AQA GCSE Biology Module 1 Controlling Conditions

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Revision for the topic of co-ordination and control for the B1 module of AQA GCSE Biology


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Information passes along neurones in the form of

    • A.

      Messages

    • B.

      Electronic signals

    • C.

      Impulses

    • D.

      Signals

    Correct Answer
    C. Impulses
    Explanation
    Neurones are specialized cells in the nervous system that transmit information. They do so by generating electrical impulses, which travel along the length of the neurone. These impulses allow for the communication between different parts of the body and enable the transmission of sensory information, motor commands, and other signals. Therefore, the correct answer is "impulses" as it accurately describes how information passes along neurones.

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  • 2. 

    The correct order of neurones in a reflex arc is

    • A.

      Relay, motor sensory

    • B.

      Sensory, relay, motor

    • C.

      Motor, sensory, relay

    • D.

      Sensory, motor, relay

    Correct Answer
    B. Sensory, relay, motor
    Explanation
    The correct order of neurons in a reflex arc is sensory, relay, motor. This is because in a reflex arc, sensory neurons receive stimuli from the environment and transmit the information to the relay neurons in the spinal cord or brain. The relay neurons then process the information and send signals to the motor neurons, which in turn, stimulate the appropriate muscles or glands to produce a reflex action. Therefore, the correct sequence is sensory, relay, motor.

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  • 3. 

    A valid statement about hormone responses is

    • A.

      Hormone response always involve a protein messenger

    • B.

      Hormone responses involve electrial impulses

    • C.

      Hormone responses only occur when a person has reached puberty

    • D.

      Hormone responses are slow and long lasting

    Correct Answer
    D. Hormone responses are slow and long lasting
    Explanation
    Hormone responses are slow and long-lasting because hormones are chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream to target cells or organs. Once they reach their target, hormones bind to specific receptors and initiate a cascade of biochemical reactions that can take time to complete. This slow process allows for precise regulation and coordination of various physiological functions. Additionally, hormone effects can often persist for an extended period, contributing to their long-lasting nature.

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  • 4. 

    A neurone does not contain which of the following?

    • A.

      Cell wall

    • B.

      Cell membrane

    • C.

      Cytoplasm

    • D.

      Nucleus

    Correct Answer
    A. Cell wall
    Explanation
    A neuron is a type of cell found in the nervous system, and it is unique in that it does not have a cell wall. Unlike plant cells, animal cells, including neurons, do not have a rigid cell wall made of cellulose. Instead, they have a flexible cell membrane that surrounds and protects the cell. The cytoplasm is the jelly-like substance inside the cell that contains various organelles, and the nucleus is the control center of the cell that contains the genetic material.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following neurones is connected between another neurone and an effector?

    • A.

      All neurones

    • B.

      Sensory

    • C.

      Motor

    • D.

      Relay

    Correct Answer
    C. Motor
    Explanation
    Motor neurons are the type of neurons that are connected between another neuron and an effector. These neurons transmit signals from the central nervous system to the muscles or glands, allowing for voluntary and involuntary movements and responses. Sensory neurons, on the other hand, transmit signals from sensory receptors to the central nervous system, while relay neurons connect different neurons within the central nervous system. Therefore, motor neurons are specifically responsible for transmitting signals from neurons to effectors, making them the correct answer.

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  • 6. 

    A synapse is

    • A.

      The place where nerve impuses stop moving

    • B.

      A gap over which electrical impulses cross

    • C.

      The place where neurones touch

    • D.

      A small gap between neurones

    Correct Answer
    D. A small gap between neurones
    Explanation
    A synapse is a small gap between neurons. It is the point where two neurons come into close proximity but do not physically touch. This small gap is where the transmission of signals occurs between neurons. When an electrical impulse reaches the end of one neuron, it releases chemicals called neurotransmitters into the synapse, which then bind to receptors on the neighboring neuron, allowing the signal to be transmitted across the gap.

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  • 7. 

    Reflexes are

    • A.

      Automatic and rapid

    • B.

      Voluntary and rapid

    • C.

      Involuntary and slow

    • D.

      Automatic and slow

    Correct Answer
    A. Automatic and rapid
    Explanation
    Reflexes are automatic and rapid because they are involuntary responses to a stimulus that occur without conscious thought. They are designed to protect the body from harm and ensure quick reactions to potential dangers. These reflex actions are controlled by the spinal cord and do not involve the brain's decision-making processes, allowing for immediate responses. The rapid nature of reflexes is crucial for survival, as it allows the body to react swiftly to potentially harmful situations.

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  • 8. 

    Reflexes

    • A.

      Sometimes invlove nervous activity in the brain

    • B.

      Always invlove nervous activity in the brain

    • C.

      Never involve nervous activity in the brain

    • D.

      Only involve nervous activity in the brain

    Correct Answer
    B. Always invlove nervous activity in the brain
    Explanation
    Reflexes are involuntary responses to stimuli that occur without conscious thought. These responses are mediated by the nervous system, specifically the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. The correct answer states that reflexes always involve nervous activity in the brain. This is because although the initial processing of the reflex occurs in the spinal cord, the information is also sent to the brain for further processing and integration. Therefore, the involvement of nervous activity in the brain is a crucial component of reflexes.

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  • 9. 

    Activity at a synapse invloves

    • A.

      The transfer of current

    • B.

      Diffusion of an impulse

    • C.

      The movement of an impulse

    • D.

      The diffiusion of a chemical

    Correct Answer
    D. The diffiusion of a chemical
    Explanation
    Activity at a synapse involves the diffusion of a chemical. When an impulse reaches the end of a neuron, it triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synapse. These neurotransmitters then diffuse across the synapse and bind to receptors on the receiving neuron, transmitting the signal. This diffusion of chemicals allows for the communication between neurons and the transmission of signals throughout the nervous system.

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  • 10. 

    Glands invloved in the production of hormones in the control of the menstrual cycle include

    • A.

      The pituitary and ovaries

    • B.

      Ovaries and uterus lining

    • C.

      Pituitary and adrenal gland

    • D.

      Mammary glands and unterus lining

    Correct Answer
    A. The pituitary and ovaries
    Explanation
    The pituitary and ovaries are the glands involved in the production of hormones in the control of the menstrual cycle. The pituitary gland releases follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which stimulate the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone. These hormones are responsible for regulating the development and release of eggs, as well as the thickening and shedding of the uterine lining during the menstrual cycle. Therefore, the pituitary and ovaries play a crucial role in the hormonal control of the menstrual cycle.

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  • 11. 

    Which one of the following organs is a gland producing FSH?

    • A.

      Pituitary

    • B.

      Ovary

    • C.

      Uterus lining

    • D.

      Mammary

    Correct Answer
    A. Pituitary
    Explanation
    The pituitary gland is responsible for producing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH plays a crucial role in the reproductive system, particularly in the development and maturation of eggs in females and the production of sperm in males. It stimulates the ovaries to release estrogen and triggers the growth of ovarian follicles. In males, FSH stimulates the production of sperm in the testes. Therefore, the correct answer is Pituitary.

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  • 12. 

    The action of FSH is to

    • A.

      Stimulate oestrogen production

    • B.

      Reduce the thickness of the uterus lining

    • C.

      Inhibit follicle development

    • D.

      Cause ovulation

    Correct Answer
    A. Stimulate oestrogen production
    Explanation
    FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) is produced by the pituitary gland and plays a crucial role in the female reproductive system. It stimulates the development and maturation of ovarian follicles, which are structures that contain the eggs. As the follicles mature, they produce estrogen, a hormone that is responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics and the thickening of the uterine lining. Therefore, the action of FSH is to stimulate estrogen production, which ultimately leads to the thickening of the uterus lining and prepares the body for potential pregnancy.

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  • 13. 

    High levels of FSH in blood causes

    • A.

      The unterus lining to be released

    • B.

      Even more FSH to be produced

    • C.

      Oestrogen formation and follicle development

    • D.

      Egg release from the ovary

    Correct Answer
    C. Oestrogen formation and follicle development
    Explanation
    High levels of FSH in the blood stimulate the ovaries to produce more estrogen, which in turn promotes the development of follicles in the ovaries. These follicles contain eggs, and as they mature, they release more estrogen. Therefore, the correct answer is oestrogen formation and follicle development.

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  • 14. 

    Which one of the following hormones is often used in fertility treatments for couples wanting a baby?

    • A.

      HSF

    • B.

      FSH

    • C.

      GBH

    • D.

      TEA

    Correct Answer
    B. FSH
    Explanation
    FSH, or follicle-stimulating hormone, is often used in fertility treatments for couples wanting a baby. FSH plays a crucial role in the development and maturation of eggs in women and sperm in men. By administering FSH, the body is stimulated to produce more eggs or sperm, increasing the chances of successful fertilization and pregnancy. FSH is commonly used in assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) to optimize the chances of conception.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following is not a function of oestrogen?

    • A.

      It inhibits FSH production

    • B.

      It stimulates FSH production

    • C.

      It stimulates LH production

    • D.

      In contraptive pills it prevents egg development

    Correct Answer
    B. It stimulates FSH production
    Explanation
    Oestrogen is a hormone that plays a crucial role in the female reproductive system. It is responsible for inhibiting the production of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which is necessary for the development and maturation of eggs in the ovaries. Therefore, it does not stimulate FSH production. Instead, oestrogen stimulates the production of luteinizing hormone (LH), which triggers ovulation and the release of the mature egg from the ovary. Additionally, oestrogen is used in contraceptive pills to prevent egg development, further supporting the idea that it does not stimulate FSH production.

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  • 16. 

    The length of a typical menstrual cycle in days is

    • A.

      14

    • B.

      24

    • C.

      28

    • D.

      32

    Correct Answer
    C. 28
    Explanation
    The length of a typical menstrual cycle is 28 days. This is considered the average duration for most women. However, it is important to note that menstrual cycles can vary in length and can range from 21 to 35 days. The menstrual cycle is counted from the first day of one period to the first day of the next period. It is regulated by hormones and involves the shedding of the uterine lining if pregnancy does not occur.

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  • 17. 

    If sperm cells live for 2 days after they have ejaculated fertilisation is most likely to occur when intercourse happens between which days in a typical cycle?

    • A.

      Day 8 to 12

    • B.

      Day 12 to 16

    • C.

      Day 18 to 22

    • D.

      Day 20 to 22

    Correct Answer
    B. Day 12 to 16
    Explanation
    Sperm cells can live for up to 2 days after ejaculation. In a typical cycle, ovulation usually occurs around day 14. Therefore, if intercourse happens between days 12 to 16, there is a higher chance of sperm being present when the egg is released during ovulation. This increases the likelihood of fertilization occurring during this time period.

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  • 18. 

    The highest level of LH in the blood of a woman during a typical menstrual cycle occurs on day

    • A.

      6

    • B.

      14

    • C.

      22

    • D.

      28

    Correct Answer
    B. 14
    Explanation
    The highest level of LH (luteinizing hormone) in the blood of a woman during a typical menstrual cycle occurs on day 14. This is known as the LH surge and it triggers ovulation. Ovulation usually occurs around 24-36 hours after the LH surge, and it is the most fertile time for a woman to conceive. Therefore, day 14 is considered the most likely day for ovulation to occur in a typical menstrual cycle.

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  • 19. 

    The contraceptive pills contains which of the following hormones

    • A.

      Oestrogen

    • B.

      FSH

    • C.

      LH

    • D.

      Adrenalin

    Correct Answer
    A. Oestrogen
    Explanation
    Contraceptive pills contain the hormone estrogen. Estrogen is a female sex hormone that plays a crucial role in regulating the menstrual cycle and fertility. It helps to prevent pregnancy by suppressing the release of eggs from the ovaries and thickening the cervical mucus, making it difficult for sperm to reach the egg. By maintaining a consistent level of estrogen in the body, contraceptive pills effectively prevent ovulation and reduce the chances of fertilization and pregnancy.

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  • 20. 

    Hormone treatment may help women who want to have a bady if

    • A.

      They produce too many follicles

    • B.

      Their oviducts are blocked

    • C.

      Their FSH levels are too low

    • D.

      Their adrenalin levels are too low

    Correct Answer
    C. Their FSH levels are too low
    Explanation
    Hormone treatment may help women who want to have a baby if their FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) levels are too low. FSH plays a crucial role in the development and maturation of eggs in the ovaries. When FSH levels are low, it can affect the release of eggs and hinder fertility. Hormone treatment can help stimulate the production of FSH, thereby increasing the chances of egg development and ovulation, improving the chances of conception and pregnancy.

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