Becoming An Ethical Professional MCQ Quiz!

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Becoming An Ethical Professional MCQ Quiz! - Quiz

What do you understand by ethics? The study of principles relating to right or wrong conduct defines ethics, and most companies demand that employees live by a code of ethics. Becoming an ethical professional requires a clear understanding of morality and good conduct. Take up this challenge to understand further.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which part of the brain is associated with feelings of empathy?

    • A.

      Frontal lobes

    • B.

      Inferior parietal lobe

    • C.

      Left hemisphere

    • D.

      Right hemisphere

    Correct Answer
    A. Frontal lobes
    Explanation
    The frontal lobes of the brain are associated with feelings of empathy. This is because the frontal lobes are responsible for higher cognitive functions, including social and emotional processing. Empathy involves understanding and sharing the emotions of others, which requires the ability to interpret and respond to social cues. The frontal lobes play a crucial role in these processes, making them the part of the brain associated with empathy.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is not a characteristic of frontal lobe damage?

    • A.

      Difficulty in logical reasoning

    • B.

      Impulsivity

    • C.

      Tendency toway apathy

    • D.

      Loss of motor function

    Correct Answer
    D. Loss of motor function
    Explanation
    Frontal lobe damage is known to cause various cognitive and behavioral changes. Difficulty in logical reasoning, impulsivity, and a tendency to display apathy are all common characteristics associated with frontal lobe damage. However, loss of motor function is not typically associated with frontal lobe damage. Motor function is primarily controlled by the motor cortex, which is located in the rear portion of the frontal lobe. Therefore, damage to other areas of the brain, such as the motor cortex or the cerebellum, is more likely to result in loss of motor function.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is a type of test that measures an individual's ability to recognize and/or agree with moral terms?

    • A.

      Memory tests

    • B.

      Spatial skill tests

    • C.

      Recongnition tests

    • D.

      Intelligence tests

    Correct Answer
    C. Recongnition tests
    Explanation
    Recognition tests are a type of test that measures an individual's ability to recognize and/or agree with moral terms. These tests typically present individuals with a series of moral statements or scenarios and ask them to identify whether they agree or disagree with them. By assessing an individual's ability to recognize and understand moral terms, recognition tests can provide insight into their moral reasoning and ethical decision-making abilities.

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  • 4. 

    Studies found evidence of sex difference in all except:

    • A.

      Anitsocial behavior

    • B.

      Deliquency

    • C.

      Conduct disorders

    • D.

      Intelligence

    Correct Answer
    D. Intelligence
    Explanation
    The studies have found evidence of sex differences in all the mentioned areas except for intelligence. This suggests that there are no significant differences between males and females in terms of intelligence. However, there are differences observed in antisocial behavior, delinquency, and conduct disorders, indicating that these behaviors may vary between genders.

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  • 5. 

    Shermer believes that morality is a product of:

    • A.

      Learning

    • B.

      Reasoning

    • C.

      Evolution

    • D.

      Negative reinforcement

    Correct Answer
    C. Evolution
    Explanation
    Shermer believes that morality is a product of evolution. This suggests that our moral values and behaviors have developed over time through the process of natural selection. According to Shermer, our moral instincts and tendencies have been shaped by the need for social cooperation and the survival advantages it provides. This evolutionary perspective argues that moral principles and behaviors have emerged as adaptive strategies for human beings to navigate social interactions and ensure the success and well-being of both individuals and groups.

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  • 6. 

    According to learning theorists:

    • A.

      Behavior arises from moral beliefs

    • B.

      Moral behavior arisies through reason

    • C.

      Moral beliefs arise from a habit of moral behavior that is the product of reinforcement

    • D.

      Negative reinforcement is the most effective way to teach moral belief

    Correct Answer
    C. Moral beliefs arise from a habit of moral behavior that is the product of reinforcement
    Explanation
    According to learning theorists, moral beliefs arise from a habit of moral behavior that is the product of reinforcement. This means that individuals develop moral beliefs through consistently engaging in moral behavior and being positively reinforced for it. By repeatedly behaving morally and receiving positive reinforcement, such as praise or rewards, individuals develop a habit of moral behavior, which in turn shapes their moral beliefs. This suggests that positive reinforcement is the most effective way to teach moral beliefs, rather than negative reinforcement.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is not associated with learning theory?

    • A.

      Moral reasoning

    • B.

      Cognitive dissonance

    • C.

      Reinforcement

    • D.

      Modeling

    Correct Answer
    A. Moral reasoning
    Explanation
    Moral reasoning is not associated with learning theory because it focuses on ethical decision-making and the development of moral values, rather than the processes of acquiring knowledge and skills through learning. Learning theory, on the other hand, explores how individuals acquire, retain, and apply information and behaviors through various mechanisms such as reinforcement and modeling.

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  • 8. 

    Ethical leaders should foster personal relationships with their subordinates in order to facilitate:

    • A.

      Caring

    • B.

      Modeling

    • C.

      Knowledge of weakness

    • D.

      Friendship

    Correct Answer
    B. Modeling
    Explanation
    Ethical leaders should foster personal relationships with their subordinates in order to facilitate modeling. By building personal connections, leaders can serve as role models for their subordinates, demonstrating ethical behavior and values in their own actions. This modeling behavior can inspire and influence employees to emulate these ethical practices, creating a positive ethical culture within the organization. Additionally, through personal relationships, leaders can provide guidance and support, further enhancing their ability to model ethical behavior and promote a culture of ethics within the workplace.

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  • 9. 

    The discomfort that results when behavior is not consistent with beliefs is called:

    • A.

      Cognitive dissension

    • B.

      Value discord

    • C.

      Cognitive dissonance

    • D.

      Norm disagreement

    Correct Answer
    C. Cognitive dissonance
    Explanation
    Cognitive dissonance refers to the discomfort or psychological tension that arises when an individual's behavior is inconsistent with their beliefs or values. It is the feeling of unease or conflict that occurs when there is a discrepancy between what someone thinks or believes and how they act. This term is used to describe the internal conflict that people experience when they hold contradictory beliefs or engage in behaviors that go against their values.

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  • 10. 

    Proponents of learning theory are best described by what term?

    • A.

      Deontological

    • B.

      Teleological

    • C.

      Relativist

    • D.

      Absolutist

    Correct Answer
    C. Relativist
    Explanation
    The term "relativist" best describes proponents of learning theory because they believe that knowledge and understanding are relative to the individual or the cultural context in which they exist. They emphasize the importance of considering different perspectives and experiences when learning and understanding concepts. This contrasts with deontological and absolutist perspectives, which focus on fixed rules and principles, and teleological perspectives, which prioritize the end results or consequences.

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  • 11. 

    Social learning theory was developed by:

    • A.

      Albert bandura

    • B.

      Jean piaget

    • C.

      Erik erikson

    • D.

      B.F. skinner

    Correct Answer
    A. Albert bandura
    Explanation
    Albert Bandura is the correct answer because he developed the social learning theory. This theory suggests that people learn through observing others and imitating their behaviors. Bandura's research focused on the role of observational learning, self-efficacy, and the influence of social factors on behavior. He conducted the famous Bobo doll experiment, which demonstrated how children learn aggressive behaviors by observing adults. Bandura's work has had a significant impact on understanding human behavior and the importance of social influences in learning.

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  • 12. 

    (blank) can be defined as the individual's feelings of competence, and this sense is developed by comparing the self to others.

    • A.

      Cognitive dissonance

    • B.

      Self-efficacy

    • C.

      Euphamistic morality

    • D.

      Self-adequacy

    Correct Answer
    B. Self-efficacy
    Explanation
    Self-efficacy can be defined as the individual's feelings of competence, and this sense is developed by comparing the self to others. Self-efficacy refers to a person's belief in their own ability to successfully perform a specific task or achieve a goal. It is influenced by past experiences, observations of others, and the individual's own interpretation of their abilities. This concept emphasizes the importance of self-perception and self-confidence in determining one's level of competence and motivation to take on challenges.

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  • 13. 

    Sanitizing language, such as "wasting" or "whacking" instead of killing is an example of:

    • A.

      Behavioral classification

    • B.

      Metaphorical cataloging

    • C.

      Cognitive adage

    • D.

      Euphemistic labeling

    Correct Answer
    D. Euphemistic labeling
    Explanation
    Sanitizing language, such as using terms like "wasting" or "whacking" instead of "killing," is an example of euphemistic labeling. Euphemistic labeling involves using milder or less direct language to describe something that may be considered harsh or offensive. In this case, the use of euphemistic labels aims to soften the impact of the word "killing" and make it sound less harsh or alarming.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following statements about social learning theory is true?

    • A.

      Social learning theory was developed by Lawrence Kohlberg

    • B.

      Social learning theory reflects the idea of modeling as the mechanism of development

    • C.

      Social learning theorists believe moral behavior is hierarchical

    • D.

      Social learning theorists believe that as we develop, we move from pure egoism toward altruism

    Correct Answer
    B. Social learning theory reflects the idea of modeling as the mechanism of development
    Explanation
    Social learning theory reflects the idea of modeling as the mechanism of development. This means that individuals learn by observing and imitating the behavior of others. According to social learning theory, people acquire new behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions through observational learning. This theory emphasizes the importance of social influence and the role of models in shaping behavior. It suggests that individuals learn by observing the consequences of others' behavior and adjust their own behavior accordingly.

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  • 15. 

    According to Bandura, self-regulation can be "turned off", leading to inhumane acts, through cognitive restructuring via several different mechanisms. Which of the following is not one of these mechanisms?

    • A.

      Diffusion through responsibility

    • B.

      Displacement of responsibility

    • C.

      Advantageous labeling

    • D.

      Disregard of the consequences

    Correct Answer
    C. Advantageous labeling
    Explanation
    According to Bandura, self-regulation can be "turned off" and lead to inhumane acts through cognitive restructuring. This means that individuals may reframe their thoughts and beliefs in a way that justifies or rationalizes their actions. Diffusion through responsibility, displacement of responsibility, and disregard of the consequences are all mechanisms that can contribute to this process. However, advantageous labeling is not one of these mechanisms. This suggests that labeling an action as advantageous does not directly contribute to the cognitive restructuring that leads to inhumane acts.

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  • 16. 

    Who of the following is not associated with developmental theories?

    • A.

      Kohlberg

    • B.

      Bentham

    • C.

      Gillian

    • D.

      Piaget

    Correct Answer
    B. Bentham
    Explanation
    Bentham is not associated with developmental theories. While the other options, Kohlberg, Gillian, and Piaget, are all well-known developmental psychologists who have made significant contributions to the field, Bentham is not primarily known for his work in developmental theories. Bentham is best known for his contributions to utilitarianism and ethical philosophy, rather than developmental psychology.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following statements about developmental theories is false?

    • A.

      Developmental theories propose that individuals mature physically, cognitively, and emotionally

    • B.

      Developmental theories argue that individuals have normal growth phases is areas such as morality and emotional maturity

    • C.

      Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg are well-known developmental theorists

    • D.

      Kohlbergs moral stages of development consists of two stages of moral reasoning, with three stages in each level

    Correct Answer
    D. Kohlbergs moral stages of development consists of two stages of moral reasoning, with three stages in each level
    Explanation
    Developmental theories propose that individuals mature physically, cognitively, and emotionally, which is true. Developmental theories also argue that individuals have normal growth phases in areas such as morality and emotional maturity, which is also true. Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg are well-known developmental theorists, which is true. However, the statement that Kohlberg's moral stages of development consist of two stages of moral reasoning with three stages in each level is false. Kohlberg's moral stages of development actually consist of six stages, with three stages in each of two levels.

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  • 18. 

    According to Kohlberg, there are (blank) stages of moral development.

    • A.

      Six

    • B.

      Seven

    • C.

      Five

    • D.

      Three

    Correct Answer
    B. Seven
    Explanation
    According to Kohlberg, there are seven stages of moral development. Kohlberg proposed a theory of moral development that suggests individuals progress through different stages of moral reasoning as they mature. These stages are based on an individual's ability to understand and make moral judgments. Kohlberg's theory suggests that moral development is a lifelong process, with each stage building upon the previous one. The seven stages include three levels: pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional, each consisting of two sub-stages. This theory has been influential in understanding how individuals develop their moral reasoning and decision-making abilities.

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  • 19. 

    Who according to Kohlberg, is the first stage of moral development?

    • A.

      Punishment and obedience orientation

    • B.

      Instrument and relativity orientation

    • C.

      Social contract orientation

    • D.

      Law and order orientation

    Correct Answer
    A. Punishment and obedience orientation
    Explanation
    According to Kohlberg, the first stage of moral development is the punishment and obedience orientation. In this stage, individuals base their moral decisions on avoiding punishment and obeying authority figures. They view right and wrong in terms of the consequences of their actions, rather than considering the intentions or motivations behind them. This stage is typically seen in young children who have not yet developed a more complex understanding of moral reasoning.

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  • 20. 

    Which of Kohlberg's moral stages has an interpersonal concordance orientation?

    • A.

      Stage 1

    • B.

      Stage 2

    • C.

      Stage 3

    • D.

      Stage 4

    Correct Answer
    C. Stage 3
    Explanation
    Kohlberg's moral stages are a framework that describes the development of moral reasoning in individuals. Stage 3, which is also known as the "Good Boy-Nice Girl" stage, is characterized by an interpersonal concordance orientation. This means that individuals at this stage are concerned with maintaining social approval and being seen as a good person in the eyes of others. They make moral decisions based on the expectations of their family, friends, and society, and seek to avoid disapproval and conflict.

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  • 21. 

    During Kohlberg's (blank) level, the person approaches a moral issue motivated purely by personal interests.

    • A.

      Pre-conventional

    • B.

      Post-conventional

    • C.

      Un-conventional

    • D.

      Conventional

    Correct Answer
    A. Pre-conventional
    Explanation
    During Kohlberg's pre-conventional level, the person approaches a moral issue motivated purely by personal interests. This means that their moral decisions are based on self-interest and the desire to avoid punishment or gain rewards. At this stage, individuals focus on what is beneficial for themselves rather than considering the needs or perspectives of others. They may prioritize their own desires and act in ways that maximize their personal gain, without considering broader ethical principles or societal norms. This stage is characterized by a self-centered approach to moral reasoning.

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  • 22. 

    During Kohlberg's (blank) level, a person moves beyond the norms and laws of society to determine universal good, that is, what is good for all societies.

    • A.

      Pre-conventional

    • B.

      Post-conventional

    • C.

      Un-convetional

    • D.

      Conventional

    Correct Answer
    B. Post-conventional
    Explanation
    During Kohlberg's post-conventional level, a person develops their own moral principles that may go beyond the norms and laws of society. They strive to determine what is universally good for all societies, rather than simply following societal rules. This level involves a higher level of moral reasoning and autonomy, as individuals consider ethical principles and values that may conflict with societal expectations.

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  • 23. 

    During Kohlberg's (blank) level, people perceive themselves as members of society, and living up to role responsibilities is paramount in believing oneself to be good.

    • A.

      Pre-conventional

    • B.

      Post-conventional

    • C.

      Un-conventional

    • D.

      Conventional

    Correct Answer
    D. Conventional
    Explanation
    During Kohlberg's conventional level, individuals perceive themselves as members of society and believe that fulfilling their role responsibilities is crucial in considering themselves as good. This level is characterized by a strong adherence to social norms, rules, and expectations. People at this level prioritize conformity and maintaining social order, valuing the approval and acceptance of others. They tend to base their moral judgments on societal expectations rather than personal beliefs or abstract principles. This level reflects a conventional understanding of morality, where individuals seek to meet the expectations of society and maintain social harmony.

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  • 24. 

    Which of Kohlberg's moral stages centers on universal ethical principles?

    • A.

      Stage 3

    • B.

      Stage 4

    • C.

      Stage 5

    • D.

      Stage 6

    Correct Answer
    D. Stage 6
    Explanation
    Stage 6 of Kohlberg's moral stages centers on universal ethical principles. This stage is known as the post-conventional level, where individuals develop their own set of moral principles based on universal values such as justice, equality, and human rights. People at this stage are guided by their own conscience and are willing to disobey laws or rules that conflict with their ethical principles. They believe in the importance of individual rights and the greater good for society as a whole.

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  • 25. 

    Kohlberg advanced the possibility of a seventh stage described as a:

    • A.

      "enlightened" stage involving law-and-order orientation

    • B.

      "soft" stage of ethical awareness with an orientation of cosmic or religious thinking

    • C.

      "universal" stage where the child becomes aware of and is concerned with others needs

    • D.

      "final" stage where the individual performs conventionally determined good behavior to be considered a good person

    Correct Answer
    B. "soft" stage of ethical awareness with an orientation of cosmic or religious thinking
    Explanation
    Kohlberg proposed the idea of a "soft" stage of ethical awareness with an orientation of cosmic or religious thinking. This stage suggests that individuals at this level of moral development are guided by a sense of universal principles and a belief in a higher power. They view ethical decisions from a broader perspective, considering the interconnectedness of all beings and the importance of spiritual or cosmic values in guiding their actions. This stage represents a higher level of moral reasoning that goes beyond conventional societal norms and focuses on a more transcendent understanding of ethics.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following individuals added a "care perspective" to Kohlberg's theory?

    • A.

      Jean Piaget

    • B.

      Albert Bandura

    • C.

      Carol Gilligan

    • D.

      Jackson Flanagan

    Correct Answer
    C. Carol Gilligan
    Explanation
    Carol Gilligan added a "care perspective" to Kohlberg's theory. Gilligan argued that Kohlberg's theory of moral development, which focused primarily on justice and rights, did not adequately capture the moral reasoning of women. She proposed that women's moral development is characterized by an ethic of care, emphasizing empathy, compassion, and relationships. Gilligan's work expanded the understanding of moral development by highlighting the importance of care and interpersonal connections in ethical decision-making.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following statements about the developmental theories is true?

    • A.

      Developmental theories propose that individuals mature physically, cognitively, and emotionally

    • B.

      Developmental theorists believe that exceptionally bright individuals can skip stages

    • C.

      Bentham is a well-known developmental theorists

    • D.

      Developmental theories argue that individual have normal "moral imaginations"

    Correct Answer
    A. Developmental theories propose that individuals mature physically, cognitively, and emotionally
    Explanation
    Developmental theories propose that individuals mature physically, cognitively, and emotionally. This means that according to these theories, individuals go through a process of growth and development in terms of their physical, cognitive, and emotional abilities. These theories suggest that individuals progress and change in these areas as they age and develop. This aligns with the general understanding of human development, as it is widely accepted that individuals undergo physical, cognitive, and emotional changes throughout their lifespan.

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  • 28. 

    According to the "corruption continuum" organizations can become corrupt through all the following except:

    • A.

      Administrative indifference toward integrity

    • B.

      Ignoring obvious ethical problem

    • C.

      Hypocrisy and fear dominated culture

    • D.

      Charismatic leadership

    Correct Answer
    D. Charismatic leadership
    Explanation
    Charismatic leadership is not a factor that can directly lead to organizational corruption. Charismatic leaders may have the ability to inspire and motivate their followers, but their leadership style alone does not inherently promote corruption. On the other hand, administrative indifference toward integrity, ignoring obvious ethical problems, and a hypocrisy and fear dominated culture can all contribute to the development of corruption within an organization. These factors create an environment where unethical behavior is tolerated or even encouraged, leading to corrupt practices.

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  • 29. 

    The My Lai incident took place in:

    • A.

      Iraq

    • B.

      Korea

    • C.

      Japan

    • D.

      Vietnam

    Correct Answer
    D. Vietnam
    Explanation
    The My Lai incident took place in Vietnam. This incident occurred on March 16, 1968, during the Vietnam War. American soldiers from the US Army's Charlie Company massacred hundreds of unarmed Vietnamese civilians, including women, children, and elderly people, in the village of My Lai. This tragic event shocked the world and became a symbol of the atrocities committed during the war.

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  • 30. 

    According to the text, the condition in which a worker has abandoned the mission of the organization and is just "going through the motions" is called?

    • A.

      Burnout

    • B.

      Anomie

    • C.

      Catatonia

    • D.

      Alienation

    Correct Answer
    A. Burnout
    Explanation
    Burnout refers to the state in which a worker has lost motivation and interest in their work, leading to a sense of detachment and disengagement. They may feel emotionally drained, exhausted, and unfulfilled, resulting in a lack of productivity and a decrease in their overall performance. This condition is often characterized by a sense of apathy and simply "going through the motions" without any real passion or commitment to the organization's mission.

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