Biology 101 Test #4

51 Questions | Total Attempts: 212

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Biology Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Homologous chromosomes align on the metaphase plate during ______. Sister chromatids align along the metaphse plate during ________.
    • A. 

      Metaphase II, Prophase II

    • B. 

      Metaphase I, Metaphase II

    • C. 

      Anaphase I, Anaphase II

    • D. 

      Prophase II, Metaphase II

  • 2. 
    Which event is unique to mitosis, but not meiosis?
    • A. 

      Formation of tetrads

    • B. 

      Crossing over of non-sister chromatids

    • C. 

      Chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate independently, not in pairs

    • D. 

      Sister chromatids separating during anaphase

  • 3. 
    Meiosis and cytokinesis result in the production of...?
    • A. 

      2 diploid daughter cells

    • B. 

      4 diploid daughter cells

    • C. 

      2 haploid daughter cells

    • D. 

      4 haploid daughter cells

  • 4. 
    Crossing over events occur between...
    • A. 

      Sister chromatids

    • B. 

      Non-homologous chromosomes

    • C. 

      Non-sister chromatids

    • D. 

      Identical strands of DNA

  • 5. 
    Why is meiosis a necessary component to eukaryote sex?
    • A. 

      Since the maternal and paternal gametes fuse, they must be produced as diploid cells by meiosis, or the ploidy number will be cut in half each generation.

    • B. 

      A large number of gametes are needed, so producing four daughter cells is more efficient.

    • C. 

      Since the maternal and paternal gametes fuse, they must be produced as haploid cells by meiosis, or the ploidy number will double each generation.

    • D. 

      Crossing over and independent assortment during meiosis II create a high degree of genetic variability, ensuring that at least some progeny will be successful.

  • 6. 
    Meiosis and sexual reproduction increase diversity because...
    • A. 

      They are archaic processes.

    • B. 

      It allows for populations to adapt to environmental changes.

    • C. 

      They produce offspring extremely quickly.

    • D. 

      They will almost always have different offspring arise.

  • 7. 
    Which event distinguishes anaphase from anaphase II?
    • A. 

      Anaphase produces haploid daughter cells and anaphase II results in diploid daughter cells.

    • B. 

      Sister chromatids separated in anaphase II are different while they are identical in anaphase.

    • C. 

      The ploidy level will be reduced in anaphase II.

    • D. 

      Spindle fibers separate the kinetochores in chromosomes in anaphase.

  • 8. 
    Crossing over events occur during which phase of meiosis?
    • A. 

      Prophase I

    • B. 

      Metaphase I

    • C. 

      Anaphase II

    • D. 

      Prophase II

  • 9. 
    How does metaphase in meiosis I and meiosis II differ?
    • A. 

      Sister chromatids are on the metaphase plate in meiosis I and tetrads are on the metaphase plate in meiosis II.

    • B. 

      Homologous chromosomes line up in meiosis I and duplicated chromosomes line up in meiosis II.

    • C. 

      All chromatids are the exact same in meiosis I and differ in meiosis II due to independent assortment.

    • D. 

      The ploidy level remains the same in meiosis I but will be reduced in meiosis II.

  • 10. 
    In the figure, in which area do microtubules attach?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      E

  • 11. 
    A reduction division occurs during...
    • A. 

      Meiosis but not mitosis.

    • B. 

      Mitosis but not meiosis.

    • C. 

      Both mitosis and meiosis.

    • D. 

      Neither mitosis or meiosis.

  • 12. 
    Even though the human ovary at birth contains several hundred thousand oocyte-containing follicles, we can say that each is likely to be genetically unique. Why?
    • A. 

      Independent assortment of chromosomes during anaphase I creates 2^23 (greater than 8 million) possible combinations of chromosomes, plus there is added variety from crossover events.

    • B. 

      With high DNA mutation rates, each oocyte is likely to carry at least one unique base-pair mutation.

    • C. 

      Random deletions of chromosome arms during chiasmata formation result in 2^46 different possible combinations of deletions.

    • D. 

      The ovary lacks DNA damage checkpoints for gametes produced during mitosis.

  • 13. 
    How many of your chromosomes are exactly the same as those of your maternal grandmother?
    • A. 

      None. Any chromosome from my grandmother become recombined with a chromosome from my grandfather in my mother's gonad during meiosis II of gamete formation.

    • B. 

      About 11 or 12 (1/4 of the total) since I have four grandparents.

    • C. 

      None. Any chromosome from my grandmother become recombined with a chromosome from my grandfather in my mother's gonad during meiosis I of gamete formation.

    • D. 

      Anywhere from 0 to 23 of my chromosomes may be those from my maternal grandmother - there is no way to predict.

  • 14. 
    Which of the following events is not mediated by microtubules?
    • A. 

      Separation of chromosomes

    • B. 

      Lengthening of newly formed daughter cells

    • C. 

      Formation of the cleavage furrow

    • D. 

      Alignment of the chromosomes on the metaphase plate

  • 15. 
    Almost all life cycles will have haploid and diploid phases. The transition from haploid to diploid occurs when?
    • A. 

      After DNA replication during the S phase of the cell cycle.

    • B. 

      Once the origin of replication is complete and the septum has formed.

    • C. 

      During crossing over in prophase I of meiosis.

    • D. 

      When gametes fuse during fertilization.

  • 16. 
    During evolution, what four new features had to evolve to change a primitive mitosis machinery into one that could support meiosis?
    • A. 

      Pairing of homologous chromosomes, crossover, sister chromatids staying together in anaphase II, and supression of DNA replication before meiosis I.

    • B. 

      Pairing of homologous chromosomes, crossover, sister chromatids separating during anaphase II, and kinetochore microtubules.

    • C. 

      Pairing of sister chromatids, crossover between sister chromatids, centrosomes containing centrioles, and chiasmata connecting the kinetochores to the centrosome.

    • D. 

      Pairing of homologous chromosomes, crossover, sister chromatids staying together in anaphase I, and suppression of DNA replication during interphase between meiosis I and II.

  • 17. 
    Humans, cats, elephants, and birds fall into what category of life cycles?
    • A. 

      Haploid-dominant

    • B. 

      Alternation of generations

    • C. 

      Binary fission

    • D. 

      Diploid-dominant

  • 18. 
    Which pair of chromosomes in the figure may not be homologous?
    • A. 

      Pair 1

    • B. 

      Pair 8

    • C. 

      Pair 13

    • D. 

      Pair 23

  • 19. 
    In the figure, chiasmata are pulled apart in what phase?
    • A. 

      Prophase I

    • B. 

      Prophase II

    • C. 

      Metaphase I

    • D. 

      Metaphase II

    • E. 

      Anaphase I

    • F. 

      Anaphase II

  • 20. 
    Which set of chromosomes is the most similar genetically?
    • A. 

      Homologous chromosomes

    • B. 

      The X and Y chromosome

    • C. 

      Sister chromatids

    • D. 

      A grandparent's chromosome 16 and the one which was passed down to his grandson

  • 21. 
    If mitosis and meiosis are similar processes, why doesn't mitosis add genetic diversity?
    • A. 

      Mitosis lacks crossing over between homologous chromosomes and since both chromosomes are partitioned to daughters, also lacks independent assortment.

    • B. 

      DNA damage checkpoints are more vigilant during mitosis than during meiosis.

    • C. 

      The chromosomes are less exposed to damaging UV rays during mitosis than during meiosis.

    • D. 

      Mitosis does add genetic diversity by similar mechanisms, but the results are less apparent since an individual organism doesn't arise from the mitotic daughter cells.

  • 22. 
    Which of these is not a main category of life cycles in multicellular organisms?
    • A. 

      Haploid-dominant

    • B. 

      Alternation of generations

    • C. 

      Binary fission

    • D. 

      Diploid-dominant

  • 23. 
    For a diploid cell (2n = 4), the number of chromosomes in each daughter cell at the end of meiosis II is ____; the number of chromosomes in each daughter cell at the completion of mitosis is ____.
    • A. 

      2;2

    • B. 

      2;4

    • C. 

      4;4

    • D. 

      4;8

  • 24. 
    You are engaged in a project to breed new color variants in snakes. A certain chromosome carries three genes that all affect pigmentation. Two of the genes,  A and B are near each other on the chromosome, but gene C is further away. You are hoping to maintain the versions of the three genes from the maternal chromosome in some of the grandchildren. What would you predict for the behavior of these genes during crossover in meiosis?
    • A. 

      All three genes are equally likely to be separated by a crossover event, since these are randomly distributed.

    • B. 

      The maternal chromosome will be transmitted as it is to half of the progeny.

    • C. 

      The maternal chromosome will be transmitted as it is to all of the progeny.

    • D. 

      Genes A and B are likely to stay together, but they are more likely to become separated from gene C since a crossover is more likely to occur in the longer space between them.

  • 25. 
    Sexual reproduction is advantageous over asexual reproduction when...
    • A. 

      Organisms live a solitary lifestyle

    • B. 

      When the parent organism have been successful in their habitat

    • C. 

      Mutation rates are high

    • D. 

      The environment is changing

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