Bio 113 Chapter 8 Quiz

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Bio 113 Chapter 8 Quiz - Quiz


Bio 113 Chapter 8 Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is energy?

    • A.

      The ability to do work.

    • B.

      The ability to use work.

    • C.

      The ability to move.

    • D.

      The ability to do things.

    Correct Answer
    A. The ability to do work.
    Explanation
    Energy is defined as the ability to do work. Work is the transfer of energy from one object to another, or the transformation of energy from one form to another. Therefore, energy can be thought of as the capacity or power to perform tasks or cause changes in the physical world. It is the driving force behind all actions and movements in the universe.

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  • 2. 

    What is the energy of motion?

    • A.

      Kinetic

    • B.

      Thermaldynamic

    • C.

      Potential

    • D.

      Isotomic

    Correct Answer
    A. Kinetic
    Explanation
    Kinetic energy refers to the energy possessed by an object due to its motion. It is dependent on the mass and velocity of the object, with the formula being 1/2 * mass * velocity^2. Therefore, the correct answer is "Kinetic" as it accurately describes the energy associated with motion.

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  • 3. 

    What is stored energy called?

    • A.

      Kinetic

    • B.

      Potential

    • C.

      Isotomic

    • D.

      Thermaldynamic

    Correct Answer
    B. Potential
    Explanation
    Potential energy refers to the stored energy an object possesses due to its position or state. This energy can be released and converted into other forms, such as kinetic energy, when the object's position or state changes. Therefore, potential energy is the correct term for stored energy.

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  • 4. 

    What is thermodynamics?

    • A.

      Changes in heat

    • B.

      Changes in cold

    • C.

      How slimlined a object can be.

    • D.

      The amount of heat changed from one object to another.

    Correct Answer
    A. Changes in heat
    Explanation
    Thermodynamics is the study of changes in heat. It involves understanding how heat energy is transferred between objects and how it can be converted into other forms of energy. This field of science focuses on the principles and laws that govern these heat transfers and their effects on the properties of matter. By studying thermodynamics, scientists can analyze and predict the behavior of systems and processes involving heat, such as engines, refrigerators, and chemical reactions.

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  • 5. 

    What is a calorie and how many calories are in a kilocalorie?

    • A.

      Heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree celsius. 100.

    • B.

      Heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree celsius. 10.

    • C.

      Heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree celsius. 1000.

    • D.

      Heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree celsius. 10000.

    Correct Answer
    C. Heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree celsius. 1000.
    Explanation
    A calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius. A kilocalorie is equal to 1000 calories.

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  • 6. 

    What are reddox reactions?

    • A.

      ...

    • B.

      ...

    • C.

      Every electron that is lost by an atom through reduction is gained by another atom by oxidation.

    • D.

      Every electron that is lost by an atom through oxidation is gained by another atom by reduction.

    • E.

      A cleaning agent you buy for your toilet that helps clogging problems. The reaction is that the toilet is no longer clogged.

    Correct Answer
    D. Every electron that is lost by an atom through oxidation is gained by another atom by reduction.
    Explanation
    Redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between atoms. In these reactions, one atom loses electrons (oxidation) while another atom gains those electrons (reduction). This process ensures that the total number of electrons remains constant and follows the principle of conservation of charge. Therefore, the correct answer states that every electron lost through oxidation is gained through reduction. The explanation provided in the answer choice about a cleaning agent for toilets is unrelated and incorrect.

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  • 7. 

    What does the first law of thermodynamics state?

    • A.

      Energy can not be created or destroyed.

    • B.

      Energy can not be interconverted.

    • C.

      ATP is the currenct of energy.

    • D.

      I don't know.

    Correct Answer
    A. Energy can not be created or destroyed.
    Explanation
    The first law of thermodynamics, also known as the law of conservation of energy, states that energy cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system. This means that the total amount of energy in a system remains constant, although it can be converted from one form to another. This principle is fundamental in understanding the behavior and transformations of energy in various physical and chemical processes.

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  • 8. 

    What does the second law of thermodynamics state?

    • A.

      Energy can not be created or destroyed.

    • B.

      The disorder in the universe in always decreasing.

    • C.

      The disorder in the universe in always increasing.

    • D.

      Energy can not be interconverted.

    Correct Answer
    C. The disorder in the universe in always increasing.
    Explanation
    The second law of thermodynamics states that the disorder in the universe, also known as entropy, is always increasing. This means that over time, systems tend to become more disordered and chaotic. This law is based on the observation that natural processes, such as the flow of heat, always move in the direction of increasing disorder. It implies that it is impossible to have a perfectly efficient process where no energy is lost or wasted. Instead, some energy will always be converted into a less useful form, increasing the overall disorder of the system and the universe.

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  • 9. 

    Energy transformations proceed spontaneously to convert matter from a:

    • A.

      More ordered, more stable form, to a less ordered less unstable form.

    • B.

      More ordered, less stable form, to a more ordered more unstable form.

    • C.

      More less, less stable form, to a more ordered more stable form.

    • D.

      More ordered, less stable form, to a less order more stable form.

    Correct Answer
    D. More ordered, less stable form, to a less order more stable form.
    Explanation
    Energy transformations proceed spontaneously to convert matter from a more ordered, less stable form to a less ordered, more stable form. This is because nature tends to move towards a state of lower energy and greater stability. As energy is transformed, it tends to disperse and become less concentrated, resulting in a decrease in order. At the same time, the system becomes more stable as it reaches a state of lower energy. Therefore, the correct answer is that energy transformations proceed from a more ordered, less stable form to a less ordered, more stable form.

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  • 10. 

    What is free energy?

    • A.

      The amount of energy actually available to break and subsequently form other chemical bonds.

    • B.

      Something like free whilly.

    Correct Answer
    A. The amount of energy actually available to break and subsequently form other chemical bonds.
    Explanation
    The correct answer explains that free energy refers to the amount of energy that is available to break existing chemical bonds and form new ones. It is a measure of the energy that can be used to do work in a chemical reaction. This concept is important in understanding the spontaneity and directionality of chemical reactions.

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  • 11. 

    What is endergonic?

    • A.

      Any reaction that requires an input of energy.

    • B.

      A reaction the releases free energy.

    Correct Answer
    A. Any reaction that requires an input of energy.
    Explanation
    Endergonic refers to any reaction that requires an input of energy. This means that the reaction cannot occur spontaneously and needs an external source of energy to proceed. In an endergonic reaction, the products have a higher energy level than the reactants. This energy input is necessary to overcome the activation energy barrier and drive the reaction forward.

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  • 12. 

    What is exergonic?

    • A.

      A reaction the releases free energy.

    • B.

      Any reaction that requires an input of energy.

    Correct Answer
    A. A reaction the releases free energy.
    Explanation
    Exergonic refers to a reaction that releases free energy. This means that during the reaction, the products have less energy than the reactants, and the excess energy is released into the surroundings. In exergonic reactions, the overall energy change is negative, indicating that energy is being released. This is in contrast to endergonic reactions, which require an input of energy to proceed. Therefore, the correct answer is "A reaction that releases free energy."

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  • 13. 

    What is activation energy?

    • A.

      Substance the lowers the reaction energy.

    • B.

      Any reaction that requires an input of energy.

    • C.

      The extra energy required to destablize existing chemical bonds and initiate a chemical reaction.

    • D.

      A reaction the releases free energy.

    Correct Answer
    C. The extra energy required to destablize existing chemical bonds and initiate a chemical reaction.
    Explanation
    Activation energy is the additional energy that is needed to destabilize existing chemical bonds and initiate a chemical reaction. This energy is required to overcome the energy barrier between reactants and products in a reaction. It is not a substance that lowers the reaction energy, but rather the energy barrier that must be overcome for a reaction to occur.

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  • 14. 

    What is a catalyst?

    • A.

      A reaction the releases free energy.

    • B.

      Substance the lowers the reaction energy.

    • C.

      The extra energy required to destablize existing chemical bonds and initiate a chemical reaction.

    • D.

      A driver that is used for ATI video cards.

    Correct Answer
    B. Substance the lowers the reaction energy.
    Explanation
    A catalyst is a substance that lowers the reaction energy. It works by providing an alternative pathway for the reaction to occur, which has a lower activation energy. This allows the reaction to proceed more easily and at a faster rate. The catalyst itself is not consumed in the reaction and can be used repeatedly.

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  • 15. 

    Enzymes are mostly?

    • A.

      Proteins

    • B.

      Lipids

    • C.

      Acids

    • D.

      DNA carrier proteins

    Correct Answer
    A. Proteins
    Explanation
    Enzymes are mostly proteins because they are biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions in living organisms. Proteins are made up of amino acids and have a complex three-dimensional structure that allows them to bind to specific molecules and facilitate chemical reactions. Enzymes have active sites where substrates bind, and the enzyme-substrate complex undergoes a reaction to produce products. Lipids, acids, and DNA carrier proteins do not possess the necessary structure and properties to act as catalysts, making proteins the most suitable molecules for enzyme function.

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  • 16. 

    What is unique about enzymes?

    • A.

      They can be used over and over.

    • B.

      Wee.

    Correct Answer
    A. They can be used over and over.
    Explanation
    Enzymes are unique because they can be used repeatedly without being consumed or altered in the chemical reactions they facilitate. Unlike other catalysts, enzymes are not used up in the process and can be reused multiple times, making them highly efficient and effective in speeding up biochemical reactions in living organisms. This ability to be recycled and retain their activity sets enzymes apart from other molecules involved in chemical reactions.

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  • 17. 

    What are RNA catalyst called?

    • A.

      Proteins

    • B.

      Ribosomes

    • C.

      Ribozymes

    • D.

      Entropy

    Correct Answer
    C. Ribozymes
    Explanation
    Ribozymes are RNA molecules that have the ability to catalyze chemical reactions. They can act as enzymes, facilitating various biochemical processes within cells. Unlike proteins, which are the traditional catalysts in cells, ribozymes are made up of RNA molecules. Ribozymes play a crucial role in many biological processes, including RNA splicing and protein synthesis. Their discovery has provided evidence for the RNA world hypothesis, which suggests that early life on Earth may have relied on RNA molecules for both genetic information storage and catalytic functions.

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  • 18. 

    What is a multienzyme complex composed of?

    • A.

      Several enzymes catalyzing the different steps of a sequence of reactions, that are associated to work with one another.

    • B.

      ...

    Correct Answer
    A. Several enzymes catalyzing the different steps of a sequence of reactions, that are associated to work with one another.
    Explanation
    A multienzyme complex is composed of several enzymes that work together to catalyze different steps of a sequence of reactions. These enzymes are associated with one another and collaborate to efficiently carry out the overall reaction pathway. This arrangement allows for increased efficiency and regulation of the reaction, as the intermediates can be directly passed from one enzyme to the next within the complex, without being exposed to the cellular environment. This coordination and proximity of enzymes within the multienzyme complex enhance the overall efficiency of the reaction pathway.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following affect enzyme activity?

    • A.

      Temperature

    • B.

      PH.

    • C.

      Inhibitors

    • D.

      Weather

    • E.

      Activators

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Temperature
    B. PH.
    C. Inhibitors
    Explanation
    Enzyme activity can be affected by various factors. Temperature plays a crucial role as enzymes have an optimal temperature at which they function most efficiently. Deviation from this temperature can denature the enzyme and affect its activity. pH is another important factor as enzymes have an optimal pH range in which they function effectively. Changes in pH can alter the enzyme's structure and disrupt its activity. Inhibitors are substances that can bind to enzymes and decrease their activity, while activators enhance enzyme activity. However, weather does not directly affect enzyme activity.

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  • 20. 

    What are competitive inhibitors do?

    • A.

      They compete with the substrate for the same active site.

    • B.

      Run marathons.

    • C.

      Bind to the enzyme in a location other than the active site.

    Correct Answer
    A. They compete with the substrate for the same active site.
    Explanation
    Competitive inhibitors are molecules that resemble the substrate and compete for the active site of an enzyme. By binding to the active site, they prevent the substrate from binding and inhibiting the enzyme's activity. This results in a decrease in the rate of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Therefore, the correct answer is that competitive inhibitors compete with the substrate for the same active site.

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  • 21. 

    What are noncompetitive inhibitors do?

    • A.

      They compete with the substrate for the same active site.

    • B.

      Bind to the enzyme in a location other than the active site.

    • C.

      Bind to the enzyme in a location other than the nuclues.

    Correct Answer
    B. Bind to the enzyme in a location other than the active site.
    Explanation
    Noncompetitive inhibitors bind to the enzyme in a location other than the active site. This means that they do not compete with the substrate for the same binding site on the enzyme. Instead, they bind to a different site, known as an allosteric site, causing a conformational change in the enzyme that affects its activity. This type of inhibition does not directly prevent the substrate from binding to the active site, but rather alters the enzyme's shape or function, making it less effective in catalyzing the reaction.

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  • 22. 

    What does an activator?

    • A.

      Robert Dugan

    • B.

      It actives the enzyme to move.

    • C.

      Substance that binds to allosteric sites and keept he enzymes in their active configurations.

    Correct Answer
    C. Substance that binds to allosteric sites and keept he enzymes in their active configurations.
    Explanation
    An activator is a substance that binds to allosteric sites on enzymes and helps maintain the enzymes in their active configurations. By binding to these sites, the activator enhances the enzyme's catalytic activity and promotes its ability to carry out its specific function. This interaction between the activator and the enzyme is crucial for the proper functioning of the enzyme and the overall biochemical processes it is involved in.

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  • 23. 

    ATP stands for:

    • A.

      Adrenosine Triphosphate

    • B.

      Ass Toilet Paper.

    Correct Answer
    A. Adrenosine Triphosphate
    Explanation
    ATP stands for Adrenosine Triphosphate. Adenosine Triphosphate is a molecule that stores and releases energy in living cells. It is often referred to as the "energy currency" of the cell because it provides the energy needed for various cellular processes, such as muscle contraction, active transport, and chemical reactions. Adenosine Triphosphate is composed of three phosphate groups, a ribose sugar, and an adenine base. It is produced through cellular respiration and is essential for the functioning of all living organisms.

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  • 24. 

    What is an ATP molecule is composed of?

    • A.

      It is a nucleotide composed of ribose, adenine, and a triphosphate group.

    • B.

      Your mom.

    Correct Answer
    A. It is a nucleotide composed of ribose, adenine, and a triphosphate group.
    Explanation
    The correct answer explains that an ATP molecule is composed of ribose, adenine, and a triphosphate group. ATP is a nucleotide, which is a building block of DNA and RNA. Ribose is a sugar molecule, adenine is a nitrogenous base, and the triphosphate group consists of three phosphate groups. This composition allows ATP to store and release energy, making it the main energy currency of the cell.

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  • 25. 

    Analbolism is:

    • A.

      Reactions that expend energy.

    • B.

      Reactions that harvest energy.

    Correct Answer
    A. Reactions that expend energy.
    Explanation
    Anabolism refers to the metabolic reactions in which complex molecules are synthesized from simpler ones, requiring energy input. These reactions involve the building up of molecules and the formation of new chemical bonds, which requires the expenditure of energy. Therefore, anabolism can be described as reactions that expend energy.

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  • 26. 

    Catabolism is:

    • A.

      Reactions that expend energy.

    • B.

      Reactions that harvest energy.

    Correct Answer
    B. Reactions that harvest energy.
    Explanation
    Catabolism refers to the metabolic reactions in which large molecules are broken down into smaller ones, releasing energy in the process. These reactions involve the breakdown of complex molecules such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, and the release of stored energy in the form of ATP. Therefore, catabolism can be described as reactions that harvest energy from the breakdown of larger molecules.

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  • 27. 

    What is metabolism?

    • A.

      Total of all chemical reactions carried out by the nucleus.

    • B.

      Total of all chemical reactions carried out by a molecule.

    • C.

      Total of all chemical reactions carried out by an atom.

    • D.

      Total of all chemical reactions carried out by an organism.

    Correct Answer
    D. Total of all chemical reactions carried out by an organism.
    Explanation
    Metabolism refers to the total of all chemical reactions that occur within an organism. These reactions involve the breakdown of molecules to release energy (catabolism) and the synthesis of new molecules for growth and repair (anabolism). Metabolism is essential for maintaining life and is responsible for processes such as digestion, respiration, and the production of energy. It occurs at the cellular level and is necessary for the functioning of all living organisms.

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  • 28. 

    What is feedback initiative?

    • A.

      When the cell produces increasing quantities of a particular product, it automatically inhibits it's ability to produce more.

    • B.

      Bag.

    Correct Answer
    A. When the cell produces increasing quantities of a particular product, it automatically inhibits it's ability to produce more.
    Explanation
    The correct answer explains that a feedback initiative is when a cell produces more of a specific product, it will automatically reduce its ability to produce even more of that product. This means that as the cell produces increasing quantities, it self-regulates and limits its production to maintain a balance. The answer suggests that this feedback mechanism is a natural response of the cell to prevent excessive production of a particular product.

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  • 29. 

    What does an inhibitor do?

    • A.

      Substance that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.

    • B.

      Substances that bind to allosteric sites and keep the enzymes in their active configurations and increase enzyme activity

    Correct Answer
    A. Substance that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
    Explanation
    An inhibitor is a substance that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity. This means that it prevents the enzyme from functioning at its normal rate or stops it from working altogether. By binding to the enzyme, the inhibitor can block the active site, preventing the enzyme from binding to its substrate and carrying out its catalytic function. Inhibitors are used in various biological processes and can be natural or synthetic compounds. They are important in regulating enzyme activity and controlling biochemical reactions in the body.

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