helps the bacteria to prevent viral replication and ultimately survive the infection. Therefore, the proteins of restriction enzymes help the bacteria in protecting themselves from infections caused by viruses.

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  • 3. 

    The enzymes are _______________ aftered the bacteria they are isolated from.

    Correct Answer
    named
    Explanation
    The enzymes are named after the bacteria they are isolated from.

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  • 4. 

    Restriction enzymes cut the DNA at a specific locations called

    • A.

      Restriction site

    • B.

      Restriction enzyme

    • C.

      Nucleus

    • D.

      Ribosome

    • E.

      Chloroplast

    Correct Answer
    A. Restriction site
    Explanation
    Restriction enzymes are proteins that cut DNA at specific locations known as restriction sites. These enzymes recognize specific DNA sequences and cleave the DNA at or near these sites. The restriction site refers to the specific location on the DNA where the enzyme cuts, allowing for the manipulation and analysis of DNA molecules. Therefore, the correct answer is "Restriction site."

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  • 5. 

    The restriction site is always within a sequence of bases called a

    • A.

      DNA sequence

    • B.

      RNA sequence

    • C.

      Amino acid sequence

    • D.

      Recognition sequence

    Correct Answer
    D. Recognition sequence
    Explanation
    A recognition sequence refers to a specific sequence of bases within a DNA molecule that is recognized and cut by a restriction enzyme. Restriction enzymes are proteins that can bind to and cleave DNA at specific recognition sequences. These recognition sequences are usually palindromic, meaning they read the same forward and backward on each strand of the DNA molecule. The correct answer, "Recognition sequence," accurately describes the location of the restriction site within a DNA sequence where the enzyme can bind and cut the DNA.

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  • 6. 

    The sequence of a restriction enzyme is always

    • A.

      Tall

    • B.

      Weird

    • C.

      Specific

    • D.

      Palindrome

    Correct Answer
    D. Palindrome
    Explanation
    A restriction enzyme is a type of enzyme that recognizes specific sequences of DNA and cuts the DNA at those sequences. The sequence of a restriction enzyme is always a palindrome, meaning it reads the same forward and backward. This is important because it allows the enzyme to bind to the DNA sequence on both strands and cut the DNA at the same position on both strands. This characteristic of being a palindrome ensures that the DNA is cut accurately and effectively.

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  • 7. 

    The recognition sequence of EcoR1 is

    • A.

      GCCATT, ATTGCC

    • B.

      ACCTGG, ACCTGG

    • C.

      GAATTC, CCTAAG

    • D.

      GAATTC, CTTAGG

    Correct Answer
    C. GAATTC, CCTAAG
    Explanation
    The recognition sequence of EcoR1 is GAATTC, CCTAAG. This is because EcoR1 is a restriction enzyme that recognizes and cuts DNA at specific sequences. The sequence GAATTC is the recognition sequence for EcoR1, and it cuts the DNA at this sequence, resulting in two fragments with sticky ends. The complementary sequence to GAATTC is CCTAAG, which is also recognized by EcoR1. Therefore, both GAATTC and CCTAAG are correct recognition sequences for EcoR1.

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  • 8. 

    The restriction site of an EcoR1 is between

    • A.

      A and T

    • B.

      G and A

    • C.

      A and U

    • D.

      C and T

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. G and A
    Explanation
    The restriction site of an EcoR1 is between G and A. EcoR1 is a type II restriction enzyme that recognizes the palindromic sequence GAATTC. It cuts the DNA molecule between the G and A nucleotides, generating sticky ends. This restriction site is specific to EcoR1 and allows for the insertion of foreign DNA into the cut site.

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  • 9. 

    ___________ ends are staggered cuts

    • A.

      Blunt ends

    • B.

      Sticky ends

    Correct Answer
    B. Sticky ends
    Explanation
    Sticky ends are ends of DNA fragments that have unpaired bases, resulting in single-stranded overhangs. These overhangs can easily bind to complementary sequences, allowing for the joining of DNA fragments. In contrast, blunt ends are ends of DNA fragments that have no unpaired bases, making it more difficult for the fragments to bind together. Therefore, the given statement suggests that the ends being referred to have unpaired bases and are capable of easily binding to other DNA fragments, indicating that the correct answer is "Sticky ends".

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  • 10. 

    RFLP is short for

    • A.

      Retrovirus For Lamb Poop

    • B.

      Restriction Friction Link Palindrome

    • C.

      Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

    • D.

      Restriction Fragment Length Polysaccharides

    Correct Answer
    C. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
    Explanation
    RFLP stands for Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. This technique is used in molecular biology to analyze DNA fragments. It involves cutting DNA molecules into smaller fragments using restriction enzymes, and then separating and analyzing these fragments based on their size using gel electrophoresis. The variations in the fragment lengths are known as polymorphisms, which can be used to study genetic variations and identify individuals or species.

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  • 11. 

    The length and number of fragments (RFLP) will be unique for each (pick a specific mammal)

    • A.

      Dog

    • B.

      Cat

    • C.

      Fish

    • D.

      Person

    Correct Answer
    D. Person
    Explanation
    The length and number of fragments in Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis are determined by the unique DNA sequence of an individual. Since each person has a distinct DNA sequence, the RFLP patterns will be unique for each person. Therefore, the correct answer is "Person."

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  • 12. 

    The DNA is loaded into a gel and separated with electricity to create a barcode map is called

    • A.

      The Gel

    • B.

      Electricity separator

    • C.

      Gel Electrophoresis

    • D.

      None of the above

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Gel Electrophoresis
    Explanation
    Gel electrophoresis is a technique used to separate DNA molecules based on their size and charge. In this technique, DNA samples are loaded into a gel matrix and an electric current is applied. The negatively charged DNA molecules move towards the positive electrode, with smaller fragments moving faster and farther than larger ones. This results in the separation of DNA fragments, creating a barcode-like pattern that can be used to analyze and compare DNA samples. Therefore, gel electrophoresis is the correct answer as it accurately describes the process of loading DNA into a gel and separating it with electricity to create a barcode map.

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  • 13. 

    The separation is based on size of the

    • A.

      Ribosome

    • B.

      Nucleic acid

    • C.

      Restriction enzyme

    • D.

      DNA

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. DNA
    Explanation
    The correct answer is DNA because the separation mentioned in the question is based on the size of the components listed. Out of all the options given, DNA is the only one that can vary significantly in size. Ribosomes, nucleic acids, and restriction enzymes have relatively consistent sizes, whereas DNA can vary in length depending on the organism and the specific DNA molecule being referred to. Therefore, DNA is the most likely component to be separated based on size.

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  • 14. 

    If the fragment cut is large, then

    • A.

      It will fall apart

    • B.

      It will be close to the well

    • C.

      It will retrain its position

    • D.

      It will move far away from the well

    Correct Answer
    B. It will be close to the well
    Explanation
    When the fragment cut is large, it is likely to be close to the well. This is because a large cut would cause the fragment to lose stability and break apart, making it more likely to fall close to the well.

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  • 15. 

    When you combine the following, they make DNA fingerprinting possible

    • A.

      DNA, ribosome

    • B.

      Nucleic acid, ribosome

    • C.

      DNA, RNA

    • D.

      RFLP, Restriction enzyme

    • E.

      RFLP, Gel Electrophoresis

    Correct Answer
    E. RFLP, Gel Electrophoresis
    Explanation
    RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) and Gel Electrophoresis are the two techniques that make DNA fingerprinting possible. RFLP involves the use of restriction enzymes to cut DNA at specific sites, creating fragments of varying lengths. Gel Electrophoresis is then used to separate these fragments based on their size and charge. By comparing the resulting patterns of DNA fragments, unique profiles can be generated, allowing for identification and comparison of individuals. Therefore, RFLP and Gel Electrophoresis are essential components in the process of DNA fingerprinting.

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  • 16. 

    DNA fingerprinting is used for

    • A.

      Paternity tests

    • B.

      Crime scenes

    • C.

      Identification

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    DNA fingerprinting is a technique used to identify individuals based on their unique DNA patterns. It can be used for paternity tests to determine biological relationships between individuals, as each person's DNA is inherited from their parents. It is also used at crime scenes to match DNA samples found to potential suspects or victims. Additionally, DNA fingerprinting can be used for general identification purposes, such as in forensic investigations or to establish biological relationships in cases of adoption or immigration. Therefore, the correct answer is "All of the above."

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  • 17. 

    Media usually talk about ______________ cloning.

    Correct Answer
    reproductive
    Explanation
    Media usually talk about reproductive cloning because it is the type of cloning that involves the creation of an organism that is genetically identical to another existing or previously existing organism. This type of cloning raises ethical and moral concerns and has been the subject of much debate and controversy. It is often discussed in the media due to its potential implications for human reproduction, medical advancements, and the ethical dilemmas it presents.

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  • 18. 

    Three types of cloning are

    • A.

      Reproductive cloning

    • B.

      Recombinant DNA

    • C.

      Cell cloning

    • D.

      Therapeutic cloning

    • E.

      A, B, and D

    Correct Answer
    E. A, B, and D
    Explanation
    The correct answer is A, B, and D because reproductive cloning, recombinant DNA, and therapeutic cloning are all types of cloning. Reproductive cloning involves creating an organism that is genetically identical to another organism. Recombinant DNA cloning involves combining DNA from different sources to create a new DNA molecule. Therapeutic cloning involves creating embryonic stem cells for medical purposes. Therefore, options A, B, and D are all correct.

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  • 19. 

    This type of cloning is the transfer of a DNA fragment from one organism to another organism.

    • A.

      Therapeutic cloning

    • B.

      Reproductive cloning

    • C.

      Recombinant DNA

    • D.

      Cell cloning

    Correct Answer
    C. Recombinant DNA
    Explanation
    Recombinant DNA refers to the process of transferring a DNA fragment from one organism to another organism. This involves combining DNA from different sources to create a new DNA sequence. In this context, the given explanation aligns with the concept of recombinant DNA as it describes the transfer of a DNA fragment from one organism to another.

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  • 20. 

    Which method of cloning utilizes a vector to insert DNA fragment into a host cell?

    • A.

      Recombinant DNA

    • B.

      Therapeutic cloning

    • C.

      Reproductive cloning

    • D.

      A and C

    • E.

      B and C

    Correct Answer
    A. Recombinant DNA
    Explanation
    Recombinant DNA is the correct answer because it involves the use of a vector to insert a DNA fragment into a host cell. A vector is a carrier molecule, such as a plasmid or a virus, which can be used to transport the desired DNA into the host cell. This method of cloning allows scientists to combine DNA from different sources and create a recombinant DNA molecule, which can then be inserted into a host cell for replication and expression. Therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning do not involve the use of vectors for DNA insertion, making them incorrect answers.

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  • 21. 

    This cloning method produces an organism that has the same DNA as a previously existing organism

    • A.

      Recombinant DNA

    • B.

      Therapeutic cloning

    • C.

      Reproductive cloning

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Reproductive cloning
    Explanation
    Reproductive cloning is the correct answer because it is the process of creating an organism that has the same DNA as a previously existing organism. This involves taking the DNA from the donor organism and inserting it into an egg cell, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The resulting organism will be genetically identical to the donor organism. Recombinant DNA refers to the combining of DNA from different sources, and therapeutic cloning is the creation of cloned embryos for medical research purposes. Neither of these methods specifically result in an organism with the same DNA as a previously existing organism.

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  • 22. 

    DNA is moved from a nucleus of a donor cell in an egg whose DNA has been removed.

    • A.

      Therapeutic cloning

    • B.

      Reproductive cloning

    • C.

      Recombinant DNA

    • D.

      Super reproductive cloning

    Correct Answer
    B. Reproductive cloning
    Explanation
    Reproductive cloning involves the process of transferring DNA from a donor cell's nucleus into an egg that has had its own DNA removed. This technique is used to create an organism that is genetically identical to the donor cell, essentially producing a clone. The given answer correctly identifies reproductive cloning as the process described in the question.

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  • 23. 

    Use of a patient's own genetic material to generate new stem cells.

    • A.

      Reproductive cloning

    • B.

      Recombinant DNA

    • C.

      Therapeutic cloning

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Therapeutic cloning
    Explanation
    Therapeutic cloning involves using a patient's own genetic material to generate new stem cells. This process allows for the creation of cells that are genetically identical to the patient, which can then be used for various medical purposes, such as treating diseases or injuries. Reproductive cloning refers to the creation of an organism that is genetically identical to another, while recombinant DNA involves combining DNA from different sources. While both reproductive cloning and recombinant DNA are related to genetic manipulation, they do not specifically involve the use of a patient's own genetic material like therapeutic cloning does. Therefore, the correct answer is therapeutic cloning.

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  • 24. 

    GMO stands for

    • A.

      Great Moss Orientation

    • B.

      Genotypes Moving Outward

    • C.

      Genetically Modified Organisms

    • D.

      None

    Correct Answer
    C. Genetically Modified Organisms
    Explanation
    GMO stands for Genetically Modified Organisms. This term refers to organisms whose genetic material has been altered through genetic engineering techniques. These modifications are made to enhance certain desirable traits, such as increased resistance to pests or improved nutritional content. GMOs are widely used in agriculture, with crops like corn, soybeans, and cotton being genetically modified to increase yields and reduce the need for pesticides. However, there is ongoing debate and concern about the potential health and environmental impacts of GMOs.

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  • 25. 

    Bacterial proteins that have the ability to both strands of the DNA molecule at a certain point is a

    • A.

      Transgenic organism

    • B.

      Plasmid

    • C.

      Recombinant DNA

    • D.

      Vector

    • E.

      Restriction enzyme

    Correct Answer
    E. Restriction enzyme
    Explanation
    A restriction enzyme is a bacterial protein that has the ability to cut both strands of the DNA molecule at a certain point. It recognizes specific DNA sequences and cleaves the DNA at those sites. This process is important in genetic engineering as it allows for the manipulation of DNA by cutting and splicing specific fragments. Restriction enzymes are commonly used in the creation of recombinant DNA, where DNA from different sources is combined, and in the construction of vectors, which are used to transfer DNA into host organisms. Therefore, the correct answer is restriction enzyme.

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  • 26. 

    ________________ contains foreign DNA

    • A.

      Restriction enzyme

    • B.

      Plasmid

    • C.

      Vector

    • D.

      Retrovirus

    • E.

      Transgenic organism

    Correct Answer
    E. Transgenic organism
    Explanation
    A transgenic organism is an organism that contains foreign DNA. This foreign DNA is typically inserted into the organism's genome using techniques such as genetic engineering. This allows scientists to introduce specific traits or genes into an organism that it would not naturally possess. Therefore, a transgenic organism is the correct answer as it directly relates to the statement that it contains foreign DNA.

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  • 27. 

    ________________ is made by connecting segments of DNA from other sources

    • A.

      Plasmid

    • B.

      DNA site

    • C.

      Recombinant DNA

    • D.

      Ribonucleic acid

    Correct Answer
    C. Recombinant DNA
    Explanation
    Recombinant DNA is formed by combining segments of DNA from different sources. This process involves cutting DNA molecules from one source and inserting them into another DNA molecule, creating a new sequence. This technique allows scientists to introduce specific genes or traits into an organism, leading to the production of desired proteins or the modification of certain characteristics. Recombinant DNA technology has revolutionized various fields such as medicine, agriculture, and biotechnology, enabling the development of new treatments, genetically modified crops, and improved industrial processes.

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  • 28. 

    General term for a vehicle used to transfer a foreign DNA fragment into a host cell.

    • A.

      Host cell

    • B.

      Transfer RNA

    • C.

      Vector

    • D.

      Plasmis

    • E.

      GMO

    Correct Answer
    C. Vector
    Explanation
    A vector is a general term for a vehicle used to transfer a foreign DNA fragment into a host cell. Vectors are commonly used in genetic engineering to introduce new genes into an organism's genome. They can be in the form of plasmids, viruses, or other genetic elements that are capable of carrying and delivering the foreign DNA into the host cell. Once inside the host cell, the vector allows the foreign DNA to be replicated and expressed, resulting in the production of desired proteins or traits. Therefore, in the context of the given question, vector is the correct answer.

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  • 29. 

    ___________ is a small ring of DNA found in a bacteria cell

    • A.

      Plasmid

    • B.

      Retrovirus

    • C.

      EcoR1

    • D.

      Reproductive cloning

    • E.

      Yes, all of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Plasmid
    Explanation
    A plasmid is a small ring of DNA found in a bacteria cell. Plasmids are separate from the bacterial chromosome and can replicate independently. They can carry additional genes that provide advantages to the bacteria, such as antibiotic resistance. Plasmids can also be transferred between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer, allowing for the spread of beneficial traits. Therefore, plasmids play a significant role in genetic diversity and adaptation in bacteria.

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  • 30. 

    ___________________ is the procedure for cleaving DNA from an organism into small segments, and inserting the segments into other organism.

    • A.

      Recombinant DNA

    • B.

      Messenger RNA

    • C.

      Genetic breeding

    • D.

      Genetic engineering

    • E.

      Binary fission

    Correct Answer
    D. Genetic engineering
    Explanation
    Genetic engineering is the procedure for cleaving DNA from an organism into small segments and inserting the segments into another organism. This process allows scientists to manipulate the genetic material of organisms by introducing new genes or altering existing ones. It is commonly used in biotechnology and agriculture to create genetically modified organisms (GMOs) with desired traits, such as improved crop yield or disease resistance. Genetic engineering has revolutionized various fields, including medicine, agriculture, and environmental science, by offering the ability to modify and manipulate genetic material to achieve specific outcomes.

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  • 31. 

    Two of the are biological. What are they?

    • A.

      Virus and metal bullets

    • B.

      Micropipette and plasmid

    • C.

      Virus and plasmid

    • D.

      Plasmid and metal bullets

    Correct Answer
    C. Virus and plasmid
    Explanation
    The correct answer is virus and plasmid. Viruses are biological entities that can infect living organisms and replicate within them. Plasmids, on the other hand, are small, circular DNA molecules found in bacteria and other organisms. They can replicate independently of the host genome and are often used in genetic engineering and biotechnology. Both viruses and plasmids have important roles in biological processes and can be studied and manipulated in laboratory settings.

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  • 32. 

    ______________ are empolyed in the production of growth of growth hormone to treat dwarfism and insulin to treat diabetes.

    • A.

      Virus

    • B.

      Transgenic plants

    • C.

      Bacteria

    • D.

      Shrubs

    • E.

      EcoR1

    Correct Answer
    C. Bacteria
    Explanation
    Bacteria are employed in the production of growth hormone to treat dwarfism and insulin to treat diabetes. Bacteria can be genetically modified to produce these hormones in large quantities, making them an efficient and cost-effective method of production. By inserting the gene responsible for producing the desired hormone into the bacteria, they can be used as "factories" to mass-produce the hormones. This process, known as recombinant DNA technology, has revolutionized the production of these important medical treatments.

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  • 33. 

    ______________ are organisms that are genetically identical.

    • A.

      Identical DNA

    • B.

      Twins

    • C.

      Clones

    • D.

      Similar traits

    Correct Answer
    C. Clones
    Explanation
    Clones are organisms that are genetically identical. Cloning involves creating an exact genetic copy of an organism, resulting in individuals with identical DNA. This can be achieved through various methods such as artificial embryo twinning or somatic cell nuclear transfer. Clones share the same genetic makeup and therefore possess identical traits and characteristics.

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  • 34. 

    Genomes are

    • A.

      Thousands of genes that make up 46 human chromosomes

    • B.

      Stupid

    • C.

      The property of all living organism

    • D.

      Essential to fishes

    • E.

      Not specific as to where they cut enzymes

    Correct Answer
    A. Thousands of genes that make up 46 human chromosomes
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Thousands of genes that make up 46 human chromosomes." Genomes refer to the complete set of genes or genetic material present in an organism. In the case of humans, the genome consists of thousands of genes that are organized into 46 chromosomes. Each chromosome contains specific genes that determine various traits and characteristics of an individual.

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  • 35. 

    DNA made by connecting pieces of DNA from different sources.

    • A.

      Biotic genes

    • B.

      Clone

    • C.

      Plasmid

    • D.

      Recombinant DNA

    Correct Answer
    D. Recombinant DNA
    Explanation
    Recombinant DNA refers to the DNA that is created by combining segments of DNA from different sources. This process involves the insertion of DNA fragments into a vector, such as a plasmid, which can then be transferred into a host organism. The resulting recombinant DNA contains genetic material from multiple sources, allowing for the expression of new traits or the production of specific proteins. This technology has numerous applications in various fields, including medicine, agriculture, and biotechnology.

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  • 36. 

    Small ring of DNA is called

    • A.

      Donkey

    • B.

      Cells

    • C.

      Nucleus

    • D.

      Sister chromatins

    • E.

      Plasmid

    Correct Answer
    E. Plasmid
    Explanation
    A small ring of DNA is called a plasmid. Plasmids are extra-chromosomal DNA molecules that are commonly found in bacteria and some other organisms. They can replicate independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between cells. Plasmids often carry genes that provide advantages to the host organism, such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to produce certain proteins. They are widely used in genetic engineering and biotechnology research.

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  • 37. 

    A ________________ involves an individual of unknown genotype and an invidual of known genotype.

    • A.

      Genome

    • B.

      Fingerprinting

    • C.

      Cross test

    • D.

      DNA sequencing

    Correct Answer
    C. Cross test
    Explanation
    A cross test involves breeding or crossing an individual of unknown genotype with an individual of known genotype. This is done to determine the inheritance patterns and traits of the offspring, which can help in determining the genotype of the unknown individual.

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  • 38. 

    A ____________ map showing the location of genes of a chromosome.

    • A.

      Gene

    • B.

      DNA

    • C.

      Linkage

    • D.

      Dual LAN

    Correct Answer
    C. Linkage
    Explanation
    A linkage map is a type of genetic map that shows the relative positions and distances between genes on a chromosome. It is created based on the phenomenon of genetic linkage, which describes how genes that are located close to each other on a chromosome tend to be inherited together. By studying the patterns of inheritance and recombination between genes, scientists can construct a linkage map to understand the order and spacing of genes on a chromosome. Therefore, a linkage map is a useful tool for studying the location and arrangement of genes on a chromosome.

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  • 39. 

    Transgenic bacteria are currently used to produce

    • A.

      Human growth hormone, PKU, and interferon

    • B.

      Hexosaminidase A, phenylalanine, and insulin.

    • C.

      PKU, insulin, and interferon

    • D.

      Human growth hormone, insulin, and phenylalanine

    Correct Answer
    D. Human growth hormone, insulin, and phenylalanine
    Explanation
    Transgenic bacteria are genetically modified bacteria that have been altered to contain and express genes from other organisms. In this case, the correct answer suggests that transgenic bacteria are currently being used to produce human growth hormone, insulin, and phenylalanine. This means that these bacteria have been engineered to produce these specific substances, which can have various medical applications. By using transgenic bacteria, scientists can produce these substances in large quantities, which can be used for research, therapeutic purposes, or other applications in the medical field.

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  • 40. 

    Gel electrophoresis is a technique used to

    • A.

      Clone chromosomes of various species

    • B.

      Cut DNA into fragments of various sizes

    • C.

      Separate DNA fragments by charge and length

    • D.

      Inject foreign DNA into animal and plant cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Separate DNA fragments by charge and length
    Explanation
    Gel electrophoresis is a technique used to separate DNA fragments based on their charge and length. It involves placing DNA samples onto a gel matrix and applying an electric current. Since DNA is negatively charged, it moves towards the positive electrode. Smaller fragments move faster and travel further, while larger fragments move slower and travel a shorter distance. This separation allows scientists to analyze and study the DNA fragments based on their size and charge.

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  • 41. 

    How might a breeder determine if a certain golden retriever is a carrier of an undesirable trait?

    • A.

      Prepare a linkage map

    • B.

      Perform test cross

    • C.

      Clone the dog

    • D.

      Splice the undesirable allele into the dog's genome

    Correct Answer
    B. Perform test cross
    Explanation
    A breeder can determine if a certain golden retriever is a carrier of an undesirable trait by performing a test cross. This involves breeding the golden retriever with a known carrier of the undesirable trait. By observing the offspring, the breeder can determine if the golden retriever is a carrier based on the presence or absence of the undesirable trait in the offspring. This method helps identify carriers without the need for complex genetic analysis or manipulation of the dog's genome.

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  • 42. 

    (T/F) The human genome consists of approximately 1000 genes located on 46 chromosomes.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because the human genome consists of approximately 20,000-25,000 genes, not 1000. These genes are located on 23 pairs of chromosomes, not 46. Each pair consists of one chromosome from the mother and one from the father, resulting in a total of 46 chromosomes.

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  • 43. 

    (T/F) Scientists have determined the exact chromsomal location of all genes.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Scientists have not determined the exact chromosomal location of all genes. While significant progress has been made in mapping the human genome, there are still many genes whose precise locations are unknown. Additionally, the location of genes can vary among individuals and populations, making it a complex and ongoing area of research. Therefore, the statement that scientists have determined the exact chromosomal location of all genes is false.

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  • 44. 

    (T/F) The genetic map that shows the location of genes on a chromsome is called a pedigree map.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because a pedigree map is not used to show the location of genes on a chromosome. A pedigree map is a diagram that shows the inheritance of a specific trait or disease within a family over several generations. It is used to analyze patterns of inheritance and determine the likelihood of an individual inheriting a particular trait. On the other hand, a genetic map, also known as a linkage map, is used to show the relative locations of genes on a chromosome based on the frequency of genetic recombination.

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  • 45. 

    (T/F) Earth is thought to be 4.6 billion years old.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The age of the Earth is estimated to be around 4.6 billion years based on various scientific evidence and dating methods. This includes radiometric dating of rocks and minerals, as well as the study of meteorites and lunar samples. By analyzing the decay of radioactive isotopes, scientists have been able to calculate the age of the Earth and determine that it formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago.

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  • 46. 

    (T/F) The conditions on the primitive Earth were suitable for life.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The question asks whether the conditions on the primitive Earth were suitable for life. The answer is false because the conditions on the primitive Earth were not suitable for life. The primitive Earth had a hostile environment with extreme temperatures, high levels of radiation, and a lack of oxygen. It took billions of years for the Earth to develop the necessary conditions for life to thrive.

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  • 47. 

    (T?F) Violent rainstorms beginning 3.9 billion years ago formed Earth's ocean.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Violent rainstorms beginning 3.9 billion years ago formed Earth's ocean. This suggests that the formation of Earth's ocean can be attributed to the occurrence of violent rainstorms around that time period.

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  • 48. 

    A footprint, trail, or burrow, providing evidence of animal activity are called

    • A.

      Petrified fossil

    • B.

      Fossil

    • C.

      Trace fossil

    • D.

      Imprint

    Correct Answer
    C. Trace fossil
    Explanation
    Trace fossils are evidence of animal activity that are preserved in the rock record. These can include footprints, trails, burrows, and other traces left behind by organisms. Unlike petrified fossils, which are the remains of the actual organism, trace fossils provide indirect evidence of past life. They are important in paleontology as they can provide information about the behavior, locomotion, and ecology of ancient organisms.

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  • 49. 

    A fossil embedded in tree sap, valuable because the organism is preserved intact is called

    • A.

      Petrified fossil

    • B.

      Amber-preserved

    • C.

      Cast

    • D.

      Imprint

    Correct Answer
    B. Amber-preserved
    Explanation
    Amber-preserved is the correct answer because amber is tree sap that has hardened over time. When a fossil is embedded in amber, it becomes preserved intact, allowing scientists to study the organism in its original form. This type of fossil is highly valuable as it provides a unique glimpse into the past and can reveal important information about ancient ecosystems and species.

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  • 50. 

    An exact same copy of an organism, the hard parts which have been penetrated and replaced by minerals is called

    • A.

      Imprint

    • B.

      Cast

    • C.

      Petrified fossil

    • D.

      Mold

    Correct Answer
    C. Petrified fossil
    Explanation
    A petrified fossil refers to an exact same copy of an organism where the hard parts have been penetrated and replaced by minerals. This process occurs over a long period of time, as the organic material is gradually replaced by minerals such as silica or calcite. The result is a fossil that retains the shape and structure of the original organism, but is now made up of minerals instead of organic matter.

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