APUSH Ch 12-16 Quarterly (2nd Quarter)

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In adopting the 14th amendment, congress was primarily concerned with

    • A.

      A) protecting the powers of the southern state governments established under Andrew Johnson

    • B.

      B) protecting legislation guaranteeing civil rights to former slaves

    • C.

      C) ending slavery

    • D.

      D) guaranteeing all citizens te right to vote

    • E.

      E) establishing the Freedmen's Bureau

    Correct Answer
    B. B) protecting legislation guaranteeing civil rights to former slaves
    Explanation
    The 14th amendment was adopted by Congress primarily to protect legislation guaranteeing civil rights to former slaves. This amendment granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States, including former slaves, and provided equal protection under the law. It aimed to ensure that the civil rights of former slaves were protected and that they were granted the same rights and protections as other citizens. This was a crucial step in the process of establishing equality and ending the discrimination and oppression faced by African Americans during this time.

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  • 2. 

    The first attempt to apply the doctrine of popular soverignty in determining the status of slavery occured in

    • A.

      A) Texas

    • B.

      B) California

    • C.

      C) Kansas

    • D.

      D) Missouri

    • E.

      E) Oregon

    Correct Answer
    C. C) Kansas
    Explanation
    The correct answer is C) Kansas. The first attempt to apply the doctrine of popular sovereignty in determining the status of slavery occurred in Kansas. Popular sovereignty was the idea that the residents of a territory should decide for themselves whether to allow slavery or not. In the case of Kansas, the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 allowed the residents of the territory to vote on whether to allow slavery, leading to a period of violent conflict known as "Bleeding Kansas" between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions. This marked an important moment in the lead-up to the American Civil War.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following achievements of the "carpetbag" governments survived the "Redeemer" administrations

    • A.

      A) Participation by both Whites and African Americans in local government

    • B.

      B) Establishment of a public school system

    • C.

      C) Election of African American majorities to state legislatures

    • D.

      D) Establishment of a vigorous Republican party in the south

    • E.

      E) Opening of public facilities to African Americans

    Correct Answer
    B. B) Establishment of a public school system
    Explanation
    During the "carpetbag" governments, one of their achievements was the establishment of a public school system. This means that they created a system of public schools that were accessible to all, regardless of race or background. This achievement continued to exist even during the "Redeemer" administrations, which were characterized by efforts to undo the progress made by the carpetbag governments. Therefore, the establishment of a public school system was one of the achievements that survived this transition of power.

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  • 4. 

    Which element of the kansas-Nebraska Act caused the greatest controversy

    • A.

      A) Spending $10 million on railroad construction in Kansas

    • B.

      B) Its de facto repeal of teh Missouri Compromise

    • C.

      C) Splitting the territory into two areas

    • D.

      D) Extending the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific Ocean

    • E.

      E) Admitting Kansas to the Union as a slave state

    Correct Answer
    B. B) Its de facto repeal of teh Missouri Compromise
    Explanation
    The correct answer is B) Its de facto repeal of the Missouri Compromise. The Missouri Compromise of 1820 had established a balance between free and slave states by prohibiting slavery in certain territories. The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 allowed popular sovereignty, meaning that the residents of the territories could decide whether to allow slavery. This act effectively repealed the Missouri Compromise, leading to intense controversy and further deepening the divide between the North and the South on the issue of slavery.

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  • 5. 

    The Reconstruction Acts of 1867 provided for

    • A.

      A) temporary Union military supervision of the ex-Confederacy

    • B.

      B) federal monetary support of the resettlement of American Blacks in Africa

    • C.

      C) Denial of black property holding and voting rights

    • D.

      D) implementation of anti-black vagrancy laws in the south

    • E.

      E) lenient readmission of the ex-Confederate states to the Union

    Correct Answer
    A. A) temporary Union military supervision of the ex-Confederacy
    Explanation
    The Reconstruction Acts of 1867 provided for temporary Union military supervision of the ex-Confederacy. This means that the Union military would oversee and enforce the reconstruction policies in the Southern states that had seceded during the Civil War. The purpose of this military supervision was to ensure that the rights of newly freed slaves were protected and that the Southern states were brought back into the Union in a way that promoted equality and justice. This military supervision was a key aspect of the Reconstruction period, which aimed to rebuild and reform the South after the war.

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  • 6. 

    "...the descendants of Africans who were imported into this country, and sold as slaves... are not included, and were not intended to be included, under the word "citizens" in the Consitution, and can therefore claim none of the rights and priveleges which that instrument proivides for and secures to citizens of the United States." The passage above is from which of the following?

    • A.

      A) Marbury v. Madison

    • B.

      B) The Liberty party platform

    • C.

      C) McCulloch v. Maryland

    • D.

      D) Dred Scott v Sanford

    • E.

      E) The Freedmen's Bureau act of 1865

    Correct Answer
    D. D) Dred Scott v Sanford
    Explanation
    The passage above is from the Dred Scott v Sanford case. This case involved a slave named Dred Scott who sued for his freedom based on the fact that he had lived in free territories. The Supreme Court ruled that African Americans, whether enslaved or free, were not considered citizens and therefore could not sue in federal court. This decision further reinforced the institution of slavery and denied African Americans the rights and privileges afforded to citizens under the Constitution.

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  • 7. 

    During Reconstruction, the main goal of the Ku Klux Klan was to

    • A.

      A) Work with former slaves and defend their new political rights

    • B.

      B) Rekindle a full-scale war against northern aggression

    • C.

      C) legalize slavey once again and re-establish the antebellum South

    • D.

      D) prevent the changes in southern society envisioned by the Radical Republicans

    • E.

      E) cooperate with the new southern gov'ts to end military occupation of the South

    Correct Answer
    D. D) prevent the changes in southern society envisioned by the Radical Republicans
    Explanation
    During Reconstruction, the main goal of the Ku Klux Klan was to prevent the changes in southern society envisioned by the Radical Republicans. The Radical Republicans sought to implement policies that would grant civil rights and political equality to African Americans, which was seen as a threat to the white supremacist ideology held by the Ku Klux Klan. The Klan used violence, intimidation, and terrorism to suppress and undermine the efforts of the Radical Republicans and to maintain white supremacy in the South.

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  • 8. 

    All of the following statements about pre-civil war American slavery are true EXCEPT

    • A.

      A) although experience varied from one plantation to another, investments in slaves generally yielded rates of return equal to or better than other forms of investments of comparable risk in the pre-civil war american economy.

    • B.

      B) although southern legal codes did not uniformly provide for teh legalization and stability of slave marraige, slaves were generally able to marry, and teh institution of marraige was common on southern plantations

    • C.

      C) although slaves were mainly emplyoed in agriculture, by the 1850's they were also employed as construction workers and inudstrial laborers

    • D.

      D) because of the relative ease with which slaves could gain their freedom by manumission or by purchase, the proportion of freedmen to slaves was almost equal in many areas of the south

    • E.

      E) despite the geographical diffusion of slavery thhroughout the southm at no time did the majority of white families in the south own slaves.

    Correct Answer
    D. D) because of the relative ease with which slaves could gain their freedom by manumission or by purchase, the proportion of freedmen to slaves was almost equal in many areas of the south
  • 9. 

    The entire shaded area in the map above was

    • A.

      A) ceded by Spain to the US

    • B.

      B) once part of Mexico

    • C.

      C) Claimed by the confederacy

    • D.

      D) claimed by the Bear Flag republic

    • E.

      E) Known as the gadsden purchase

    Correct Answer
    B. B) once part of Mexico
    Explanation
    The correct answer is B) once part of Mexico. The shaded area on the map was once part of Mexico before it was ceded to the United States. This refers to the Mexican Cession, which occurred as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. The treaty ended the Mexican-American War and established the Rio Grande as the border between the two countries, with Mexico ceding a large portion of its territory to the United States. This included present-day states such as California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming.

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  • 10. 

    Thaddeus Stevens was more radical in his plan for reconstruction than most of his Republican colleagues in Congess in that he proposed

    • A.

      A) granting the right to vote to blacks in all the states

    • B.

      B) the confiscation of all land of former slaveholders with 40 acres giiven to freedmen

    • C.

      C) the confiscation of all land of former slaveholders and the redistribution of all of it to freedmen

    • D.

      D) the military occupation of the southern states to force them to accept the 14th amendment

    • E.

      E) a civil rights act that included social equality for both blacks and whites

    Correct Answer
    B. B) the confiscation of all land of former slaveholders with 40 acres giiven to freedmen
    Explanation
    Thaddeus Stevens' plan for reconstruction was more radical than most of his Republican colleagues in Congress because he proposed the confiscation of all land owned by former slaveholders and giving 40 acres of land to freedmen. This was a significant departure from the more moderate approach of his colleagues, as it involved taking land from those who had supported slavery and redistributing it to the newly freed African Americans. This plan aimed to provide economic independence and empowerment to the freedmen, ensuring they had a stake in the post-war society.

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  • 11. 

    All of the following statements are true about the Crittenden Compromise EXCEPT

    • A.

      A) it was opposed by most southern congressmen

    • B.

      B) It revived the policy of the Missouri compromise line

    • C.

      C) It was a last attempt by Congress to preserve the Union

    • D.

      D) It was opposed by Lincoln

    • E.

      E) if adopted it would have permitted further annexations of slave territory

    Correct Answer
    A. A) it was opposed by most southern congressmen
    Explanation
    The Crittenden Compromise was a series of proposed constitutional amendments aimed at resolving the secession crisis and preserving the Union. It was supported by most southern congressmen, so statement A is false. The compromise aimed to revive the policy of the Missouri Compromise line, which is statement B. It was indeed a last attempt by Congress to preserve the Union, as stated in statement C. Although it was opposed by Lincoln, as mentioned in statement D, it would have permitted further annexations of slave territory, as stated in statement E.

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  • 12. 

    The Webster-Ashburton Treaty

    • A.

      A) Settled the boundary dispute between the US and Great britain over oregon

    • B.

      B) settled the claims by the US against great britain for unneutral acts during the civil war

    • C.

      C) established the first diplomatic relations between the US and china

    • D.

      D) ended the Mexican war

    • E.

      E) settled the boundary dispute between the US and great britain over Maine

    Correct Answer
    E. E) settled the boundary dispute between the US and great britain over Maine
    Explanation
    The Webster-Ashburton Treaty settled the boundary dispute between the US and Great Britain over Maine.

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  • 13. 

    Abraham lincoln charged that President Polk was not justified in requesting congressional authorization for war with mexico because

    • A.

      A) he had failed to make any attempt to purchase land from Mexico before using force

    • B.

      B) Texas could adequately defend itself against Mexico

    • C.

      C) He had provoked a Mexican attack by moving American troops onto land claimed by Mexico

    • D.

      D) he had launched an offenseive war against Mexico without any provocation

    • E.

      E) there was much opposition in Congress to aquiring any new territory from Mexico

    Correct Answer
    C. C) He had provoked a Mexican attack by moving American troops onto land claimed by Mexico
    Explanation
    Abraham Lincoln charged that President Polk was not justified in requesting congressional authorization for war with Mexico because he had provoked a Mexican attack by moving American troops onto land claimed by Mexico. This suggests that Lincoln believed that the war was not a defensive action, but rather an offensive one initiated by the United States. By moving troops onto land claimed by Mexico, Polk had essentially instigated the conflict, according to Lincoln's viewpoint.

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  • 14. 

    Accrding to the table shown above (PRETEND IT IS THERE ARRON), which of the following statements concerning the election of 1860 is correct?

    • A.

      A) abraham lincoln won majorities in both the popular vote and the electoral college vote

    • B.

      B) stephen douglas came in sedcond in both the popular vote and the electoral college vote

    • C.

      C) john c. breckinridge came in second in both the popular vote and the electoral college vote

    • D.

      D) Lincoln won because Douglas and Breckinridge split the votes from the South in the electoral college

    • E.

      Breckinridhe came in third in the popular vote but second in the electoral college vote

    Correct Answer
    E. Breckinridhe came in third in the popular vote but second in the electoral college vote
    Explanation
    According to the table shown above (PRETEND IT IS THERE ARRON), the correct statement concerning the election of 1860 is that John C. Breckinridge came in third in the popular vote but second in the electoral college vote. This means that although Breckinridge did not receive the highest number of popular votes, he managed to secure the second highest number of electoral college votes, indicating his strong support among the electors.

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  • 15. 

    During the era of Reconstruction southern whites used the term "scalawags" to identify

    • A.

      A) southern whites who supported Radical Republican rule

    • B.

      B) southern blacks who supported Radical Republican rule

    • C.

      C) notherners who plundered the treasuries of southern states

    • D.

      D) federal officers who maintained the military occupation of the south

    • E.

      E) congressmen who enacted Radical republican legislation

    Correct Answer
    A. A) southern whites who supported Radical Republican rule
    Explanation
    During the era of Reconstruction, southern whites used the term "scalawags" to identify southern whites who supported Radical Republican rule. These individuals were seen as traitors by many white Southerners because they aligned themselves with the Republican Party, which was viewed as the party of the North and the party responsible for the defeat of the Confederacy. The term "scalawags" was used to denigrate and discredit these white Southerners who supported the policies of the Radical Republicans, such as granting civil rights to freed slaves and promoting racial equality.

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  • 16. 

    During Reconstrution COngress passed all of the following measures except

    • A.

      A) voting rights for all blacks

    • B.

      B) citizenship for all persons born or naturalized in the US

    • C.

      C) a military occupation of the southern states

    • D.

      D) a conitnuation of the freedmen's bureau

    • E.

      E) a civil rights act

    Correct Answer
    A. A) voting rights for all blacks
    Explanation
    During Reconstruction, Congress passed several measures to address the aftermath of the Civil War and ensure the rights of newly freed slaves. These measures included granting citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the US, implementing a military occupation of the southern states, continuing the operations of the Freedmen's Bureau, and passing a civil rights act. However, voting rights for all blacks were not granted during this time. The 15th Amendment, which granted voting rights regardless of race or color, was not passed until 1870, several years after the Reconstruction period.

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  • 17. 

    A broad discussion of the significance of the Missouri compromise, the Tariff of 1833, and the Compromise of 1850 would necessarily mention which of the following?

    • A.

      A) National debt

    • B.

      B) religious conflict

    • C.

      C) the suffrage

    • D.

      D) the monroe doctrine

    • E.

      E) sectional conflict

    Correct Answer
    E. E) sectional conflict
    Explanation
    A broad discussion of the significance of the Missouri compromise, the Tariff of 1833, and the Compromise of 1850 would necessarily mention sectional conflict. These three events were all related to the ongoing conflict between the Northern and Southern states over issues such as slavery, representation, and economic policies. The Missouri Compromise addressed the balance of power between free and slave states, the Tariff of 1833 resolved a dispute over tariffs that had divided the North and South, and the Compromise of 1850 attempted to address the growing tensions between the regions. Therefore, sectional conflict would be an important topic to discuss when examining these events.

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  • 18. 

    The Radical Republicans of America's post-civil War period were radical in the sense that they favored

    • A.

      A) civil and political rights for Black people

    • B.

      B) the reconstruction policies of president Andrew Johnson

    • C.

      C) nationalizatyion of the Railroad and coal industries

    • D.

      D) a government representing economic interests rather than geographical units

    • E.

      E) a guaranteed minimum income for former slaves

    Correct Answer
    A. A) civil and political rights for Black people
    Explanation
    The Radical Republicans of America during the post-Civil War period were considered radical because they advocated for civil and political rights for Black people. They believed in granting equal rights and protections to African Americans, including the right to vote, hold political office, and have access to education and employment opportunities. Their stance on racial equality was seen as radical at the time, as it went against the prevailing sentiments of many white Americans who favored continued discrimination and oppression of Black people.

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  • 19. 

    "If the creator had seperated Texas from the Union by mountain barriers, the Alps or the Andes, there might be plausible objection; but He has planed down the whole Mississippi Valley including Texas, and united every atom of the soila and every drop of the water of the mighty whole. He has linked their rivers with the great Mississippi, and marked and united the whole for the dominion of one gov't , the residence of one people." This quotation from the 1840's can be viewed as an expression of

    • A.

      A) the new nationalism

    • B.

      B) popular sovereignty

    • C.

      C) manifest destiny

    • D.

      D) the good neighbor policy

    • E.

      E) the frontier thesis

    Correct Answer
    C. C) manifest destiny
    Explanation
    The quotation expresses the idea of manifest destiny, which was a belief in the 19th century that it was the destiny and right of the United States to expand its territory across the continent. The passage emphasizes the idea that God has planned and united the Mississippi Valley and Texas, suggesting a divine justification for American expansion and the belief that it was inevitable and necessary for the United States to expand its dominion. This aligns with the concept of manifest destiny.

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  • 20. 

    At the start of the Civil war era, the North had all of the following advantages EXCEPT

    • A.

      A) better military leaders

    • B.

      B) a more extensive railroad network

    • C.

      C) a larger population

    • D.

      D) more heavy industry

    • E.

      E) more abundant food resources

    Correct Answer
    A. A) better military leaders
    Explanation
    During the start of the Civil War era, the North had several advantages that contributed to their overall strength. They had a more extensive railroad network, which allowed for better transportation of troops and supplies. The North also had a larger population, providing them with a larger pool of potential soldiers and resources. Additionally, they had more heavy industry, which allowed for the production of weapons and other necessary supplies. Lastly, they had more abundant food resources, ensuring that their troops were well-fed. The only advantage they did not have was better military leaders.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following was a consequence of the shift to sharecropping and the crop lien system in the late 19th century South

    • A.

      A) a major redistribution of land ownership

    • B.

      B) A diversification of crops

    • C.

      C) A cycle of debt and depression for Southern tenant farmers

    • D.

      D) A rise in cotton yields per acre from antebellum proiduction levels

    • E.

      E) the termination of the controle exerted by the White landowners over former slaves

    Correct Answer
    C. C) A cycle of debt and depression for Southern tenant farmers
    Explanation
    The shift to sharecropping and the crop lien system in the late 19th century South resulted in a cycle of debt and depression for Southern tenant farmers. Sharecropping involved farmers renting land from landowners and paying rent through a share of their crop, while the crop lien system allowed farmers to obtain credit by using their future crops as collateral. However, this system often led to high interest rates and exploitative practices by landowners and merchants, trapping farmers in a cycle of debt. Additionally, fluctuations in crop prices and natural disasters further exacerbated the financial hardships faced by Southern tenant farmers.

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  • 22. 

    The Black Codes passed in a number of southern states after the Civil war were intended to

    • A.

      A) close public schools to the children of former slaves

    • B.

      B) promote the return of former slaves to Africa

    • C.

      C) enable Black citizens to vote in federal elections

    • D.

      D) Place limits on the socioeconomic oppurtunities open to black people

    • E.

      E) further the integration of souther society

    Correct Answer
    D. D) Place limits on the socioeconomic oppurtunities open to black people
    Explanation
    The Black Codes passed in southern states after the Civil War were a set of laws intended to restrict the rights and freedoms of black people. These laws aimed to place limits on the socioeconomic opportunities available to black individuals, effectively maintaining a system of racial inequality and oppression. The Black Codes imposed restrictions on various aspects of black people's lives, including their ability to own property, work in certain occupations, and move freely. These discriminatory laws were part of the larger system of segregation and racial discrimination that persisted in the South during the Reconstruction era.

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  • 23. 

    The dramatic increase in the South's slave labor force between 1810 and 1860 was due to

    • A.

      A) an increase in the African slave trade

    • B.

      B) the importation of slaves from the west indies

    • C.

      C) an increase in the severity of fugitive slave laws

    • D.

      D) the acquistiion of Louisiana

    • E.

      E) the natural population increase of American born slaves

    Correct Answer
    E. E) the natural population increase of American born slaves
    Explanation
    The correct answer is E) the natural population increase of American born slaves. This is because during the period between 1810 and 1860, the slave population in the South grew primarily through natural reproduction rather than through the importation of slaves from Africa or the West Indies. The harshness of fugitive slave laws and the acquisition of Louisiana may have had some impact on the increase, but they were not the primary factors.

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  • 24. 

    The Wilmot Proviso specifically provided for

    • A.

      A) the prohibition of slavery in Louisiana Purchase territory

    • B.

      B) the primacy of federal law over state legislated black codes

    • C.

      C) the abolition of international slave trade

    • D.

      D) The prohibition of slaver in lands acquired from Mexico in the Mexican war

    • E.

      E) Federal return of fugitive slaves

    Correct Answer
    D. D) The prohibition of slaver in lands acquired from Mexico in the Mexican war
    Explanation
    The Wilmot Proviso was a proposed amendment to a bill that aimed to prohibit slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico during the Mexican War. This amendment, if passed, would have prevented the expansion of slavery into these newly acquired lands. Therefore, option D, which states "The prohibition of slavery in lands acquired from Mexico in the Mexican war," accurately describes the intent of the Wilmot Proviso.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following best describes the policy of the gov't of Mexico toward TX?

    • A.

      A) it tried to sell TX to the US at the time of the Louisiana purchase

    • B.

      B) It encouraged American settlement in Texas in the 1820's and early 1830s

    • C.

      C) It governed texas with stringent regulations in the 1820's

    • D.

      D) It encouraged the establishment of a strong local gov't in TX in the mid 1830's

    • E.

      E) It favored the annexation of the Republic of TX by the US in the 1830s and early 1840s

    Correct Answer
    B. B) It encouraged American settlement in Texas in the 1820's and early 1830s
    Explanation
    The correct answer is B) It encouraged American settlement in Texas in the 1820's and early 1830s. This is because during this time period, the Mexican government implemented policies that encouraged American settlers to move to Texas, offering them land grants and other incentives to populate the region. This policy was part of Mexico's plan to develop and economically strengthen the sparsely populated territory of Texas.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following best describes the position on slavery of most northerners during the sectional crises of the 1850s?

    • A.

      A) They were willing to accept slavery where it existed but opposed further expansion to the territories

    • B.

      B) They were active supporters of complete abolition

    • C.

      C) They favored continued importation of slaves from Africa

    • D.

      D) They advocated expansion of the slave system to provide fheap labor for northern factories

    • E.

      E) they advocated complete social and political equality for all races in the US

    Correct Answer
    A. A) They were willing to accept slavery where it existed but opposed further expansion to the territories
    Explanation
    Most northerners during the sectional crises of the 1850s were willing to accept slavery where it already existed but opposed its further expansion into the territories. This position was known as "Free-Soil" or "Free-Labor" ideology, which aimed to prevent the spread of slavery into new states and territories. Northerners believed that allowing slavery to expand would threaten their economic interests and the future of free labor. They did not necessarily support complete abolition or the importation of slaves from Africa, nor did they advocate for the expansion of the slave system for cheap labor in northern factories.

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  • 27. 

    After the Civil War, the Freedmen's Bureau had its greatest success in

    • A.

      A) halting the rise of the Ku Klux Klan

    • B.

      B) enforcing the 14th Amendment

    • C.

      C) distributing land to former slaves

    • D.

      D) arbitrating labor disputes between former slaves and their masters

    • E.

      E) providing educational oppurtunities for former slaves

    Correct Answer
    E. E) providing educational oppurtunities for former slaves
    Explanation
    The correct answer is E) providing educational opportunities for former slaves. The Freedmen's Bureau was established in 1865 to assist newly freed slaves in transitioning to freedom. One of its main goals was to provide education to former slaves, as they had been denied access to education during slavery. The Bureau established schools and provided resources and support to help educate African Americans. This was seen as one of the most successful aspects of the Freedmen's Bureau's work, as it helped to empower and uplift the newly freed slaves by providing them with the tools for self-improvement and advancement.

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  • 28. 

    The Ostend Manifesto, written during the Pierce administration, suggested the United States might be justified in acquiring

    • A.

      A) texas

    • B.

      B) mexico

    • C.

      C) cuba

    • D.

      D) santo domingo

    • E.

      E) the virgin islands

    Correct Answer
    C. C) cuba
    Explanation
    The Ostend Manifesto, written during the Pierce administration, suggested that the United States might be justified in acquiring Cuba. This document, drafted by American diplomats, argued that Cuba was essential to the security and economic interests of the United States. It proposed that the U.S. should offer to purchase Cuba from Spain, and if Spain refused, the U.S. would be justified in using force to acquire the island. The manifesto reflected the expansionist ambitions of the United States during this time period and the desire to extend American influence and control over territories in the Western Hemisphere.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following best summarizes the impact of reconstruction on the south?

    • A.

      A) Reconstruction failed to make lasting changes in the political ajnd social power structure in the South

    • B.

      B)Reconstruction left many problems unresolved, but it did promote racial understanding in the South

    • C.

      C) Reconstruction reformed public education in the SOuth and made it equal to public education in the North

    • D.

      D) Reconstruction made sweeping changes in land ownership in the South

    Correct Answer
    A. A) Reconstruction failed to make lasting changes in the political ajnd social power structure in the South
  • 30. 

    Which of the following was a serious constitutional question after the civil war?

    • A.

      A) the restoration of power of the federal judiciary

    • B.

      B) the legality of the national banking system

    • C.

      C) the political and legal status of former confederate states

    • D.

      D) the relationship between the United States and Britain

    • E.

      E) the proposed annexation of Colombia

    Correct Answer
    C. C) the political and legal status of former confederate states
    Explanation
    After the Civil War, a serious constitutional question arose regarding the political and legal status of former Confederate states. This question revolved around whether these states should be treated as conquered territory or be reintegrated into the Union with full rights and representation. It was a complex issue that required careful consideration and decision-making, as it had significant implications for the future of the United States and the balance of power between the federal government and the states.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following would most likely have expressed opposition to the idea of Manifest Destiny?

    • A.

      A) Advocattes of the foreign policy of Secy of state William H Seward

    • B.

      B)Voters for James K. Polk in 1844

    • C.

      C) Supporters of the Treaty of Paris of 1898

    • D.

      D) Members of the Whig party in Congress during the Mexican war

    • E.

      E) Supporters of the Ostend Manifesto

    Correct Answer
    D. D) Members of the Whig party in Congress during the Mexican war
    Explanation
    Members of the Whig party in Congress during the Mexican war would most likely have expressed opposition to the idea of Manifest Destiny. The Whig party, which was active during the mid-19th century, generally opposed the expansionist policies associated with Manifest Destiny. They were concerned about the potential spread of slavery and the cost of territorial acquisition. During the Mexican-American War, many Whigs viewed it as an unjust war of aggression and opposed the annexation of Mexican territory. Therefore, it is likely that they would have expressed opposition to the idea of Manifest Destiny.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the folloiwing states the principle of "popular sovereignty"

    • A.

      A) congress has the right to decide where slavery shall and shall not exist

    • B.

      B) the settlers in a given territory have the sole right to decide whether or not slavery will be permitted there

    • C.

      C) individual citizens can decide for themselves whether or not to hold slaves

    • D.

      D) the american people shall decide where slavery will exist through a national plebiscite.

    • E.

      E) individual states have the right to reject congressional deicisons pertaining to slavery.

    Correct Answer
    B. B) the settlers in a given territory have the sole right to decide whether or not slavery will be permitted there
    Explanation
    The principle of "popular sovereignty" states that the settlers in a given territory have the sole right to decide whether or not slavery will be permitted there. This means that the people living in a specific area have the power to determine the status of slavery within their territory. This principle was significant during the time of the American Civil War when the issue of slavery was highly debated and states were divided on its legality. The idea of popular sovereignty aimed to give autonomy and decision-making power to the local population regarding this contentious issue.

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  • 33. 

    Of the following, the most threatening problem for the Union from 1861 through 1863 was

    • A.

      A) possible British recognition of the Confederacy

    • B.

      B) Spanish Intyervention in Santo Domingo

    • C.

      C) French objections to the Union blockade

    • D.

      D) British insistence on the abolition of slavery

    • E.

      E) British objections to the Union Postiion on "continuous voyage"

    Correct Answer
    A. A) possible British recognition of the Confederacy
    Explanation
    The most threatening problem for the Union from 1861 through 1863 was the possible British recognition of the Confederacy. This would have given the Confederacy legitimacy as an independent nation and potentially led to foreign intervention and support. It would have greatly weakened the Union's position and made it more difficult for them to win the war. The British recognition of the Confederacy would have also provided them with access to British resources and potentially shifted the balance of power in favor of the Confederacy.

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  • 34. 

    Why did Congressional Reconstruction end in 1877?

    • A.

      A) The freed slaves had been successfully integrated into Southern society

    • B.

      B) The treaty ending the Civil War had set such a time limit

    • C.

      C) Most of the politically active Black people had left the south for northern cities

    • D.

      D) The republican and Democratic parties effectted a compromise agreement a fter the 1876 election

    • E.

      E) The US needed the troops stationed in the south to confront the French in Mexico

    Correct Answer
    D. D) The republican and Democratic parties effectted a compromise agreement a fter the 1876 election
    Explanation
    The correct answer is D) The Republican and Democratic parties effected a compromise agreement after the 1876 election. This agreement, known as the Compromise of 1877, marked the end of Congressional Reconstruction. In exchange for Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes becoming president, the Republicans agreed to withdraw federal troops from the South, effectively ending Reconstruction. This compromise allowed Southern Democrats to regain control of the region and implement policies that disenfranchised African Americans and solidified white supremacy.

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  • 35. 

    In 1861 the North went to war with the south primarily to

    • A.

      A) liberate the slaves

    • B.

      B) prevent european powers from meddling in American affairs

    • C.

      C) preserve the union

    • D.

      D) avenge political defeats and insults inflicted by the South

    • E.

      E) forestall a southern invasion of the North

    Correct Answer
    C. C) preserve the union
    Explanation
    The correct answer is C) preserve the union. During the American Civil War, the North fought against the South to maintain the unity of the United States. The southern states had seceded from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America, which posed a threat to the existence of the United States as a whole. The North aimed to prevent the dissolution of the Union and preserve the integrity of the nation.

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  • 36. 

    The republican partyy originated in the mid-`850s as a sectional party committed to which of the following?

    • A.

      A) Opposition to the further extension of slavery into the territories

    • B.

      B) Immediate emancipation of the slaves

    • C.

      C) repeal of whig economic policies

    • D.

      D) restriction of immigration

    • E.

      E) acknowledgment of popular soveriegnty as the basis for organizing federal territories

    Correct Answer
    A. A) Opposition to the further extension of slavery into the territories
    Explanation
    The Republican Party originated in the mid-1850s as a sectional party committed to opposing the further extension of slavery into the territories. This means that they were against allowing slavery to expand into new areas of the United States. This position was a key factor in their formation and their goal was to prevent the spread of slavery in order to eventually abolish it.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following principles was established by the Dred Scott decision?

    • A.

      A) Congress could abolish slavery at will.

    • B.

      B) National legislation could not limit the spread of slavery in the territories

    • C.

      C) the rights of all people are protected by the constitution

    • D.

      D) slaves residing in a free state automatically became free

    • E.

      E) Through squatter sovereignty, a territory had the sole right to determine the status of slavery within its territorial limits

    Correct Answer
    B. B) National legislation could not limit the spread of slavery in the territories
    Explanation
    The Dred Scott decision established the principle that national legislation could not limit the spread of slavery in the territories. This decision, made by the Supreme Court in 1857, ruled that Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in the territories, undermining the ability of the federal government to regulate the expansion of slavery. The decision also stated that slaves were property and not citizens, further entrenching the institution of slavery and sparking controversy and division in the United States.

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  • 38. 

    The compromise of 1850 did which of the following?

    • A.

      A) Admitted texas to the Union as a slave state

    • B.

      B) admitted California to the union under the principles of popular sov.

    • C.

      C) prohibited slavery in the district of columbia

    • D.

      D) enacted a stringent fugitive slave law

    • E.

      E) adjusted the texas-mexico boundary

    Correct Answer
    D. D) enacted a stringent fugitive slave law
    Explanation
    The compromise of 1850 enacted a stringent fugitive slave law. This law required the return of escaped slaves to their owners, even if they had reached free states. It also imposed penalties on individuals who aided or harbored escaped slaves. The law was part of the compromise between the Northern and Southern states to maintain the balance between slave and free states and avoid secession. The fugitive slave law was highly controversial and contributed to the growing tensions between the North and South over the issue of slavery.

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  • 39. 

    The majority of white families in the antebellum south owned

    • A.

      A) more than 100 slaves

    • B.

      B) 50 to 100 slaves

    • C.

      C) 10 to 50 slaves

    • D.

      D) 5 to 10 slaves

    • E.

      E) no slaves

    Correct Answer
    E. E) no slaves
    Explanation
    During the antebellum period in the South, the majority of white families did not own any slaves. Slavery was primarily concentrated in the hands of a small percentage of wealthy plantation owners, while the majority of white families were small farmers who did not have the means to own slaves. This system of slave ownership was a defining feature of the Southern economy and society, but it was not widespread among the white population.

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  • 40. 

    When the Emancipation Proclamation was issued at the beginning of 1863, its immediate effect was

    • A.

      A) end the civil war

    • B.

      B) abolish slavery

    • C.

      C) free slaves held in the border states

    • D.

      D) alienate Britain and France

    • E.

      E) strengthen the moral cause of the union

    Correct Answer
    E. E) strengthen the moral cause of the union
    Explanation
    The Emancipation Proclamation, issued in 1863, did not immediately end the Civil War or abolish slavery. Instead, its immediate effect was to strengthen the moral cause of the Union. The proclamation declared that all slaves in Confederate territory were to be set free, which shifted the focus of the war from solely preserving the Union to also fighting for the freedom of enslaved individuals. This change in purpose and the moral argument against slavery helped to garner support for the Union cause and rally troops and citizens behind the war effort.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following supplied the largest number of immigrants to the US during the first half of the 19th century

    • A.

      A) england

    • B.

      B) africa

    • C.

      C) ireland

    • D.

      D) german states

    • E.

      E) netherlands

    Correct Answer
    C. C) ireland
    Explanation
    During the first half of the 19th century, Ireland supplied the largest number of immigrants to the US. This can be attributed to the Great Famine, which occurred in Ireland between 1845 and 1852. The famine resulted in widespread poverty and starvation, leading many Irish people to emigrate in search of better opportunities and a chance at survival. The Irish immigrants played a significant role in shaping American society and culture during this time period.

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  • 42. 

    The primary objective of the founders of the Know Nothing party was the

    • A.

      A) Abolition of slavery

    • B.

      B) establishment of free public schools

    • C.

      C) improvement of factory working conditions

    • D.

      D) prohibition of communitarian experiments

    • E.

      E) restriction of the rights of immigrants

    Correct Answer
    E. E) restriction of the rights of immigrants
    Explanation
    The correct answer is E) restriction of the rights of immigrants. The Know Nothing party, also known as the American Party, was a political party in the United States during the mid-19th century. It was primarily focused on nativism and sought to restrict the rights of immigrants, particularly Catholics and Irish immigrants. The party believed that immigrants were a threat to American society and wanted to limit their influence and participation in politics and society. They advocated for stricter immigration laws and the preservation of American values and culture.

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  • 43. 

    All of the following contributed to the growtth of the free African american population in the US in the early 19th century EXCEPT

    • A.

      A) the gradual emancipation laws of individual states

    • B.

      B) manumission granted for Revolutionary war service

    • C.

      C) manumission granted by slaveholders' wills

    • D.

      D) natural increase among free african americans

    • E.

      E) federal constitutional provisions for emancipation

    Correct Answer
    E. E) federal constitutional provisions for emancipation
    Explanation
    The correct answer is E) federal constitutional provisions for emancipation. This is because there were no federal constitutional provisions for emancipation in the early 19th century. The growth of the free African American population was primarily influenced by the gradual emancipation laws of individual states, manumission granted for Revolutionary war service, manumission granted by slaveholders' wills, and natural increase among free African Americans.

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  • 44. 

    In the 1850s the South differed from the North in that the South had

    • A.

      A) a better developed transportation system

    • B.

      B) a better educated White population

    • C.

      C) less interest in evangelical religion

    • D.

      D) fewer European immigrants

    • E.

      E) more cities

    Correct Answer
    D. D) fewer European immigrants
    Explanation
    During the 1850s, the South had fewer European immigrants compared to the North. This can be attributed to several factors. Firstly, the North had more industrialization and job opportunities, which attracted a larger number of immigrants seeking employment. Secondly, the South relied heavily on slave labor, which limited the need for European immigrants in the agricultural sector. Additionally, the South's plantation economy and social structure were less conducive to European immigration. Therefore, the South had a smaller influx of European immigrants during this time period.

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  • 45. 

    All of the following elements of the radical republican program were implemented during Reconstruction except

    • A.

      A) provision of 40n acres to each freedmen

    • B.

      B) enactment of the 14th amendment

    • C.

      C) military occupation of the south

    • D.

      D) punishment of the confederate leaders

    • E.

      E) restrictions on power of the president

    Correct Answer
    A. A) provision of 40n acres to each freedmen
    Explanation
    The correct answer is A) provision of 40 acres to each freedmen. During Reconstruction, the Radical Republicans implemented several measures to ensure equal rights for freed slaves and punish Confederate leaders. These included enacting the 14th amendment to grant citizenship and equal protection under the law, military occupation of the South to enforce these rights, punishment of Confederate leaders through the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson, and restrictions on the power of the president to prevent interference with Reconstruction policies. However, the provision of 40 acres of land to each freedman was not implemented as part of the Radical Republican program.

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  • 46. 

    All of the following statements about blacks during the first years after Emancipation are true EXCEPT

    • A.

      A)Most sought reunion with family members

    • B.

      B) Most attempted to found seperate black churches

    • C.

      C) Large numbers migrated to the north

    • D.

      D) Most preferred to work as sharecroppers rather than for cash wages

    • E.

      E) Large numbers sought educational oppurtunities wherever they were available

    Correct Answer
    C. C) Large numbers migrated to the north
    Explanation
    During the first years after Emancipation, blacks sought reunion with family members, attempted to found separate black churches, preferred to work as sharecroppers rather than for cash wages, and sought educational opportunities wherever they were available. However, large numbers did not migrate to the north.

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  • 47. 

    Which of the following facotrs prevented the US from annexing Mexico in 1848? 1. the failure of the American armies to conquer Mexico City 11. The consititutional problem of absorbing a nation without gaining the consent of the people 111. objections to absorbing a mixed race of Spanish, indian, and black people. IV. doubts about the strategic value of mexico. V. objections to the extension of slavery

    • A.

      A) 1, 11, 111, and V only.

    • B.

      B) 1, 11, 111, and 1V, only.

    • C.

      C) 11, 111, and 1V, only.

    • D.

      D) 11 and 111 only.

    • E.

      E) 11, 111, and V only.

    Correct Answer
    E. E) 11, 111, and V only.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is E) 11, 111, and V only. This is because the failure of the American armies to conquer Mexico City (1), the constitutional problem of absorbing a nation without gaining the consent of the people (11), objections to absorbing a mixed race of Spanish, Indian, and black people (111), and objections to the extension of slavery (V) were all factors that prevented the US from annexing Mexico in 1848.

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  • 48. 

    WHich of the following statements most accurately describes the impeachment of andrew johnson?

    • A.

      A) he was tried and convicted by the senate

    • B.

      B) he was tried but not convicted by the shouse of representatives

    • C.

      C) he was tried but not convicted by the Supreme Court

    • D.

      D) He was tried but not convicted by the Senate

    • E.

      E) He resigned his office rather than face a trial by the senate

    Correct Answer
    D. D) He was tried but not convicted by the Senate
    Explanation
    During the impeachment of Andrew Johnson, he was indeed tried by the Senate but was not convicted. The impeachment process began when Johnson violated the Tenure of Office Act by removing Edwin M. Stanton from his position as Secretary of War without the Senate's approval. The House of Representatives voted to impeach him, and the trial took place in the Senate. However, Johnson narrowly avoided conviction by one vote, allowing him to remain in office.

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  • 49. 

    The 15th amendment

    • A.

      A) guaranteed the right to vote to all adult citizens

    • B.

      B) guaranteed the right to vote to all black citizens

    • C.

      C) guaranteed equal protection of the laws to all citizens

    • D.

      D) abolished slavery

    • E.

      E) was designed to strengthen the Republican party in the South

    Correct Answer
    E. E) was designed to strengthen the Republican party in the South
    Explanation
    The 15th amendment was designed to strengthen the Republican party in the South. This amendment, ratified in 1870, granted the right to vote to all male citizens, regardless of race or previous condition of servitude. It was a strategic move by the Republican party to secure the support of newly enfranchised African American men in the South, who were seen as potential Republican voters. The amendment aimed to counter the influence of the Democratic party in the region and ensure Republican political dominance.

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  • 50. 

    In his First Inaugural Address Lincoln said :: "If the US be not a gov't proper, but an association of States in the nature of contract merely, can it, as a contract, be peaceably unmade, by less than all the parties who made it?" In this statement Lincoln

    • A.

      A) Rejected the theory that the southern states had the right to secrede from the Union

    • B.

      B) conceded that the southern states could use force to break out of the union

    • C.

      C) revealed his readiness to negotiate a peaceable dissolution of the Union

    • D.

      D) threatened to use forcce to keep the southern states in the Union

    • E.

      E) conceded that the US did not have proper gov't

    Correct Answer
    A. A) Rejected the theory that the southern states had the right to secrede from the Union
    Explanation
    In his statement, Lincoln questions whether the US is a government or merely an association of states. By asking if it can be peaceably unmade, he implies that it cannot be dissolved without the agreement of all parties involved. This suggests that he rejects the theory that the southern states had the right to secede from the Union, as secession would require less than all parties to agree. Therefore, the correct answer is A) Rejected the theory that the southern states had the right to secede from the Union.

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