Benchmark Assessment #3: Genetics & Evolution

20 Questions | Total Attempts: 185

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Benchmark Assessment #3: Genetics & Evolution

Genetics & Evolution


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    DNA and RNA have many structural similarities. Which structure in DNA and RNA is similar?
    • A. 

      Purine bases

    • B. 

      Pyrimidine bases

    • C. 

      Type of sugar

    • D. 

      Attached proteins

  • 2. 
    What occurs during metaphase I of meiosis?
    • A. 

      Centromeres of replicated chromosomes line up along the cell’s equator.

    • B. 

      Centromeres divide as sister chromatids move toward opposite poles of the cell.

    • C. 

      Homologous chromosome pairs line up along the cell’s equator.

    • D. 

      Homologous chromosomes move toward opposite poles of the cell.

  • 3. 
    When comparing 2 populations of animals, which statement most likely indicates that they are the same species?
    • A. 

      They produce fertile offspring.

    • B. 

      They inhabit the same general area.

    • C. 

      Their outward appearance is similar.

    • D. 

      They consume the same type of diet.

  • 4. 
    Persons A and B have similar mRNA sequences with the exception of 1 nucleotide.         Person A: AUGGUUACUAAGGGCUGA         Person B: AUGGUUACUGAGGGCUGA The genetic code chart to determine how this difference affects the sequence of amino acids in the resulting protein.
    • A. 

      Lys in Person A is replaced with Glu in Person B.

    • B. 

      Phe in Person A is replaced with Leu in Person B.

    • C. 

      Persons A and B have identical amino acid sequences.

    • D. 

      A stop codon is generated in Person B and not in Person A.

  • 5. 
    Which example best illustrates Mendel's law of independent assortment?
    • A. 

      Two short-haired cats produce a litter of 4 kittens including 1 long-haired and 3 shot-haired.

    • B. 

      A color-blind man and a woman with normal vision produce a son with normal vision and a color-blind daughter.

    • C. 

      A tall prurple-flowered pea plant and a short white-flowered pea plant are crossed, producing offspring including tall white-flowered pea plants.

    • D. 

      A red-flowered snapdragon and a white-flowered snapdragon are crossed, producing offspring with pink flowers.

  • 6. 
    How does the regulation of gene expression lead to cell specialization?
    • A. 

      Enzymes degrade unnecessary DNA.

    • B. 

      Methylation of some regions of DNA prevents transcription.

    • C. 

      Mutations change certain RNA sequences.

    • D. 

      Removal of exons from RNA prevents translation into protein.

  • 7. 
    In humans, pigmented skin is dominant to non-pigmented skin (albinism). What is the genotype of an individual with albinism?
    • A. 

      Carrier

    • B. 

      Heterozygous

    • C. 

      Homozygous dominant

    • D. 

      Homozygous recessive

  • 8. 
    Jeanine inherited 2 alleles for round eye shape and has round eye shape. Her brother inherited 1 allele for round eye shape and 1 allele for almond eye shape and has almond eye shape. What type of trait is round eye shape?
    • A. 

      Co-dominant

    • B. 

      Dominant

    • C. 

      Recessive

    • D. 

      Sex-linked

  • 9. 
    In humans, red-green color blindness is a recessive, sex-linked trait. The chromosomes and alleles associated with color blindness are represented in this chart. Which child could NOT be born to these parents; a female (XBXb) and a male (XBY)?
    • A. 

      Color-blind daughter

    • B. 

      Color-blind son

    • C. 

      Daughter with normal color vision

    • D. 

      Son with normal color vision

  • 10. 
    What characteristic of early autotrophs gave them an advantage over early heterotrophs?
    • A. 

      They ate heterotrophs.

    • B. 

      They produced spores.

    • C. 

      They made their own food.

    • D. 

      They reproduced asexually.

  • 11. 
    The genotype of F1 individuals from a dihybrid cross is AaBb x AaBB. What is the expected ratio of AaBb individuals in the F2 generation?
    • A. 

      8/16

    • B. 

      4/16

    • C. 

      2/16

    • D. 

      1/16

  • 12. 
                      Alkaptonuria is a genetic disorder of protein metabolism. The disorder is determined by 2 alleles at 1 locus. What is the genotype for Individual 1 in the diagram?
    • A. 

      AA or Aa

    • B. 

      AA

    • C. 

      Aa

    • D. 

      Aa

  • 13. 
    Which example best illustrates the process of natural selection?
    • A. 

      Giraffe necks varied in length, and all offspring had an equal chance of survival.

    • B. 

      Giraffe necks varied in length, and the shorter-necked giraffes were at a disadvantage.

    • C. 

      Giraffes with short necks migrated to locations best suited for their neck lengths.

    • D. 

      Giraffes stretched their necks to reach for food, and resulting offspring had longer necks.

  • 14. 
    Most male crickets produce a mating song by rubbing together their curved wings. In a certain geographic area, parasitic flies detected male crickets singing and deposited their larvae into them, which killed the crickets. Eighteen generations later, the number of males with flat wings has increased to 90%. The flat-winged crickets do not sing, but are still able to mate with females, and parasitic flies cannot detect them. Which type of selection is occurring in this cricket population?
    • A. 

      Artificial

    • B. 

      Directional

    • C. 

      Disruptive

    • D. 

      Stabilizing

  • 15. 
    Horse skeleton fossils indicate that the size of horses increased over time. Which statement best explains this fossil record?
    • A. 

      Smaller horses bred with larger horses, creating hybrids.

    • B. 

      Smaller horses were infected by a fatal virus early in their history.

    • C. 

      Larger horses consumed the food supply of the smaller horses.

    • D. 

      Larger horses produced a slightly greater number of surviving offspring.

  • 16. 
    Cytochrome C is a protein used in the electron transport chain. This table shows short sections of Cytochrome C's amino acid sequences in 5 organisms, using single letter abbreviations. Use this data to determine which organism most likely shares the most recent common ancestor with humans.
    • A. 

      Organism 1

    • B. 

      Organism 2

    • C. 

      Organism 3

    • D. 

      Organism 4

  • 17. 
    Which event of meiosis reveals the mechanism for understanding Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment?
    • A. 

      Chromosome number is reduced during telophase I so gametes have half the standard number of chromosomes.

    • B. 

      The arrangement of homologous chromosomes during metaphase I varies from cell to cell.

    • C. 

      Centromeres break apart during anaphase II so that sister chromatids can move to opposite poles of the cell.

    • D. 

      DNA is replicated during interphase before before chromosomes condense and become attached to kinetochores.

  • 18. 
    Maria wanted to rid her home of cockroaches. She applied pesticide and after 1 day she found many dead cockroaches. Days later, she observed a few live cockroaches. She reapplied the pesticide, but she continued to see some live cockroaches. What best explains the continuing presence of live cockroaches?
    • A. 

      A few cockroaches exhibited pesticide resistance due to natural variability within the population.

    • B. 

      A few cockroaches developed pesticide resistance through contact with other resistant insects.

    • C. 

      A few cockroaches developed pesticide resistance after contact with it.

    • D. 

      A few cockroaches detected the pesticide and avoided sprayed areas.

  • 19. 
    Dr. Romero is raising 3 types of damselfishes in separate aquariums: 2 from the Atlantic Ocean and 1 from the Pacific Ocean. This table summarizes the information she gathered through observations and breeding experiments. Based on the most commonly accepted definition of a species, how many different species of damselfishes is Dr. Romero raising, and which fish are they?
    • A. 

      1 species: Fish A, B, and C are all members of a single species

    • B. 

      2 species: Fish A and B are a single species; Fish C is a separate species

    • C. 

      2 species: Fish A and C are a single species; Fish B is a separate species

    • D. 

      3 species: Fish A, B, and C are all members of separate species

  • 20. 
    Two black guinea pigs bred and produced 3 black offspring and 2 albino offspring. Assuming no mutations, which guinea pigs must be heterozygous?    
    • A. 

      All 3 black offspring

    • B. 

      Exactly 2 of the black offspring

    • C. 

      Both albino offspring

    • D. 

      Both parents

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