Biology 101 Chapters 15 Thru 19

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Biology 101 Chapters 15 Thru 19 - Quiz

Chromosomal basis of inheritance, DNA from Gene to Protein, genetics of viruses and bacteria


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The chromosome theory of inheritance states that _____.

    • A.

      Genes occupy specific positions on chromosomes

    • B.

      Homologous chromosomes segregate from each other during meiosis

    • C.

      Chromosomes assort independently during meiosis

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The chromosome theory of inheritance states that genes occupy specific positions on chromosomes, homologous chromosomes segregate from each other during meiosis, and chromosomes assort independently during meiosis. This means that genes are located on chromosomes, and during the process of meiosis, homologous chromosomes separate and chromosomes can randomly assort to create different combinations of traits. Therefore, all of the given statements are true according to the chromosome theory of inheritance.

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  • 2. 

    If two genes are linked, _____.

    • A.

      They are on different chromosomes

    • B.

      They assort independently

    • C.

      They code for the same protein

    • D.

      They are on the same chromosome

    • E.

      They are on sex chromosomes

    Correct Answer
    D. They are on the same chromosome
    Explanation
    If two genes are linked, it means that they are located on the same chromosome. This is because genes that are close together on a chromosome have a higher chance of being inherited together as a unit, rather than undergoing independent assortment.

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  • 3. 

    What is the probability that a male will inherit an X-linked recessive allele from his father?

    • A.

      10%

    • B.

      25%

    • C.

      50%

    • D.

      100%

    • E.

      0%

    Correct Answer
    E. 0%
    Explanation
    Since the father passes the Y chromosome to his son, the son cannot inherit an X-linked recessive allele from his father. Therefore, the probability is 0%.

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  • 4. 

    In an X-linked, or sex-linked, trait, it is the contribution of _____ that determines whether a son will display the trait.

    • A.

      The father

    • B.

      The mother

    • C.

      The grandmother

    • D.

      The grandfather

    • E.

      The brother or sister

    Correct Answer
    B. The mother
    Explanation
    In an X-linked trait, it is the contribution of the mother that determines whether a son will display the trait. This is because the mother is the one who passes down the X chromosome to her son. If the mother carries the gene for the trait on one of her X chromosomes, there is a 50% chance that she will pass it on to her son, resulting in the son displaying the trait. The father, grandmother, grandfather, and siblings do not directly determine whether a son will display the trait in an X-linked inheritance pattern.

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  • 5. 

    If a mother is heterozygous for a recessive sex-linked trait and her husband has the dominant allele, which one of the following is true about the probabilities for their children?

    • A.

      Half of their sons will have the recessive trait.

    • B.

      0% of their sons will have the recessive trait.

    • C.

      25% of their sons will have the recessive trait.

    • D.

      75% of their sons will have the recessive trait.

    • E.

      100% of their sons will have the recessive trait.

    Correct Answer
    A. Half of their sons will have the recessive trait.
    Explanation
    If the mother is heterozygous for a recessive sex-linked trait, it means she carries one dominant allele and one recessive allele. The husband, on the other hand, has the dominant allele. Since the recessive trait is sex-linked, it is carried on the X chromosome. The mother can pass either the dominant or the recessive allele to her sons, while the father will always pass the dominant allele. Therefore, half of their sons will receive the recessive allele from the mother and will have the recessive trait, while the other half will receive the dominant allele from the father and will not have the recessive trait.

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  • 6. 

    A woman is a carrier for red-green color blindness, a sex-linked trait. Her husband is normal (not color-blind) for this trait. What are the chances that their newborn daughter will be red-green color-blind?

    • A.

      0%

    • B.

      25%

    • C.

      50%

    • D.

      75%

    • E.

      100%

    Correct Answer
    A. 0%
    Explanation
    The woman is a carrier for red-green color blindness, which means she has one normal gene and one gene for color blindness. Since color blindness is a sex-linked trait, it is passed down from the mother to her children. However, the husband is normal for this trait, meaning he does not have the gene for color blindness. In order for their daughter to be red-green color-blind, she would need to inherit the gene for color blindness from both her mother and her father. Since the husband does not have the gene, there is no chance for their daughter to be red-green color-blind. Therefore, the chances are 0%.

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  • 7. 

    Cells that have more than two complete sets of chromosomes are termed _____.

    • A.

      Diploid

    • B.

      Haploid

    • C.

      Polyploid

    • D.

      Gametes

    • E.

      Chromosomal abnormalities

    Correct Answer
    C. Polyploid
    Explanation
    Polyploid cells are cells that have more than two complete sets of chromosomes. This can occur naturally or as a result of errors during cell division. Polyploidy is common in plants and some animals, but it is rare in humans. In polyploid cells, the number of chromosomes is usually a multiple of the normal number. This can lead to changes in the organism's characteristics and can have both positive and negative effects on its survival and reproduction.

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  • 8. 

    Which one of the following is the only known viable human monosomy?

    • A.

      XO

    • B.

      YO

    • C.

      XXY

    • D.

      XYY

    • E.

      XXX

    Correct Answer
    A. XO
    Explanation
    XO is the only known viable human monosomy. This refers to Turner syndrome, where an individual is born with only one X chromosome instead of the usual two. This condition typically affects females and can result in various physical and developmental abnormalities, such as short stature, infertility, and heart problems. The absence of a second sex chromosome is the defining characteristic of XO monosomy.

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  • 9. 

    It is proposed that a certain disorder affecting the inner ear is caused by mitochondrial DNA. Which of the following observations would be the most decisive evidence against this idea?

    • A.

      The precise cause of the disorder is found to involve the nervous system.

    • B.

      Mothers pass the disorder on to their offspring, but fathers do not.

    • C.

      Females and males have the disorder in equal numbers.

    • D.

      Females with the disorder pass it to all their children, but males only pass it to half their offspring.

    • E.

      Fathers with the disorder pass it on to all their children, but mothers with the disorder do not pass it along.

    Correct Answer
    E. Fathers with the disorder pass it on to all their children, but mothers with the disorder do not pass it along.
    Explanation
    This observation would be the most decisive evidence against the idea that the disorder is caused by mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondrial DNA is passed down exclusively from the mother, so if fathers with the disorder are able to pass it on to all their children, it suggests that the disorder is not solely caused by mitochondrial DNA.

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  • 10. 

    A color-blind woman mates with a male with normal color vision. Which of these results would indicate that color blindness is caused by an X-linked recessive allele?

    • A.

      Half of the sons and half of the daughters are color-blind.

    • B.

      All of the daughters, and none of the sons, are color-blind.

    • C.

      All of the sons, and none of the daughters, are color-blind.

    • D.

      The offspring occur in a ratio of 3 color-blind : 1 normal vision.

    • E.

      The offspring occur in a ratio of 9 normal vision males : 3 color-blind vision males : 3 normal vision females : 1 color-blind female.

    Correct Answer
    C. All of the sons, and none of the daughters, are color-blind.
    Explanation
    If all of the sons, and none of the daughters, are color-blind, it indicates that color blindness is caused by an X-linked recessive allele. This is because males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome, while females have two X chromosomes. If the trait is X-linked recessive, it means that the gene for color blindness is located on the X chromosome. Since males only have one X chromosome, if they inherit the recessive allele for color blindness, they will be affected. On the other hand, females need to inherit the recessive allele on both X chromosomes to be affected, which is why none of the daughters are color-blind in this scenario.

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  • 11. 

    Color blindness is an X-linked recessive trait. A color-blind man has a daughter with normal color vision. What is the genotype of the daughter?

    • A.

      XCXc

    • B.

      XCXC

    • C.

      XcXc

    • D.

      XCY

    • E.

      XcY

    Correct Answer
    A. XCXc
    Explanation
    The correct answer is XCXc. This is because color blindness is an X-linked recessive trait, meaning it is carried on the X chromosome. The father, who is color blind, has one X chromosome with the color blindness allele (Xc) and one normal X chromosome (XC). The daughter inherits one X chromosome from the father, which could be either Xc or XC, and one X chromosome from the mother (XC). Therefore, the daughter's genotype is XCXc, meaning she is a carrier of the color blindness trait but does not express it herself.

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  • 12. 

    Color blindness is an X-linked recessive trait. Under what conditions can an unaffected male have a color-blind daughter?

    • A.

      He is heterozygous for color vision.

    • B.

      His mate is color-blind.

    • C.

      His father is color-blind.

    • D.

      His mother is color-blind.

    • E.

      He can't.

    Correct Answer
    E. He can't.
    Explanation
    Color blindness is an X-linked recessive trait, which means it is carried on the X chromosome. Males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome, while females have two X chromosomes. In order for a male to be color-blind, he only needs to inherit one copy of the color-blindness gene from his mother. However, for a female to be color-blind, she needs to inherit two copies of the gene, one from each parent. Since the unaffected male in this scenario does not have the color-blindness gene, he cannot pass it on to his daughter, making it impossible for him to have a color-blind daughter.

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  • 13. 

    Humans are diploid and have 46 chromosomes (or two sets). How many sets of chromosomes are found in each human gamete?

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      4

    • E.

      5

    Correct Answer
    A. 1
    Explanation
    Human gametes, such as sperm and eggs, are haploid, meaning they contain only one set of chromosomes. This is because during the process of meiosis, the number of chromosomes is halved to ensure that when fertilization occurs, the resulting zygote will have the correct number of chromosomes. Therefore, each human gamete contains only one set of chromosomes, making the correct answer 1.

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  • 14. 

    Humans are diploid and have 46 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are found in each human gamete?

    • A.

      12

    • B.

      23

    • C.

      46

    • D.

      92

    • E.

      6

    Correct Answer
    B. 23
    Explanation
    Gametes are reproductive cells that have half the number of chromosomes as compared to other cells in the body. Since humans are diploid and have 46 chromosomes in total, each human gamete will have 23 chromosomes. This is because during the process of meiosis, the chromosomes are divided equally between the two resulting gametes, ensuring the correct number of chromosomes in the offspring.

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  • 15. 

    _____ is the process by which haploid gametes form a diploid zygote.

    • A.

      Embryogenesis

    • B.

      Fertilization

    • C.

      Meitosis

    • D.

      Gastrulation

    • E.

      Mitosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Fertilization
    Explanation
    Fertilization is the process by which haploid gametes, such as sperm and egg, combine to form a diploid zygote. During fertilization, the sperm penetrates the egg and their genetic material combines, resulting in the formation of a new individual with a complete set of chromosomes. This process is essential for sexual reproduction in organisms and is the first step in the development of a new organism. Embryogenesis, mitosis, and gastrulation are all subsequent processes that occur after fertilization. Meiosis, on the other hand, is the process by which haploid gametes are formed in the first place.

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  • 16. 

    Which of these terms applies to an organism with extra sets of chromosomes?

    • A.

      Monosomy

    • B.

      Haploid

    • C.

      Diploid

    • D.

      Trisomy

    • E.

      Polyploid

    Correct Answer
    E. Polyploid
    Explanation
    Polyploid is the correct answer because it refers to an organism with extra sets of chromosomes. Polyploidy occurs when an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, which can result in increased genetic diversity and potential advantages in adaptation and evolution. Polyploidy is commonly found in plants and some animal species, and it can lead to changes in physical characteristics and reproductive capabilities.

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  • 17. 

    Give an example of monosomy.

    Correct Answer
    XO Turner Syndrome
    Explanation
    Monosomy refers to a condition where an individual has only one copy of a particular chromosome instead of the usual two. In the case of XO Turner Syndrome, affected individuals have only one X chromosome instead of the usual two. This condition occurs in females and can lead to various physical and developmental abnormalities, such as short stature, infertility, and heart defects.

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  • 18. 

    Give an example of trisomy.

    Correct Answer
    Down's Syndrome extra chromosome 21
    Explanation
    Down's Syndrome is an example of trisomy, specifically trisomy 21. Trisomy occurs when there is an extra copy of a chromosome in the cells. In the case of Down's Syndrome, there is an extra copy of chromosome 21. This additional genetic material leads to various physical and cognitive characteristics associated with the syndrome.

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